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**> the tTtttted> States of 

JBebicateti to 




material for this book has come from a wide 
JL range of sources. Many original letters and man- 
uscripts have come to light and many alumni have fur- 
nished vivid pictures of the school life of their day. 
I have quoted freely always giving references 
from Cunningham's " Familiar Sketches of the Phillips 
Exeter Academy/' and from Bell's " A Historical 
Sketch of Phillips Exeter Academy." For other help 
of various kinds I am indebted to Miss Gertrude 
Brooks, of Boston; Mrs. Mary A. G. Sawyer, of Cam- 
bridge; Mr. Asa C. Tilton, Beloit, Wisconsin; Mr. T. R. 
Woodbridge, Upland, California; Professor James A. 
Tufts, and Mr. Corning Benton, members of the Faculty 
at Exeter; Mr. George B. Ives, of the "Atlantic 
Monthly" staff; Mr. Edward W. Frentz of the 
" Youth's Companion," the late Mr. Ralph H. Bowles; 
and to these institutions: Harvard College, the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, the Massachusetts Genea- 
logical Society, the Boston Athenaeum, the New 
Hampshire Historical Society, the Exeter Public 
Library, and the Davis Library at Exeter. I owe a 
great debt to Professor Herbert D. Foster, of Dart- 
mouth College, and to Mr. Claude M. Fuess, of the 
Faculty at Phillips Academy, Andover, for valuable 
aid; and I am also indebted to Judge Henry A. Shute, 
of Exeter, for impressions of men of the Academy. 
Finally, I am indebted to Principal Perry for enthusi- 
astic aid and support; when discouragements came 
thickest he was most encouraging and helpful. 































Instruction 297 

Constitution of The Phillips Exeter Academy . 304 



Act of Incorporation .... 311 

Athletic Records . ..... . . 317 

Exhibitions 321 

Laws of The Phillips Exeter Academy . 324 

Loan and Scholarship Funds 329 

INDEX 331 




































LAMONT INFIRMARY, Front View 1 94 


Top: Soldiers' Memorial by Daniel Chester French. 
Bottom: Pavilion by Henry Bacon. 









FOOTBALL TEAM, 1913 22$ 


BASEBALL TEAM, 1885 234 


BASEBALL TEAM, 1915 238 

TRACK TEAM, 1920 240 

CREW, '88 248 

CREW, 1923 250 







Honor to the brave, the wise, the good, 
Whose lives in this old school began ! 

Our Exonian brotherhood 
Earns gratitude of man. 

(From the Exeter Ode, by 
GEORGE E. WOODS ERRY, class of 1872,) 





The race of the family of Phillips rise upon my mind as they in 
truth, in respect of literature and religion, become stars of the first 
magnitude. JOSIAH QUINCY. 

earliest member of the Phillips family to come 
JL to this country the Reverend George Phillips 
brought from Puritan England and handed down 
to his descendants ideas on religion and education that 
did much for the intellectual and moral growth of the 
American Colonies. He was born in Rainham, Norfolk 
County, England, in 1593, entered Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, April 20, 1610, and having received 
the degree of B.A. in 1613, and that of M.A. in 1617, 
he settled in Boxted, Essex County, as a minister of 
the Gospel. But Charles I was then on the throne, 
and under him the autocratic and uncompromising 
Bishop Laud was carrying religious intolerance 
with a high hand; George Phillips, a non-conformist, 
felt, as did Milton, " that he who would take orders 
must subscribe slave"; but instead of forsaking the 
ministry as Milton did, he won freedom of thought by 
coming to America, though it meant great hardship, 


for his wife was an invalid and they had two small 
children. On that long, trying voyage, in the ship 
" Arbella," were Governor John Winthrop, Sir Richard 
Saltonstall, Simon Bradstreet, the Reverend John Wil- 
son and others who were to become influential in the 
Colonies. The ship anchored at last in Salem harbor, 
June 12, 1630. But the hardships of the voyage and 
the rigors of life in the new land were too much for 
some of the weaker members. Lady Arbella Johnson 
died in August of that year, and not long afterward 
the wife of George Phillips was buried near her in the 
cemetery at Salem. 

Mr. Phillips settled over a parish at Watertown, on 
the Charles, where he also carried on a small farm to 
eke out his slender salary of forty pounds a year. He 
was a leader in establishing congregational church 
government, and showed his independence of spirit by 
urging his parish to resist a tax levied on Watertown 
for the purpose of fortifying Cambridge. Cotton 
Mather in his " Magnalia " pays high tribute to his 
zeal, unworldliness, and faith, and the scholastic wink 
in the epitaph with which he closes his little essay 
gives us a glimpse of the occasional flash of humor 
that now and then lighted even a grave Puritan face. 
The epitaph runs thus: 

Vir incomparabilis, nisi SAMUELEM genuisset 

Samuel Phillips, the eldest of the eleven children of 
the Reverend George Phillips, was born in Boxted, 
England, before his parents came to this country. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1650, and the next year 
settled in Rowley, Massachusetts, as a minister. Like 
his father, he in no wise confined his efforts for his 
people to religious exhortations; for in 1687 he was 


imprisoned for denouncing Governor Edward Winthrop 
from the pulpit. His independence of spirit and his 
high estimate of the dignity of his position are well 
illustrated by his reply to a stranger in the town who 
met him in the street. "Are you, sir, the person who 
serves here? " asked the stranger. " I am, sir, the per- 
son who rules here," was the answer. 1 

Like all of the name, the Reverend Samuel Phillips 
was frugal and saving. He left an estate of almost a 
thousand pounds. His son Samuel (1657-1722), of 
the third generation of the family in America, deserted 
the ministry to become a goldsmith at Salem; but it 
was he who founded the fortune with which the later 
members of the family did so much for religion and 
education, and his son, the Reverend Samuel Phillips, 
of the fourth generation, took up the calling that his 
father had dropped. He was born in 1689, and gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1708. On April 30, 1710, he settled 
over the South Parish in Andover, Massachusetts, and 
preached there till his death in 1771, a service of sixty- 
one years for one people. His preaching showed the 
same zeal as that of his great-grandfather, George, of 
Watertown, and he had all the personal dignity of his 
grandfather, Samuel. On Sundays he marched grandly 
to church flanked by his black body servant on the left 
and his family on the right, and the congregation rose 
in respect and remained standing till he was seated. 
His sermons were a bulwark for theological forays on 
those of liberal tendencies, and the big hour-glass at 
his side was turned more than once before he reached 
the " And now, finally, Brethren," that marked the ap- 
proaching end of the sermon of those days. One tenth 
of his slender salary he gave away in charity, and at his 

1 The Puritan in England and New England, p. 128, by E. H. 

death he left one hundred pounds for propagating 
Christianity among the Indians. In his will was found 
this clause: " And now my desire and prayer is Yt. my 
sd. three Sons . . . make their care to be found in 
Christ, and to serve their generation according to the 
Will of God by doing good as they shall have oppor- 
tunity unto all men, and especially to the Household 
of Faith, as knowing it is more blessed to give than to 


Those three sons, the fifth generation in America, 
were Esquire Samuel (1715-1790), who engaged in 
trade and farming; John (1719-1795), who was the 
founder of Phillips Exeter Academy; and William 
(1722-1804), who amassed a fortune as a Boston 


A LTHOUGH the honor of founding Phillips Acad- 
JL\ emy, Andover, is usually given and justly belongs 
to Esquire Samuel Phillips, and to his brother John 
Phillips, of Exeter, the plan was first suggested by 
Judge Samuel Phillips, the son of Esquire Samuel. 

Judge Samuel Phillips was born in North Andover, 
Massachusetts, February 5, 1752. In his childhood 
frail health kept him much indoors, and the unbend- 
ing sternness and nervous restlessness of his mother 
implanted in his mind self-searching and morbid ten- 
dencies. He was sensitive, and full of zeal for serving 
others, frequently offending thereby; yet over-sensitive 
lest he hurt the feelings of those who were less sus- 
ceptible than himself. At the age of thirteen he en- 
tered Dummer Academy, Byfield, Massachusetts, 
where, under that great drill-sergeant, Master Moody, 
he learned that it is not all of teaching to teach from 
books. Master Moody was radical in his ideas, and had 
the students con their lessons aloud; but he taught 
thoroughly. It is probable that from that school, to 
which, in character, the Hopkins Grammar School in 
New Haven, the Boston Latin School, and the Roxbury 
Latin School are all allied, young Samuel Phillips got his 
model for the institution that, in later years, his sugges- 
tion and urging helped to found. In 1771 he graduated 
from Harvard, and from that time on his contributions 
to the cause of American liberty were important. He 



built a powder mill to make powder for the Colonial 
army, he served as a member of the first Massachusetts 
Senate in 1780, was appointed Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas for Essex County in 1781 when he 
was only twenty-nine years old was President of the 
Massachusetts State Senate in 1785, and was elected 
Lieutenant-Governor of the state in 1801. 

It was during the time of his greatest public services, 
when he was weighed upon by an excess of executive 
details, that Judge Samuel Phillips conceived the idea 
of founding a school that should fit young men for the 
duties of citizenship. Education throughout New Eng- 
land was at a low ebb. The best educated men from 
the old country found nothing here to take the place 
of the public schools in England. Judge Phillips recog- 
nized the need, and set his mind to fill it. 

Too much effort has been made to find a definite 
model on which the first essentially American schools, 
the Phillips Academies, were founded. Judge Phillips 
was an American, living in a new age, and under new 
conditions. His ideas of what a secondary school should 
be were probably vague enough at first, but under 
Master Moody he had noted the advantages of such 
training as he had had at Dummer Academy over the 
training provided by the ordinary grammar school. He 
could, of course, have copied English forms, for there 
were even then in this country plenty of men who had 
graduated from Eton, Rugby, Harrow, or Winchester. 
But had he done that his plan would have failed. The 
significant fact is that, being an American, he founded 
an American school, in an American setting, for Amer- 
ican boys. Had he forgotten his Americanism, the 
school could not have thrived. 

That the idea of establishing some kind of school for 
American youth had taken root in the mind of the 


young man when he was but twenty-four years old, 
and before he was raised to the bench, is evident from 
a letter addressed to him by his uncle, John Phillips, 
in 1776, and still preserved in the Andover files. " Re- 
joice," writes the uncle, " that our judicious well dis- 
pos'd friends so happily agree with us on our propos'd 
establishment and that there is so good a prospect of 
procuring Land in a part of the Town which so agree- 
ably & remarkably strikes all our minds doubt not 
you will endeavor to secure them so soon as may be 
and wish you would consult our friends respecting the 
best manner of holding the Lands to the use intended 
with incumbrance, &c &c I greatly desire a School 
may be forwarded if the Land can't yet be obtained; 
but leave the whole to your Conduct." 

And now let us see what manner of man that unde 
was, who so earnestly entered thus early into the plans 
of his favorite nephew, and as time went on, so gener- 
ously furthered them and made them his own. To do 
it we shall have to turn back a generation. 


Without natural issue, he made posterity his heir. 


JOHN PHILLIPS, the Founder of the Phillips Ex- 
eter Academy, and son of that Samuel who was so 
long the pastor of the South Parish in Andover, and a 
leader among his fellow townsmen, was born in the 
parsonage on Sunday, December 27, 1719, O. S. He 
was prepared for college by his father, and proved so 
diligent a student that at the age of eleven years and 
a few months he entered Harvard, where four years 
later he received the degree of A.M. At graduation he 
delivered the Latin salutatory oration. 1 His rank in the 
class, determined, as rank then was, by social standing, 
was among the first third. 

Like many another young man, Phillips left college 
with no definite occupation in mind, though there is 
evidence that he leaned toward one of the learned but 
poorly-paid professions. For two years after leaving 
Harvard he studied theology and medicine. In 1737 
he taught school in Andover, but of how he spent the 
next two years there is no convincing record. His 
name appears for the first time on the town records of 
Exeter in 1740, when he was taxed fourteen shillings, 
town tax, and three shillings sixpence, Province tax. In 
the records of 1742 there are three entries of payments 
to him for teaching school, amounting to 75-55* $d, 

1 MS. vol., Harvard Library, 



That was for the year 1741. He also taught in 1742, 
and there is a belief that he kept a classical school in 
the town for two or three years before he took charge 
of the town schools; but by 1743 he had begun a life 
of trade, as is evident from a bill of merchandise for 
which he sued Captain Daniel Ladd of Brentwood. The 
list of items begins in 1 743 and includes cash advanced 
to Captain Ladd's son, a sieve, bed cord, knife, shot, 
shoe nails, molasses, drugget, broadcloth, garlix (sic), 
mohair and shaloon; and credited on the bill are oak, 
pine and hemlock lumber. The list is interesting in 
many ways. It shows that Phillips had already entered 
on that field of occupation in which so many New Eng- 
land men have found wealth and power: that of the 
country " general store " keeper who also buys timber- 
land and cuts and sells the lumber from it. That field 
he kept to the end. 

Why he gave up his evident first intention of follow- 
ing one of the learned professions must always remain 
more or less in doubt. That he carried his theological 
studies, at least, to a point that qualified him for the 
ministry, is apparent; for in 1747 he received an urgent 
call to preach in the New Parish, a fact that shows the 
esteem in which he was held by the members of the 
seceding parish; and the Reverend Jonathan French, 
pastor of the South Parish, Andover, said of him in a 
funeral sermon preached shortly after Mr. Phillips's 
death, that he was " esteemed a serious, zealous, pa- 
thetic, animated preacher." But he refused what he 
may well have regarded as a flattering offer from the 
New Parish. 

Of the reasons given for his deciding against the min- 
istry, one that he was in delicate health seems 
hardly probable. So, too, does the tradition that hav- 
ing heard the great Whitefield preach, he despaired of 


ever becoming a great preacher himself. Whitefield 
first preached where Phillips could have heard him in 
1740; and in Exeter, where it is most likely that he first 
heard him in 1742; and by that time Phillips seems 
already to have chosen his course. A more reasonable 
explanation is that the poor pay of the ministry had 
little appeal for a man of his energy and conscious 
business ability, who from the very first gave gener- 
ously to the church and other worthy objects, and who 
probably felt that he could do more for religion and 
education by devoting himself to business than by 
preaching or teaching. That it was not lack of interest 
appears from the following passage quoted by Governor 
Plumer of New Hampshire from a diary that Phillips 
kept, but that is now missing: x " Being sensible that 
a part of my income is required of me to be spent in 
the more immediate service of God, I therefore devote 
a tenth of my salary for keeping school, and to pious 
and charitable purposes." 

Once having entered upon a career of business, Mr. 
Phillips pursued it with remarkable energy and success. 
Doubtless his path was made easier by his marriage, 
for on August 4, 1743, he had taken to wife Sarah 
Emery Gilman, the daughter of the Reverend Samuel 
Emery, of Wells, Maine, and widow of Nathaniel Gil- 
man, of Exeter, who, because of his polished manners 
and fastidiousness in dress, had been everywhere known 
as " Gentleman Nat." It was a marriage the full story 
of which one would much like to know; for Nathaniel 
Gilman had left three children, the eldest a daughter, 
Tabitha, and it was she whom Mr. Phillips first 
ardently wooed; but she had already given her heart 
to her cousin, Samuel Gilman, and it was her mother 
that Mr. Phillips married, though she was then forty- 
1 MS. owned by the New Hampshire Historical Society. 


one and he was but twenty-three. Mr. Oilman, at his 
death, which had occurred in 1741, had left the most 
of his property, valued at 8,300-95.-^., to his widow, 
and Mr. Phillips had been one of the witnesses of the 
will. It is probable that Mr. Phillips, by using his wife's 
property prudently and wisely, was enabled to accumu- 
late much more quickly than he could otherwise have 
done, the large fortune that he used in endowing schools 
and in other benevolent work. At any rate, soon after 
his marriage he built a combined store and dwelling 
house on the northeasterly side of Water Street, 
and there took up his residence and attended to his 
business of country store-keeper. 

His stock consisted of the usual merchandise of a 
raw town, as various as the needs of men and women 
and from it he reached out into other parts of the 
state, into neighboring states, and even into foreign 
countries, until he had built up a great and profitable 
trade. Much of New Hampshire was then heavily 
timbered with a splendid growth of white pine, in which 
stood many trees so tall and straight that they bore the 
mark of the broad arrow, which designated them as to 
be cut only for masts for the ships of the Royal Navy. 
Logging companies were pushing farther and farther up 
the state; and supplying the logging camps with tools, 
fodder, clothing and provisions was in itself a tidy busi- 
ness. Ships were built here for trade with Europe and 
the Indies; and providing for the needs of those who 
built and manned them made another rivulet that 
flowed toward John Phillips's coffers. He also had his 
own wharf, where he loaded the masts and lumber that 
came to him from the up-state forests. 

But Mr. Phillips by no means confined himself to 
trading in food products and manufactured goods; he 
began early to acquire land, some by ordinary purchase, 


some by buying it in at tax sales, and some, no doubt, 
by the failure of those who had mortgaged it to him 
to meet their obligations. Thus he became possessed 
of, and dealt in, timber lands, farms, arable fields, town 
lots and huge tracts of wild land in central and northern 
New Hampshire and Vermont. The Rockingham 
County records enumerate one hundred and forty-eight 
transfers of land to him, and seventy from him to other 
persons by far the largest number listed under any 
one name. Some of the tracts he gave to Dartmouth 
College four thousand acres to found a chair of di- 
vinity there. 

Another source of Mr. Phillips's fortune was lending 
money at interest. The ordinary rates of the period 
were from twelve to fifteen per cent, a year, and he usu- 
ally received the higher figure. Prompt and punctilious 
himself, he expected the same virtues in those with 
whom he dealt; and since the high rates of interest 
often made it difficult for a debtor to pay his note when 
it fell due, Mr. Phillips was constantly a plaintiff in 
suits at law, brought to recover money that was owing 
to him. In maintaining his rights his spear knew no 
brother. He sued high and low, rich and poor, alike 
the wealthy Gilmans as well as a leather dresser, a 
barber, a wig-maker, and a yeoman. Some of the suits 
were to recover thousands of pounds, some for only a 
few shillings, but the aggregate that he thus recovered 
was a very large sum. 

It is interesting to note the growth of Mr. Phillips's 
wealth from the entries in the old tax books. The first 
appearance of his name in the town records of Exeter 
was, as has already been mentioned, the entry of a lo- 
cal tax of fourteen shillings and a Province tax of three 
shillings, sixpence, assessed against him in 1740. Every 
year after that his taxes increased, whereas those of 


most of his neighbors remained very small. In some 
years he paid eighteen pounds and the next largest tax- 
payer but a scant pound. His lowest assessment was 
in 1742, the year of his marriage, when he paid only 
45s.-2d.; his highest, in 1787, was 23-83.-! i^d., town 
tax; 13-105., tax on Continental securities and 2- 
i4S.-4d., highway tax. Even as early as 1765 he was the 
wealthiest man in town, and he increased the distance 
between himself and his nearest competitor after that. 

But by no means all of Mr. Phillips's time and 
thought was given to business. He was also a tireless 
worker in the affairs of the town, the church, the state 
and the colonies. Beginning in 1752, when he was made 
auditor of the town accounts, he held office almost con- 
t tinuously until his death, more than forty years later. 
In 1755, with Colonel Peter Gilman, he was chosen to 
the General Assembly at Portsmouth; but the election 
having been declared void by the Legislature because 
some of the votes had been thrown out for being polled 
too late, a new election was ordered, at which Gilman 
was again chosen, but Zebulon Giddings was elected in- 
stead of Phillips. In 1756 Phillips served as a select- 
man and as a member of a committee to build a bridge 
,at Newmarket. He was also at different times a tith- 
ing man, a surveyor of highways, an overseer of the 
poor, a fire ward, and a member of endless committees; 
nd in 1778 and 1779 he was moderator of the town 
meeting, the highest local honor that his fellow citizens 
could confer upon him. As a substantial man of busi- 
ness, he was made a member of a committee to draft a 
protest against the issuing of paper money, the argu- 
ment being that to issue it " would lock up gold and 
silver, depreciate the currency and entirely prevent for- 
eigners and others from bringing specie into tie state." 

From his first appearance in Exeter Mr. Phillips was 


addressed as " Esquire," later as " Colonel " (for rea- 
sons that will appear presently), and then as "Doc- 
tor ": titles that were given to but three men in the 
whole community. The people of that day were sus- 
picious of titles that had not been earned by personal 
merit and performance. 

In 1771 Mr. Phillips entered a larger field of public 
service through his election to the General Assembly, 
where he served in that year and the two following 
years. John Wentworth, the royal governor, who 
seemed to delight to honor him, appointed him Colonel 
of a gentlemen's military corps made up of the elite of 
Exeter and known as the Exeter Cadets. Their uni- 
forms of scarlet and buff, with cocked hats and ruffles, 
must have made a brave show. Colonel Phillips drilled 
them faithfully, and thereby earned the military title 
by which, as has already been said, he was often ad- 
dressed; but on the morning after the Battle of Bunker 
Hill many of the corps marched away to join the army 
of the colonists, and took with them the bright muskets 
that the royal governor had provided. When Wash- 
ington visited Exeter in 1789, Colonel Phillips, with the 
Exeter Cadets, was to have acted as his escort; but 
Washington having arrived earlier than was expected, 
that part of the formalities had to be omitted. 

In 1772 Governor Wentworth appointed Mr. Phil- 
lips a judge of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, 
and he held the office from that year until 1775. 

As a member of the General Assembly he served on 
various Crown-Province committees, one of which had 
charge of surveying all plantations and fortifications, 
including the repair of Fort William and Mary, in 
Portsmouth harbor, which later fell before the assaults 
of certain hot-headed men of Exeter and Portsmouth. 
A record of attendance at the sessions in 1772 shows 


that John Phillips had the maximum both in the number 
of days present and in the bill rendered. 

The opinion, which has frequently been expressed, 
that John Phillips was a Tory, or at the most was a 
lukewarm supporter of the Revolution is untrue. 
There is no doubt that he dreaded events that might 
follow in the train of revolution; but his fellow-towns- 
men elected him first to a committee to report on the 
redress of grievances from England, in 1770, and in 
1774 to the Committee of Correspondence. No one of 
Tory principles would have been considered for either 
place in those stirring times. He was chairman of the 
former committee referred to, and the report which, as 
chairman, he submitted proves his loyalty. 1 

Mr. Phillips's domestic and social life was simple, 
dignified, unostentatious and happy. Soon after his 
marriage to the Widow Oilman he built the combined 

1 Exeter town records, 1770. 

As the petition is not, and cannot be transmitted, seasonably to co- 
operate with the other petitions, this present session of Parliament 
we wish the omission may not be interpreted, at home, as a sub- 
mission to the unconstitutional acts; and that our American Brethren 
may none of them construe it as a deserting their interests upon 
any ungenerous separate views : and as the sentiments of the House 
expressed in their address must do them Honour, upon a correspond- 
ing conduct we therefore give it as our instruction to the Repre- 
sentatives of this Town, to use their influence in the House to pro- 
mote a more publik demonstration of their being governed by those 
Noble Patriotick and Loyal principles in which they have so happily 
harmonized with the other Provinces and particularly that an ad- 
dress to his Majesty for redress of grievances may (tho late) be 
forthwith transmitted without further loss of time. 
Exeter the 2nd. April, 1770 

Signed by order of the Committee 

At a meeting of the Town by adjournment, Exeter, April 2, 1770, 
voted that the before going Report of the Committee be received, 
and that the instructions to the Representatives of this Town be 
by them observed in the present session. 


store and dwelling house on the northeastern side of 
Water Street where he spent most of the later years of 
his life, and where he entertained Governor Wentworth, 
President Wheelock of Dartmouth College and other 
persons of distinction. It was a two-story colonial 
house, furnished in keeping with the owner's wealth and 
social position; for the inventory of the estate shows 
that there was an impressive array of mahogany, cut 
glass, old brasses, silver ware and ornaments things 
that would gladden the heart of the modern collector 
of antiques, as is evident from the few articles that have 
been preserved. Some belong to the Academy. A 
very fine " banjo " clock, with a bill of sale which 
shows that it was once the property of Mr. Phillips, is 
now owned by a member of the Gilman family. The 
value of the furnishings, as named in the inventory, was 

There was also, for the times, good store of books, 
though they were hardly such as to tempt a lover of 
light reading. Rather do they show the stern Puritan- 
ism of the owner, for the most of them were theological 
and controversial works. The list included Jonathan 
Edwards's ferocious polemics, Clark on " Original Sin," 
" The Answer to Hobbes and Spinoza/' Cooper on " Pre- 
destination/' Stoddard on " Judgment/' Owen on 
" Apostates," Mather on " The Glory of Believing " and 
"Witchcraft and Popery/ 9 and hundreds of sermons, 
including those of Mr. Phillips's father. There were also 
several books on law, among them " Blackstone's Com- 
mentaries/' " New Hampshire Law " and " Coke's Re- 
ports/' Eland's " Military Discipline " was used, no 
doubt, as a sort of text book or guide in drilling the 
Cadets. There were a number of books on the laws of 
health; but the only poetry was Milton's ** Paradise 
Lost/' Young's "Night Thoughts/' Pomfret's poems 


and Watts's hymns. The value of the library was set 
down as 23-53.-^. Most of the books came into 
the possession of the Academy at Mr. Phillips's death 
and were destroyed in the fire of 1870; but a few be- 
long to the Golden Branch Literary Society. 

The house on Water Street, known as the Mansion 
House, was occupied after Mr. Phillips's death by Prin- 
cipal Abbot, before the house for the principal was 
built on Abbot Common. From the time when it was 
sold until it was destroyed by fire, on the night of De- 
cember 2, 1860, it had a varied and malodorous history. 
For a while it was used as a dwelling place by a group of 
disreputable colored people who used it as a billiard 
and pool room, and from it dispensed atrociously bad 
liquor. On the night of the fire it was crowded with 
negroes and low whites, and the flames swept up the 
stairway so rapidly that many of the occupants had dif- 
ficulty in getting out. No arrests were made, though 
it was an open secret that the fire was incendiary. The 
townspeople evidently thought that so manifest a dis- 
pensation of Providence should not be questioned. 

Another house more or less intimately associated with 
Mr. Phillips was the Nathaniel Oilman house, which 
formerly stood on the site of the present town hall. 
That, too, was originally a dignified two-story building, 
in the best colonial style, with a gambrel roof and a fine 
panelled hall and stairway; but it was allowed to fall 
into disrepair and was finally sold. The lower story 
was then removed and the squat remainder was settled 
in slovenly fashion in Franklin Street, where, in spite 
of its squalid condition, its excellent proportions and 
noble lines continue to recall the high estate from which 
it has fallen. It deserves a better fate. 

In spite of the difference in their ages, Mr. Phillips 
and his first wife, the former Mrs. Gilman, seem to 


have been admirably mated. There is touching evi- 
dence of the esteem and affection in which he held her 
in a letter that soon after her death he wrote to her 
granddaughter, Mrs. Josiah Oilman of Exeter. Though 
expressed in the stilted phraseology of the time, and 
showing evidence of Puritan reserve, it is nevertheless 
full of tenderness and deep feeling and was evidently 
written from the heart. It is dated at Andover, Decem- 
ber 17, 1765. 

" My dear Mrs. Oilman: I am almost charmed with the 
beautiful and animated lines with which you have favored me. 
I have been ardently wishing for your dear grandmother's pic- 
ture, and you make me happy in presenting me therewith. Me- 
thinks the lovely person lives in you, and that the old mansion 
house is once more enlivened and ornamented with the living 
image of its late inhabitant. Your fondness for my return minds 
me of her anxiety for me when absent, and the sweet welcome 
which her faithful heart discovered in her countenance, as well 
as with her lips, when she received me. Her tender concern, 
quick sensibility and just resentment upon the appearance of 
anything injurious to my person or character, your feeling heart 
has dictated, and your ready pen described in the most lively 

" But I forbear; I consider you are yet living, and may you 
live long to make my friend happy in your copying after an 
example which it is your laudable ambition to imitate. 

" I take this opportunity to express my thankfulness for the 
favor I obtained of the Lord when the wife of my youth gave 
her hand with her heart to so unworthy a person, who appears 
to himself to have been but as a foil to make her excellence more 
resplendent. He who kindly gave, hath taken. I bless his name 
but my breast heaves my heart still bleeds; the image is too 
deeply impressed to be effaced. Is she dead? Oh, she yet speaks; 
her works speak for her; her Sarah rises up and calls her blessed. 
Her husband also (whilst he laments his own grievous failings) 
praiseth her and praiseth God for his undeserved goodness in 
blessing him with such a consort a consort so amiable, cheer- 
ful, frugal, wise, prudent, peaceable, meek, modest, neat, dili- 
gent, careful, contented, of such steady conduct, strict virtue and 


exemplary piety, so apparent in the constant discharge of the 
various duties of the Christian life and in the prospect of 
death how remarkably serene and submissive to the will of her 
Father which is now done. And what remains but that we also 
be subject to his will, and have our conversation where we doubt 
not she is, and endeavor to become followers of Christ as she 
was, and followers of her and all those who, through faith and 
patience, are gone to inherit the promise. May her offspring 
be blessed of the Lord, and her and my dear namesakes find 
their names written in the Lamb's book of life." 

Mrs. Phillips died October 9, 1765, and a little more 
than two years later, on November 3, 1767, Mr. Phil- 
lips married Elizabeth, widow of the village physician, 
Eliphalet Hale. She was the daughter of the Honorable 
Ephraim Dennett, a prominent citizen of Portsmouth, 
and a Mandamus Councilor, and was of about the same 
age as Mr. Phillips. With her he lived happily until 
his death. 

From his youth the religious element had been 
a marked, perhaps the fundamental, trait in Mr. Phil- 
lips's character. At first he associated himself with the 
First Church, which John Wheelwright had founded in 
1638; but as the result of a bitter church quarrel he, 
with about seventy-five others, seceded and formed the 
New Parish. The immediate cause was the appoint- 
ment of Woodbridge Odlin to succeed his aged father 
as pastor; but in the minds of many there still lingered 
the memory of the rebuff that the Reverend John 
Odlin, the father, had administered, six years before, to 
George Whitefield, the noted evangelist, in not permit- 
ting him to preach in his parish. It was in the New 
Parish, of which Phillips soon became a ruling elder, 
that Whitefield preached his last sermon, on the day 
before his death, which occurred at Newburyport a 
sermon that brought so many would-be hearers to the 


little town that Whitefield had to preach out-of-doors, 
from a plank laid on the tops of barrels. 

But the affairs of the New Parish did not prosper, 
and by 1793 had sunk so low that Phillips, who had 
tried in vain to reunite the two churches, returned with 
his wife, to the First Church and both he and Mrs. 
Phillips died members of it. 

That as early as 1762 Mr. Phillips had begun to take 
a broader view of his religious and philanthropic 
duties than the local church comprised is evident from 
letters that he wrote in that year to his two brothers, 
Samuel and William. They are from Bell's " Sketch 
of the Academy." To Samuel he wrote from Exeter on 
May 24, 1762: 

"Dear Brother: As I hear you are relieved from a part of 
public business, which necessarily engrossed much of your time 
and attention, you have now more leisure to employ your thoughts 
and cares upon the very important proposal you made, of a 
united effort in our family, for doing some special service for 
God. Pray let me know Father's and Brother's thoughts thereon, 
and what your present apprehension is. 

" It appears by a public advertisement there is a new Society 
incorporated at Boston for the purpose which, you remember I 
told you, laid most upon my mind. Pray write me what to 
you has an encouraging or discouraging aspect upon that scheme. 
Our parents designed and educated us to serve Christ personally 
in the work of the ministry; our time has been otherwise em- 
ployed; our other labors by his blessing succeeded. May our 
God have the fruits of them for the carrying to an end the same 
blessed work by such whom he shall please to send." 

. To William he wrote, also from Exeter, on June 2, 

" I would gladly know who was chose President and who are 
the principal members of a Society lately incorporated in Boston 
for sending the gospel among the heathen (as I suppose, having 
only seen an advertisement in the Boston paper), whether the 


gentlemen who are at the expense of this service belong to this 
country or Great Britain; to what nations or tribes are the mis- 
sions, and who the missionaries. I am the more inquisitive as I 
apprehend a service of this nature is of the utmost importance, 
and, if under due regulations, ought to be greatly encouraged, not 
only by particular persons, but by the several governments, 
since Heaven has granted us such marvelous successes. 

" Has Christ subdued our enemies around us, and shall we not 
unite our endeavors to bring them under his yoke? Gratitude, my 
Brother, gratitude to our beneficent Lord requires it; compassion 
for the souls of our fellow-creatures calls for it. Was there ever 
a more open door, or a people less excusable if so great a work 
(heretofore too much neglected) should not now be generally 
promoted, with cheerfulness and zeal? " 

It was a theory then held by many of the clergy of 
New England that the North American Indians were the 
descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israel. The belief 
must have been familiar to Mr. Phillips, and it is prob- 
able that it touched his Puritan imagination. At all 
events he manifested an early disposition to help the 
school for Indians that Eleazar Wheelock had estab- 
lished at Lebanon, Connecticut, and in 1765 he made 
a contribution to the cause, which led to correspondence 
between the two men. 

The acquaintance thus formed was of the greatest 
value to both. To Mr. Phillips it meant a concrete 
means of putting into practice his plans of philan- 
thropy; to Mr. Wheelock it meant lite saving of his 
newer educational establishment, Dartmouth College, 
which had grown out of the original design, from the 
ruin that seemed for years to impend. Certainly he 
needed help, for the history of his struggles against 
poverty and opposition is affecting. Once he and his 
wife even tore up their bed linen to supply clothing for 
Indian students. 

From 1766 until his death we find Mr. Wheelock 


relying more and more on Mr. Phillips. When money 
failed, he sent to his friend in Exeter; when discourage- 
ments overwhelmed him, he went himself to Exeter for 
a visit with his Maecenas, and never did he fail to find 
the help that he sought. Often it came in greater 
measure than he had expected or hoped for. 

Mr, Phillips 's gifts to Dartmouth were as follows: in 
1765, $200.00; in 1766, 100 sterling in goods for 
Wheelock's Indian School; in 1772, 175 for philosoph- 
ical apparatus; in 1773, 125 for general purposes; in 
1767, 54 lawful money for the Indian school; in 1774, 
600 for use in " instructing and Christianizing the 
Indians in North America "; in 1775, 40 for improving 
the college lands; in 1781, 4,000 acres of land; in 1789, 
37-103, on condition that the college sequester the 
lands already given to support the professorship of 
divinity. That chair still exists at Dartmouth under 
the title of the Phillips Professorship of Biblical History 
and Literature. In 1791 Mr. Phillips made the college 
a gift of two hundred and eight-five bushels of wheat 
for the purpose of procuring a wood, lot for the Phillips 
professor; and in 1794 he made a final gift of a hundred 
acres of land in Hanover. It was a disappointment to 
Mr. Phillips that the college allowed some of the land 
that he had given it to be sold for taxes. Several parcels 
of such lands he rebought at public sale. 

All of those gifts were made from friendship for 
Eleazar Wheelock. One of them a gift of 175, 
made in 1772 for the purchase of philosophical ap- 
paratus for the science department of Dartmouth had 
an interesting history. The money was entrusted by 
Mr. Phillips to Governor Wentworth to make the nec- 
essary purchases. Through the college an order was 
sent to England for the apparatus, but meantime the 
Revolution broke out, and Governor Wentworth fled 


to Canada. Thereupon both the college and Mr. Phil- 
lips entered suit to recover the sum from the estate of 
the Governor. The court made the award with the 
proviso, " if the estate be worth it." The money was 
paid, with interest, and Mr. Phillips granted the request 
that instead of being used to buy apparatus, it now be 
used for needed books; but an even greater need than 
that arose, and Mr. Wheelock again wrote to Mr. Phil- 
lips, this time to ask permission to use the money to 
pay pressing debts for building. 

It is natural that the college, which benefited so 
greatly by Mr. Phillips 's generosity, manifested at the 
time when the struggling school was in such imminent 
danger of failing, should have honored him in return. 
In 1777 it bestowed upon him the degree of LL. D., 
an honor that it had granted but once before: to 
Governor Wentworth. 

It was also eminently fitting that Mr. Phillips should 
be made a trustee of Dartmouth. He took the oath in 
May, 1773, and held the office until 1793, when he 
resigned because of failing health. He had offered his 
resignation several years before, but it was refused. 
During those twenty years, great as was his help to the 
college, he attended the trustees 7 meetings only six 
times. In August, 1773, 1774, 1776, and 1777 he was 
present at the annual meeting in Hanover; and in 1775 
and 1784 the meetings were held in Exeter for the spe- 
cial purpose of having Mr. Phillips present. Absence 
from the other meetings was due, however, not to lack 
of interest but to the dangers of travel. He speaks of 
the evil roads, of the peril from hostile Indians, and 
the prevalence of the smallpox. Mr. Wheelock min- 
imized the danger from Indians, saying that the Eng- 
lish had given strict orders that none be attacked ex- 
cept those actually warring against the English or the 


Indians. But the times were troublous. In several of 
his letters to his fellow-trustee, Judge Phillips of 
Andover, John Phillips urged the duty to Dartmouth 
in the strongest terms. In 1779 Mr. Phillips for the 
first time refused to help the college, a course that he 
felt was necessitated by the drain on his resources 
made by the new Academy at Andover. Perhaps, too, 
he had even then in mind the idea of founding an acad- 
emy at Exeter. 

To form a just estimate of any man, it is necessary 
to judge him not in relation to our own times, but in 
relation to those in which he lived. John Phillips lived 
in an age that was preeminently Puritan. Men were 
narrow, partisan, harsh, exacting. See, for example, 
what went on before his very eyes. The Court House 
stood at what is now the easterly corner of Front and 
Court Streets, on the site of the house in which the late 
> Mr. Joseph Boardman lived. The building, which had 
formerly been the meeting house of the First Parish, 
and had stood on the opposite side of the street, was in 
plain sight from Mr. Phillips's house. On one side of 
it stood the stocks, on the other the whipping post. 
There the horse thief was publicly flogged. There, 
too, James Pemberton stood an hour in the pil- 
lory, and as a climax to his punishment received twenty 
lashes. The part of his sentence that ordered one of 
his ears to be cut off the Court mercifully remitted. 
On a cold day in January, 1764, a woman who had 
entered a shop in Portsmouth was seen to hide a pair 
of children's shoes under her cloak, and to go out. The 
person who had seen her informed the proprietor, who 
followed her and raised the cry of " Stop thief! " The 
woman was seized, haled before the Hon. Hunking 
Wentworth, Justice of the Peace, was tried, found 
guilty and sentenced to be publicly whipped. She was 


taken over to the town pump, to which her hands 
were tied; her shoulders and back were bared, and 
the sheriff applied the cat-o'-nine tails. Instead of 
expressing sympathy or protest, the weekly paper 
remarked with smug satisfaction: "Last Friday one 
of our female pilferers received a flagellation at the 
whipping post, who had a great number of spectators 
to see this good work performed; and it is hoped that 
others, who so justly deserve it, will soon be brought to 
the same place to receive their deserts." Such things 
were a part of the customs of the times, and doubtless 
they had their influence on the character of John Phil- 
lips, as they did on the character of those about him. 

That he owned and kept slaves for at least a part of 
his life, with no thought of there being anything mor- 
ally wrong about it, is a matter of record; for when Na- 
thaniel Oilman died he left to his widow Sarah, whom 
Mr. Phillips married, " my negro man Robin and my ne- 
gro woman named Phillis and the negro girl named Di- 
nah." Thus without any motion on his own part Mr. 
Phillips became possessed with three slaves; and the 
town records show that he was taxed for two male slaves 
in 1778, 1779 an d 1780, and for one during the period 
from 1781 to 1785. In his day-book, kept late in life, 
he speaks frequently, too, of his black man, Corydon, 
whom he hired out at various times to the Gilmans, when 
he himself had no work for him. But it is probable 
that Mr. Phillips set Corydon free, for in his will is 
this passage: " Item, I give to my man-servant (Slave 
I have none) such part of my wearing apparel as my 
Executor shall think fit." Incidently, the latter years 
of Corydon's life touch the times with a transitory 
gleam of mellower light, for after Mr. Phillips's death 
the cost of his keep was paid by the two Phillips 
Academies, one-third by Andover and two-thirds by 


Exeter; and Corydon, apparently encouraged by so 
comfortable an arrangement, lived, it is said, to be one 
hundred years old. A considerable item in the bills for 
his maintenance was for tobacco and strong waters. In 
one year he was allowed seven gallons of rum and one 
quart and one pint of brandy; and there was a bill for 
rum used at his funeral. The last bill is dated April i, 
1818, when Corydon died. 

On one point all who have ever written of John Phil- 
lips are agreed: that he was frugal and saving even to 
parsimony. But that was only one side of his nature. 
There was in him that apparent contradiction that so 
often appears in men who from small beginnings amass 
large wealth and use it for great philanthropies. He 
devoted a great fortune to founding and helping 
schools, yet he left his widow so scantily provided for 
that she refused to accept the terms of his will, by 
which she was to receive one thousand silver dollars, 
the household goods that she brought to him at her 
marriage, and produce annually from his farms, in the 
form of corn, beef, pork, hay, etc., to the amount of 
fifty dollars, " so long as she shall remain my widow." 
The provisional clause at the end was probably not as 
coldly calculating as it seems. It was merely the legal 
phraseology of the day, and not intended to cut off the 
widow's income if she married again. 

But Mrs. Phillips was evidently a woman of spirit. 
Although in the original deed of gift to the Academy 
she had signed away her dower rights, she made known 
to the Trustees in a forcible 1 letter in her own hand 
her intention not to accept the provisions of Mr. Phil- 
lips's will. Thereupon the Trustees, on April 21, 1795, 
made the following provisions for her: " Mrs. Phillips, 
the widow of Col. John Phillips, deceased, having made 
1 MS. in Davis Library. 


declaration to the Trustees, that she should not accept 
the sum of one thousand dollars & an annuity of fifty 
dollars, instead of her right of dower in his estate 
The Trustees proceeded to consider the matter, & voted 
to pay her the sum of fifty pounds, & to deliver her a 
cow, & the articles of furniture, she brought with her, 
which still remain, on demand & the sum of one 
hundred pounds annually to allow her the use of the 
dwelling house, & garden back of it also of half the 
furniture in the house, in value, during her natural life 
on her exonerating & discharging the estate, real & 
personal, from all right of dower therein provided 
the Trustees of Phillips Academy in Andover shall con- 
cur in this agreement and vote to pay one-third part 
of the sums before mentioned." 

Mrs. Phillips died in September, 1797, slightly over 
two years after the death of Mr. Phillips. During that 
time she received $1,100 from the two academies, be- 
sides the use of the mansion house and garden, and a 
cow. One of the early Academy treasurers computed 
that had she accepted the terms of Mr. Phillips's will, 
she would have received by the time of her death 
$1,267.35; but the other agreement was much fairer 
and more seemly, and was more creditable to the 

The diary of the Reverend Daniel Rogers, who 
preached in the Second Church, Exeter, from 1747 to 
1788, sheds further light on the sedulous care with 
which Mr. Phillips husbanded his temporal resources. 
Mr. Rogers kept a careful account of the presents that 
he received from his parishioners. The Gilmans were 
most generous. From them are recorded a great num- 
ber of gifts of lamb, veal, wood and grain, but from 
Mr. Phillips rarely is any gift mentioned, and then 
usually but a small one. Most of the transactions be- 


tween the minister and Mr. Phillips were for loads of 
wood, for which Mr. Rogers paid him legal tender. 

And yet, so great are the contradictions of human 
nature, it was the same John Phillips, who, when ap- 
pealed to by the same Mr. Rogers, wrote this tender 
letter: a 

" The Rev d Mr. Joseph Belknap, Pastor of the ChJi in Dover. 

Exeter, 23 Mar., 1776. 

"Rev d Sir, The Rev d . Mr. Rogers has made me acquainted 
with the (even) necessitous circumstances of a grandson of the 
late venerable & truly pious Doct r Sewall of blessed memory. You 
are pleas'd, dear Sir, to interest yourself in his behalf, and by 
this mean I come to share the sacred pleasure with you. My 
love to the good Doctor & his church, afflicted & scattered abroad, 
& of consequence less able to afford relief in this case, induces 
me very eagerly to embrace such an opportunity of expressing 
a most cordial affection for one whom the good people of Boston, 
of that ch h . in particular, must wish well to, and as I trust it is 
a service acceptable to God, how happy I am and how thankful 
ought I to be. 

" I now send fifty pounds, hoping if after the frugal expenditure 
thereof there should be occasion for more you will be pleas'd 
to give yourself the trouble no! the pleasure of letting me 
know what further sum wou'd be serviceable. 

I am, with respect, yours affectionately, 

Rev d . Mr. Belknap. 

Joseph Sewall, D.D., was born August 26, 1688, 
and died June 27, 1769. He declined the presidency 
of Harvard College to continue preaching. He was a 
very humble, devout man, devoted to his calling. The 
grandson, who was nineteen when Mr. Phillips aided 
him, became a well-known judge in Massachusetts. 

Such letters as that, though they come from the 
1 The Belknap Papers, Mass. Hist. Soc'y. 


heart and may be the real warrant of a man's character, 
are usually known at the time only to him who writes 
them and to him who receives them, whereas what his 
neighbors may see and remember are the little personal 
idiosyncracies that mark his life in his home and his 
community. From them we get such delightful bits 
as the tradition that Mr. Phillips always blew out the 
candle before the long prayer a habit recorded also 
of his father, the Reverend Samuel Phillips and the 
remark of the old lady who had lived in the family of 
Mr. Phillips, attributed by Governor Charles H. Bell, in 
his sketch of the Academy, to Wendell Phillips: " He 
was a good man and he always soaked his back-logs 
over night." 

A stern, old Puritan, indeed, but as exacting of him- 
self as of others ! We may see him in his later years, 
as Bell has pictured him, pacing up and down the plat- 
form in front of his house and insisting that every boy 
who passed should doff his hat and every girl make a 
curtsey to him. We may see him as Professor Hoyt 
has presented him, 1 refusing to give a boy a cherry from 
his trees " unless the favor were asked with a low bow 
and in the most reverend tone "; we may see his face 
so darkened by a frown, caused by the failure of a little 
girl to make her accustomed curtsey, that hours of sun- 
light cannot dissipate it. But those are fleeting pic- 
tures. We think of him finally and in whole as a man 
who deeply and truly reverenced God, and though 
he may not have known it loved his fellow men, and 
wished to pay, as best he could, the debt that he felt 
he owed the world. We remember him as one who, in the 
words of Eliphalet Pearson, the first Principal of Phil- 
lips Andover, " Without natural issue, made posterity 
his heir." Though he got his money hardly and kept 
1 Addresses and Lectures, p. 328- 


it close, he spent little on himself that through the un- 
ending years it might continue, by doing good, to ex- 
press some measure of that feeling of accountability 
that was fundamental in him. 

Mr. Phillips died on April 21, 1795, at the age of 
seventy-six. On May 3, following, the Reverend 
Jonathan French, pastor of the old South Church, 
Andover, where for so long a time Mr. Phillips's father 
preached, delivered a discourse on the Founder. 
In it was the following: " He was perfectly sensible, 
& apprised of his approaching dissolution, & spake 
of it to his friends with calmness, & serenity, & with 
apparent pleasure. And according to information, ex- 
press'd himself in words to this effect. ' My work is 
done. I have settled all my affairs, & have now nothing 
to do but to die! It is no matter how soon! ' And re- 
taining his Reason to the last the next morning he 
died." His funeral was dignified and impressive, 
as became a man of his weight in the community. One 
of the mourning rings, given to Judge John Pickering of 
Portsmouth, a Trustee, has recently been presented to 
the New Hampshire Historical Society at Concord. 
Interment was in the old burying ground in Exeter, 
across the present line of the Boston and Maine Rail- 
road. After a time that cemetery was closed, and on 
May 15, 1865, the Trustees bought a lot in the new 
cemetery, near the grave of Benjamin Abbot, and had 
the remains of the Founder and his wives transferred 
to it. 

A portrait of the Founder, by Gilbert Stuart, hung on 
the wall of the main building, which was destroyed by 
fire in 1914, and the picture perished with it. It showed 
the features of a man who was stern but also gracious. 


A LTHOUGH John Phillips gave up teaching for 
jf\. business while he was still a young man, he never 
lost his interest in education or his faith in it as being 
the handmaiden of godliness. We have seen how he 
helped Eleazar Wheelock to support Moor's Charity 
Indian School in Connecticut, and how liberally he gave 
of his time and money to Dartmouth College, which 
grew out of the Indian school. Besides that, he gave 
money to towns near Exeter to pay school teachers, 
generously endowed the new academy at Andover, and 
at last endowed and founded an academy of his own 
in his own town. 

Just when the idea of founding a school at Exeter 
first occurred to him is in doubt, but a letter to him 
from his nephew, Judge Samuel Phillips, bearing date 
of April 23, 1781, shows that he not only had the plan 
in mind then, but had already discussed it with mem- 
bers of his family. 

" The joy I felt on finding that you had it in contem- 
plation* to lay the foundation of another Academy," 
writes the Judge, " was great indeed: so great that I 
hardly know of anything within human reach that could 
have given me more satisfaction, save the intelligence 
that your purpose was executed. May my honored 
uncle long enjoy the fruits of his pious cares and pro- 
jections, in seeing those who are furnished with the 
best principles filling the most important places in 



Church and State, and doing worthily for the kingdom 
of our glorious Savior." 

The letter shows, as nothing could show better, how 
fine was the spirit of the Phillips family. Judge Phil- 
lips 's congratulations were of the most unselfish char- 
acter, for he was the favorite nephew of his childless 
old uncle, and therefore was more than likely to in- 
herit the most of his estate. He must have seen at 
once and clearly that such a school would in time ab- 
sorb all of his uncle's means and leave nothing to be- 
queath to relatives. Yet it was he above all others 
who was most eager for the project to be carried out. 
The consequences were exactly what the Judge must 
have foreseen, for in his will John Phillips gave to his 
nephew, the Judge, and to the Judge's son John, a 
namesake, 100 each, the largest legacy to any person 
except his wife, Elizabeth. The two academies were 
the chief beneficiaries. 

In reply to the letter quoted above, Dr. Phillips 
wrote four days later: 

" Your concurring sentiments and warm expressions 
respecting another Academy, are very refreshing and 
highly animating; and will greatly endear you to my 
friends here, who were encouraged to expect the help 
of your advice, and such assistance as might, in a course 
of time, when you shall have more leisure especially, 
greatly increase the benefit of such an institution. The 
motion was exceedingly agreeable to the General Court, 
who have incorporated the Academy by the name of the 
Phillips Exeter Academy, for the purposes mentioned 
in yours." 

The Act of Incorporation is dated April 3,1781. The 
charter established an academy " For the education of 
Youth in the English, Latin, and Greek Languages; in 
Writing, Arithmetic, Music, and the Art of Speaking, 



Practical Geometry, Logic, and Geography, and such 
other of the Liberal Arts and Sciences or Languages 
as opportunity may hereafter permit, and as the Trus- 
tees hereinafter provided shall direct." The charter 
thus gives the greatest latitude in providing new studies 
or courses; yet Phillips Exeter has always been conserv- 
ative in extending or changing its courses of study. It 
has remained a cultural school, where the humanities, 
Latin and Greek, still hold the most prominent place. 
In a material age it has enlarged its numbers and 
widened its fame by clinging to the things of the spirit. 
The subjects that were first taught here are the sub- 
jects that still receive the greatest attention. No at- 
tempt has been made to introduce a wide scientific 
course; the only sciences taught are elementary physics 
and chemistry, and of those only the amount prescribed 
for entrance to college. 

The Act of Incorporation of Phillips Exeter Academy 
was signed by the Governor, or the " President/ 5 as he 
was then called, on April 3, 1781, which is six months, 
lacking one day, after Phillips Andover was incorpor- 
ated, though Andover was founded and opened to stu- 
dents in 1778. Exeter is therefore the oldest educa- 
tional institution in New Hampshire that has a charter 
from the Legislature. Dartmouth, which dates from 
1769, was established by Royal Grant. 

Those who framed the constitutions of the two Phil- 
lips Academies, as was discovered by Mr. C. M. Fuess 
and is set forth in his " History of Phillips Academy, 
Andover," were indebted for some of their theories to 
Locke's " Some Thoughts Concerning Education." 
Phrases from Locke appear frequently, and so also do 
phrases from Milton's " Essay on Education." Locke's 
theory that virtue and religion are the chief ends of 


education found a strong support in the Puritan minds 
of the Phillipses. 

The constitution of Phillips Andover Academy, which 
was written by Judge Samuel Phillips and Eliphalet 
Pearson, the first Principal of Phillips Andover, be- 
came the moral and intellectual compass of both insti- 
tutions. There is in it a saving breadth that seems 
able to meet every situation as it arises. In drafting 
the constitution of Exeter, John Phillips somewhat 
changed the wording of the constitution of Andover, 
but he left it essentially the same. The part of it that 
is most often quoted is this: " But, above all, it is ex- 
pected that the attention of Instructors to the disposi- 
tion of the Minds and Morals of the Youth under their 
charge will exceed every other care; well considering 
that tho' goodness without knowledge, as it respects 
others, is weak and feeble, yet knowledge without good- 
ness is dangerous; and that both united form the 
noblest character, and lay the surest foundation of 
usefulness to mankind." 

Another clause in the constitution which has helped 
to make Phillips Exeter known for true democracy is 
this: "And it shall ever be equally open to youth of 
requisite qualifications from every quarter." No dis- 
tinction of creed, color, or ancestry is allowed to pre- 
vail. Black, white, Mongol, alike stand on their 
qualities as men. Four Kentuckians once waited on 
Principal Soule with the threat that if a colored boy 
in the Academy were not dismissed they would leave. 
With a wave of the hand the Doctor declared that as 
long as the colored boy was a good citizen of the school 
he might remain; and that the four Kentuckians could 
stay or go, as they chose. 1 It is to their shame that 
they chose to go. 

There have usually been a few colored boys, one or 

1 Cunningham, p. 56. 


more Chinese or Japanese, and other foreigners at 
Exeter, and most of them have reflected credit on the 

In one important particular Mr. Phillips did change 
the constitution of Phillips Andover Academy: in the 
Exeter constitution he reserved to himself much 
power that in the Andover constitution is delegated 
to the Trustees. He reserved the right to make special 
rules for the government of the Academy, and also the 
right to appoint the person who should succeed him 
as President of the Board of Trustees; and he provided 
that that person should in turn exercise the same right 
as to his successor. 

The original constitution, in the clear, firm hand of 
Mr. Phillips, is still preserved, in the Davis Library. 

The first meeting of the Board of Trustees was held 
December 18, 1781, but the school was not opened un- 
til a year and a half later, owing to difficulty in finding 
suitable grounds. The first preceptor appointed was 
the Reverend Benjamin Thurston, of Exeter, one of 
the Trustees; but owing to ill health he never served, 
but acted as Clerk of the Board instead. There is a 
tradition that the school was opened February 20, 
1783, and that Mr. Thurston heard on that date the 
first lesson ever recited in the Academy; but the tradi- 
tion seems ill-founded, for it is known that the real 
opening took place in May. The New Hampshire 
Gazette for March 22, 1783, contains this notice: 

" The Trustees of Phillips Exeter Academy hereby inform the 
people of the Commonwealth that they shall endeavor to be 
ready for the opening of the Academy by the last of April 
next: All persons therefore, who would obtain the privilege 
of entrance of their sons into the same, are desired to make 
application to the Preceptor, who is judge of the qualifications 
of those who apply for entrance. By order of the Trustees, 

"Exeter, March i, 1783 BENJAMIN THURSTON, Clerk:' 


The difficulty, already referred to, of finding suit- 
able grounds, was finally ended by deciding upon a site 
on Tan Lane ; close to a number of tan yards, on what 
Mr. Phillips called "the little precipice," in the rear 
of the spot where the original building now stands. 
There John Phillips built the first hall in 1783, a struc- 
ture that has withstood the ravages of time and fire, 
though the two that were built next after it have been 
burned. After it had been in use for many years it was 
moved far out Front Street and occupied for a time as 
a dwelling house by Deacon John T. Gordon; but the 
Class of 1891 bought it and the lot on which it now 
stands, and in 1917 it was restored to the present site, 
which is very near the spot that it first occupied. It 
stands where once was the tan yard, 212 feet east- 
south-east of its original location. The first site, a 
knoll near the Robinson Seminary grounds, was long 
marked by a depression of the size of the building. The 
new Lamont Infirmary now occupies the spot. The 
position is vouched for by Mr. George W. Gadd, of 
Exeter, who entered the employ of Retire H. Parker 
in the tan yard in 1856. Other men who worked in the 
yard at that time also pointed out the knoll as the 
spot where the house stood. 

The new building was dedicated and the Preceptor, 
William Woodbridge, who had been chosen by John 
Phillips on February 20, 1783, was installed on May 
i, 1783. One of the Trustees, the Reverend David 
McClure, of North Hampton, N. H., delivered an ora- 
tion on the " Advantages of an Early Education." It 
was very long, full of vague generalities, and incredibly 
dull. The orator drew the inevitable parallels be- 
tween Greece and Rome on one hand and the new 
republic on the other, uttered many vague generalities 
on learning, and made a few shrewd observations on 



education in general; flattered the Founder and be- 
sought a blessing from heaven on his devoted head. 
On the principle of Ex pede, Herculem, one short 
paragraph will suffice: 

" Detestable ignorance ! thou offspring of sin, and 
fruitful parent of evil! with foul assiduity thou 
nourishest blind bigotry, gloomy superstition, un- 
resisting slavery, and bloody persecution! too long 
hast thou held mankind in thy chains. Thy charm 
shall be broken. In thy ruin shall science, liberty and 
virtue flourish." 

Those who wish to read more are directed to the 
Davis Library, where there is a printed copy of the 
whole oration. Having read it, they will the better ap- 
preciate and the more ardently admire the courage of 
the old clergyman of Mr. C. H. BelPs day, who, as Mr. 
Bell observes in his " Historical Sketches," remarked 
after reading McClure's oration, " I rejoice to know 
that there was a time when men dared to be dull." 

After the formal " oration," the Reverend Benjamin 
Thurston, Clerk of the Board of Trustees, addressed 
the Preceptor in a speech as academic and stilted, and 
almost as dull, as the Reverend Mr. McClure's effort 
had been; and the Preceptor replied in kind. Neither 
speech would hold the attention of an audience today, 
and probably neither will stir the modern reader to any 
unseemly demonstrations of enthusiasm. Neverthe- 
less, both are here printed because of the picture that 
they call up of grave and elderly gentlemen, formal in 
broaddoth and beaver and high stock, conscious of the 
dignity of the cloth and impressed with the importance 
of the occasion. The two speeches are a daguerrotype 
of the mental and moral times. 


Said Mr. Thurston 1 : 

" You, sir, being invited by the honorable Founder of this 
institution, with the universal approbation of the Board of 
Trustees, to take upon you, as Preceptor, the charge of this 
Academy, and having accepted the invitation, I, in behalf and 
in the name of the Board, in this public manner welcome you 
to this literary function. The business, sir, you are entering 
upon is arduous and weighty; but, from your distinguished 
character, we presume you will make it agreeable, honorable, 
and useful: nothing, we trust, will be wanting to render it so 
from the public, the end of this institution being the general 
good of society. The citizens of this town, we presume, will join 
their endeavors with their approbation to facilitate your under- 
taking; and you may, sir, at all times, in the line of duty depend 
on our confidence, approbation, and support. The theatre before 
you is large, the field of your instruction extending, as occasion 
requires, to all those sciences and arts commonly taught in 
academical institutions; every state, town, and family having 
equal right by the constitution to all the privileges of the 
seminary, and none wanting encouragement to apply for entrance 
who are suitably qualified for admission. You will therefore, 
sir, make no discrimination in favor of any particular state, 
town, or family, on account of parentage, age, wealth, sentiments 
of religion, etc. The institution is founded on principles of the 
most extensive liberality. The constitution and laws of the 
institution you will adopt as your guide in the government and 
Instruction of the seminary, and in the exercise of all those pow- 
ers and rights vested in you by the constitution, which I now pre- 
sent you; that is our warrant in these public transactions, and 
your encouragement in this solemn induction; governing yourself 
in your public capacity by that, without prejudice or fear, will 
recommend you to the approbation and esteem of all good men, 
and place you under the patronage of that God whose blessings 
will crown your endeavors with success. The time, sir, is at 
hand when you will actually enter on the business of your 
appointment; the academical edifice erected for that purpose 
in this place, and wholly devoted to the public by some gen- 

1 The address to the Preceptor and his reply are reproduced with 
the permission of the Harvard College Library, which owns the orig- 
inal Mansfield MSS. 


erous friends to literature, we now commit to your immediate 
care and possession for carrying into execution the design of this 
institution; in evidence of which, and as your warrant in taking 
possession, I, now, sir, present you the keys. You will then enter 
on the business of your appointment with assurance of our 
affection and sincere friendship, as a token of which I now give 
you my hand; at the same time wishing you a blessing from 
Him, in the improvement of your gifts, who giveth to all their 
talents, with confident expectation of seeing virtue and literature 
adding a crown to your labors." 

The Preceptor made the following reply: 

" Dear and Respected Sir, The cordiality and politeness of 
such a friendly welcome to this institution merit a return 
of my sincere thanks. Decency and propriety require that reply 
which the sensibility of a grateful mind would dedicate. Great, 
inexpressibly weighty, are the duties of that important station 
to which I am now invited; and singular the exercise of that 
labor and self-denial, of that wisdom and patience, absolutely 
necessary to a faithful discharge. 

"Without the assured expectation of aid from Heaven and 
from you, nothing could induce me to accept the charge; but 
with full confidence of your fidelity and honor to discharge the 
duties of your trust in granting every necessary and proper 
support, both for maintenance and authority, with raised ex- 
pectations that the generous founder will continue his smiles, 
that those gentlemen whose generosity has furnished a building 
will yet be friends, that the town which has so worthily promoted 
its welfare by their influence with the General Court will 
persevere in their endeavors to establish its reputation and pro- 
mote its usefulness, I am confident in my hopes of its prosperity 
and success. 

"With a due sense of the importance of the charge, where 
minds are to be formed for immortality, and furnished for the 
duties of a useful life; with a becoming sense of deficiency in 
that wisdom, those virtues and accomplishments, that finish 
the character of a complete instructor; and with constant de- 
pendence upon the aid of Providence (without which every 
attempt is vain), I would readily obey the providential call, and 
step forth thus publicly to manifest my acceptance of it; and, 


as I would humbly hope, with solemn sincerity, to devote myself 
to the service of this institution, and, being thus supported, 
pledge my character and a sacred honor conscientiously and 
faithfully to discharge the station while Providence may continue 
me there. 

"Kindly aid me, ye friends of virtue, of piety, and of 
learning! ever support me by your friendship and your candor: 
'Tis the interest of yourselves and your children, of society and 
virtue, that demands your aid. As the speaker asks nothing for 
himself, unconnected with this institution, he hopes his wishes 
may be granted. He would modestly hope the interest of virtue 
and a useful life were not among the least of his motives to 
forsake his tender friends, bid adieu to the prospect of affluence 
and the pleasing hopes of more leisure life. 

"As Providence has determined my residence among you, I 
hope to be excused if, upon this occasion, I deliver my sentiments 
with unusual freedom; and more especially when I can sincerely 
add that I wish for your friendship and support, that my labors 
may be beneficial to you, to society, and to your sons. 

"I congratulate myself upon the prospect of becoming a 
friendly member of your societies, ardently wishing to merit 
your approbation and friendship. 

" I congratulate the honorable and benevolent Founder of this 
institution upon the happy prospect of its proving a valuable 
and extensive blessing to society while time endures. May 
unborn thousands of this rising empire meet him in glory, and 
hail him as the benefactor of piety and virtue, while both pay 
their united adoration to Him whose bounty bestowed the gift 
and whose goodness first excited the generous purpose! 

" I congratulate this honorable Trust in the opportunity they 
have to serve the interests of learning and virtue; and upon these 
singular motives now presented to persevere in their endeavors 
to render this institution an extensive blessing. Its success 
greatly, very greatly, depends upon the liberality and fidelity 
with which they discharge the trust. 

"I congratulate you all, my affectionate friends, upon the 
arrival of this happy day which opens the Exeter Academy; and 
at a time when every patriotic heart dilates with unusual joy at 
the delightful sound of peace. 

"While the glories of this rising empire dawn upon us, let 
us unitedly exert every effort to cherish the institutions of 


knowledge, which is the stability of these glorious times when the 
voice of liberty and peace is heard. 

" So shall that science and virtue which have seated America 
in the throne of empires, and made her revered among the 
nations, be extensively spread to form the minds and virtues 
of her illustrious sons. 

" So shall they be formed for usefulness and famed for wisdom, 
for virtue, and for glory. 

" And so, my friends, shall we offer a grateful return for the 
blessings we now enjoy, to the wonderful Counsellor, the mighty 
God, the everlasting Father, and the Prince of Peace." 

Mr, Woodbridge's reference to bidding " adieu to 
the prospect of affluence " in order to accept the office 
of preceptor is hard to understand, for at the time when 
Mr. Phillips appointed him he was the master of the 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, grammar school, a posi- 
tion that could hardly have paid as high a salary as 
his new post. 

The New Hampshire Gazette for May 10, 1783, re- 
ported the ceremonies as follows: 

" Thursday, the ist instant, being appointed for the dedication 
of the building for the use of the Phillips Exeter Academy, in 
this town, and for the inauguration of the Preceptor, accordingly 
in the afternoon the honorable Founder and Trustees, with many 
other gentlemen and a respectable auditory, attended in one of 
the meeting houses in this town. The exercises began with sing- 
ing; a prayer succeeded, by the Rev. Mr. Rogers; and an 
oration on the c Advantages of Learning and its Happy Tendency 
to promote Virtue and Piety 7 was delivered by the Rev. Mr. 
McClure, with an address to the Founder, Trustees, and Precep- 
tor. The inaugurating ceremonies were performed by Mr. 
Thurston, a gentleman of the Trust, with a particular address 
and a charge to the Preceptor. Mr. Woodbridge, the Preceptor, 
publicly manifested his acceptance of the important charge, and 
pronounced an affectionate address to the Trustees and auditory. 
A prayer was made by the Rev. Mr. Mansfield, and the whole 
was concluded by singing. Each part was performed with pro- 
priety, and a solemnity suitable to the occasion, the whole 
to universal acceptance. 


" Thus we behold with pleasing satisfaction the birth of a 
new institution, founded on noble principles, for promoting 
learning, virtue, and piety; and we have raised expectations 
that this institution will speedily flourish." 

So long as Mr. Phillips lived he held in his own 
person the office of President of the Board of Trustees, 
but when he felt that he was nearing the end of his 
lif e, he availed himself of the right that he had reserved 
in the constitution and appointed as his successor John 
Taylor Oilman, of Exeter. Mr. Oilman at first refused 
to accept the trust, but at Mr. Phillips's earnest solici- 
tation he at length yielded. 

Mr. Oilman was a man of high aims and great public 
services. He was a member of the local Committee of 
Safety with John Phillips, an officer of the regiment 
that marched from Exeter on the morning after the 
battle of Lexington to join the Continental forces in 
Boston. In July, 1776, he was chosen to read the 
Declaration of Independence to his assembled towns- 
people. From 1794 till 1805, and from 1813 until 1816 
he was Governor of New Hampshire, a longer period 
than any other man in the state ever held the office. 
He was a firm friend of John Wentworth, the Royal 
Governor of New Hampshire, who tried to keep Mr. 
Oilman loyal, and who declared when Oilman openly 
aided the Revolution that after the uprising was 
quelled he would " save the rash patriot." No wonder 
that Mr. Phillips was determined to retain the services 
of such a man to carry on the work after he himself 
was dead! Nor did he choose amiss; for Mr. Oilman 
worked long and most unselfishly for the school. 
Among his early work for the Academy was giving the 
main yard, where the central buildings now stand, and 
overseeing the construction of the second recitation 


It was Mr. Phillips's intention that Mr. Oilman 
should exercise the same right that he had exercised, 
and appoint his own successor, but that Mr. Oilman 
declined to do on the ground that, in his opinion, the 
right might " become not only Injurious but Invidi- 
ous." Having held the office of President from 1795 
to 1827, Mr. Oilman, on August 21 of the latter year, 
handed in his resignation to the Board with a letter 
remarkable for its grasp of the situation, its foresight 
and its unselfishness. 

" I do not see," he wrote, " that the welfare of the 
Institution can be in any degree promoted by my mak- 
ing an appointment; and believing that the Harmony 
of the Board will, probably, be best preserved by their 
own appointments to fill Vacancy's, I have concluded 
not to appoint a successor. 

" I embrace this opportunity to say that I have 
Uniformly held in high Estimation the Benevolent 
Intentions of Dr. Phillips in Establishing the Academy, 
and the Respect is Enhanced when I call to mind the 
time when it was Founded a time when the general 
attention was drawn to the war of the Revolution and 
Education (at least in this Quarter) much neglected. 
He lived to see his Academy progressing in usefulness, 
and in his last years frequently expressed his Expecta- 
tion that the time would come when it would not be 
Necessary for students to go from this, to any other 
seminary for Completing a thorough Education." 

The last clause is enlightening; the Founder in- 
tended that the school should fit young men for citizen- 
ship direct, not by way of college. The growth of the 
idea that Exeter was a fitting school came from the 
excellent progress that its few early boys made on 
entering college. 

There is something touching, almost pathetic, in the 


knowledge that a man who did so much for his country 
as Mr. Oilman did, and did it so modestly, should have 
hesitated, and at first declined, to accept the office of 
President of the Board because he had so little book- 
learning. Even during his long period of service he 
always felt uncomfortable during the examinations 
(which the Trustees then attended) because he was not 
an educated man in the academic sense. Brave old 
servant of his generation; he was too honest-minded 
to enjoy seeming to pass judgment on examinations in 
subjects of which he knew less than the boys whose 
qualifications he was supposed to test! 

Of the founding there remains only an account of 
the earliest Trustees. 

David McClure, teacher and preacher, one of the 
men chosen by John Phillips as a member of the first 
Board of Trustees, was born in Newport, R. I., Novem- 
ber 18, 1748. He went to Lovell's Latin School for 
awhile, but at the age of fifteen he was sent to Dr. 
Wheelock's Indian School at Lebanon, Connecticut, 
to become a missionary to the Indians. In 1765 he 
entered Yale College. While there he wrote that he 
and a classmate rarely spoke any other language than 
the Indian. After graduating at Yale, Mr. McClure 
returned to Moor's Charity School at Lebanon, and in 
1770 moved with the school to Hanover, New Hamp- 
shire, where he was head of the school and tutor in 
the newly founded Dartmouth College. In 1772 he 
went on a fruitless mission to the Delaware Indians, 
and on his return the next year he was settled as pastor 
of the church at North Hampton, New Hampshire. 
December 10, 1780, he married Hannah Pomeroy, 
niece of President Wheelock. His wife died in 1814, 
and two years later he married Mrs. Bessy Martin, of 
Providence, R. I. After 1798 when his voice failed, he 


rarely preached but he taught till the time of his death. 
In 1777 he was made a trustee of Dartmouth College, 
and in 1800 was made Doctor of Divinity. Dr. 
McClure is described as a man of very winning and 
attractive manners, and a deep and accurate scholar. 
His sermons were moral and practical, not theological. 
He left a diary full of vivid pictures of the times of the 
Revolution. He was in Boston at the time of the 
battles of Lexington and Concord, and describes the 
tumult and strife accurately and strongly. In 1785 he 
removed to Connecticut, and resigned from the trust 
in 1787. At the formal opening of the Academy he 
delivered an oration on " The Advantages of Learn- 
ing." Of him Mr. Phillips always spoke with the 
greatest respect and affection. 

Judge John Pickering, * one of the men chosen by 
John Phillips as a member of the first Board of Trus- 
tees, was born in Newington, N. H., in 1737. He 
graduated from Harvard in 1761, and received an in- 
vitation to preach in Boston, but came to Greenland, 
N. H., to study law. Soon he settled in Portsmouth. 
In 1774 Mr. Pickering was a representative in the 
Assembly of the Province. Being of a mild and timid 
disposition he was one of those who appeared before 
Congress as a remonstrant against the throwing off of 
the British yoke. He held many high offices in the 
state, and in 1790 was elected President of New Hamp- 
shire, He was a member of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and was granted the degree of LL.D. 
by Dartmouth. Judge Pickering was deeply reli- 
gious and joined the South Parish, Portsmouth, in July, 
1770. This parish was always most liberal; it early 
broke with Calvinism, and was one of the first members 
of the circle of Unitarian churches. Its early creed 
1 Bell's Bench and Bar of New Hampshire, p. 44. 


held no reference to foreordination, election, or eternal 
punishment. This is of importance in considering that 
John Phillips appointed men of liberal views to his 
Board of Trust. 

Thomas Odiorne, 1 one of the first Trustees, was 
born December i, 1733. He is described as a most 
worthy and industrious citizen. He manufactured 
sail cloth in Carpenter's Lane; the state legislature en- 
couraged the industry, and paid him a bounty of seven 
shillings on each bolt of cloth. The power was fur- 
nished by hand only, and at length the industry died 
out. Mr. Odiorne was much in public life. He signed 
a protest against unlicensed acts of violence which had 
grown out of the Stamp Act. In addition he furnished 
clothing for the Continental soldiers, and was entrusted 
with the purchase of equipment for the field. In 1776 
he was a member of the Legislature, and was also a 
member of the Committee of Safety. Mr. Odiorne 
married Joanna, daughter of Major John Oilman, and 
became the father of nine children. He died April 28, 

Still another of the first Trustees was Reverend 
Benjamin Thurston. It was Dr. Phillips's plan at first 
to appoint Mr. Thurston preceptor, or principal; but 
owing to Mr. Thurston's ill health Mr. Phillips hesi- 
tated to appoint him, feeling that the man could live but 
a short time. At any rate he held a high place in the 
esteem of the Founder, and delivered the address to the 
preceptor at the time of the founding. Mr. Thurston x 
was born in Bradford, Massachusetts, September 25, 
1753. He graduated at Harvard in 1774, and on De- 
cember 2, 1777, he married Sarah, daughter of former 
Lieutenant John Phillips of Boston. Mrs. Thurston 

1 Bell's History of Exeter, p. 33, 304. 

2 Thurston Genealogies, ad. ed., p. 67. 

v <;,,/ ^P^ j ;^'^^,'^;>./V^''^ 


Now the Faculty Club 
Lament Infirmary in the Background 


died May 22, 1789, and on April 14, 1790, he married 
as his second wife Sarah Moulton, widow of General 
Moulton, of Hampton, New Hampshire. He settled in 
North Hampton, New Hampshire, as a minister. He is 
said to have had rare talent, a pleasing address, and to 
have been an efficient preacher. He died near Raleigh, 
North Carolina, in 1804. 

Daniel Tilton, a Trustee appointed by the Founder, 
remains in more or less obscurity. He is probably the 
man referred to in Bell's history as signing a protest 
against illegal and violent acts; and the same man 
signed the non-importation agreement in 1 774. Accord- 
ing to the New Hampshire provincial papers he was 
chairman of the selectmen in 1781. According to the 
same authority he had a store in Exeter in 1776; and 
he refused to let the committee appointed examine his 
stock of goods at the time when goods were scarce and 
shop keepers were accused of hoarding them for higher 
prices. This Daniel Tilton held the rank of Major in 
the regiment of Colonel Oilman. 

The last of the original Trustees was Judge Samuel 
Phillips, of Andover, an account of whose connection 
with the Academy appears elsewhere. 



I taught all my life, and for many years I preached four sermons 
each Sunday. Private diary of WILLIAM WOODBRIDGE. 

WILLIAM WOODBRIDGE, the first Preceptor 
of the Phillips Exeter Academy, was born in 
Glastonbury, Connecticut, September 14, 1755, ^ 
youngest son of the Reverend Ashbel Woodbridge. 
The poverty that fell upon the family through the early 
death of his father and by the education of his three 
older brothers seemed to destine William to life on the 
farm or at a trade; but with characteristic determina- 
tion he set out to get the preparation necessary for col- 
lege. His purpose was to enter the ministry. His love 
of preaching, which was a ruling passion all his life, 
seems to have been inherited from a line of dissenting 
ministers in England that extended back to the time of 
Edward the Sixth, when one of his ancestors, a clergy- 
man in the Church of England, refused to wear the 
ecclesiastical vestments, which had been abolished but 
which were restored under that king. 1 

During his struggles to prepare for college young 
Woodbridge taught school, served as a clerk in his 
brother's store, and at one time seemed to have settled 
down to a commercial life, for he bought and fitted out 

1 Most of the data regarding Mr. Woodbridge comes from MSS. 
in the hands of a great-grandson, Mr. T. R. Woodbridge, Upland, 




a small trading vessel, and was doing an excellent busi- 
ness when the vessel was wrecked. The disaster turned 
him once more to his education, and in 1776 he entered 
Yale College. Though hampered throughout his 
course by poverty, he was known as a leader in the 
religious life of the students. 

In 1779 Mr. Woodbridge began his life work by 
conducting a school for young ladies at Worthington 
Society, now Berlin, Connecticut. The next winter he 
taught a more advanced class for young ladies at a 
night school at New Haven. He founded a similar 
school at Ripton Parish, now Huntington, Connecticut. 
When he finished his college course, in 1780, he took 
charge of the Newburyport, Massachusetts, grammar 
school, from which he was called to the new Academy 
at Exeter, at a yearly salary of 100-6 s.-8 d. 

Of the beginning of his work in the Academy Mr. 
Woodbridge writes thus in his private diary: x 

"Exeter Academy was opened in April, 1783. During the 
war few young men could be educated. A crowd of such were 
ready to fill up the Academy. By charter, no boarders in a 
family where morning and evening prayers were not maintained 
should be admitted to the privileges of the Academy. Such a 
prohibition would break up the Academy at once. One expedient 
only remained: I must make them my family, as in college. In 
order to do this, the students were called to the Academy at one 
half after five in summer, and before sunrise in winter. Prayers 
were attended, and morning lessons recited before breakfast. 
The other six hours as usual were attended. Wednesday P. M. 
was recess, also Saturday P. M. ; yet prayers always attended. 
Saturday and Sabbath mornings and evenings was a moral or 
pious lecture. Five years and a half with the exception of 
about six weeks this course was attended in term time. The 
number of scholars in languages, figures, geography, composition, 
speaking, was from 45 to 64, who gave in their account of 

1 Exeter News-Letter, July 5, 1895. 


their studies Wednesday and Saturday noon. Delinquents were 
not dismissed for the afternoon. In all this Herculean labor I 
had no assistant." 

That on Mr. Woodbridge fell the greater part of the 
burden there is no doubt; but that he had no assistant 
is not literally true, for the Trustees had employed two 
assistants before 1787. Joseph Willard, 1 Harvard, 
1784, appears as Instructor for the school year 1784- 
85, and Salmon Chase, Dartmouth, 1785, for the school 
year 1785-86. In 1786 only nineteen students entered 
the Academy, in 1787 only fourteen, and in 1788 only 
thirteen. Hence towards the close of Mr. Wood- 
bridge's day there was not so much need of an assistant. 
What Mr. Woodbridge may have had in mind when in 
later years he wrote the account already quoted of his 
trials and struggles in Exeter is that in the matter of 
arranging the curriculum, checking up the work of the 
students through semi-weekly reports from each one, 
and overseeing their religious instruction he did all of 
the work with painstaking, personal care. 

There was much besides the young Academy to 
worry Mr. Woodbridge. On April 4, 1785, he married 
Elizabeth, the second daughter of Deacon Samuel 
Brooks, Jr., of Exeter. After bearing him twin daugh- 
ters, one of whom died in infancy, Mrs. Woodbridge 
herself died on November 16, 1787, in her twenty- 
sixth year. During her long illness Mr. Woodbridge 
worked hard at his school duties; and there is no doubt 
that his health was seriously impaired by constant at- 
tendance at his wife's bedside when he was not in the 
class room. 

During his years as Preceptor, Mr. Woodbridge saw 
the numbers in the Academy steadily decrease, and 
that, no doubt, quite as much as ill health, strengthened 

1 Mansfield MSS., Harvard College Library. 


his determination to give up the work. The entrance 
enrollment having shrunk from 56 in the opening year 
to 13 in 1788, on June n of the latter year he handed 
his resignation to the Trustees, and on October 8 of the 
same year they accepted it and appointed Benjamin 
Abbot temporarily to the preceptorship. The appoint- 
ment was not considered permanent till October 15, 
1791, when Dr. Abbot formally accepted it as such. 

The activities of Mr. Woodbridge after leaving 
Exeter were amazing. He preached, taught, wrote, and 
edited text books. He studied a year at Harvard, and 
then opened a private school in Medford. Later he 
taught in Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Mississippi, and Ohio. As has already been related, 
Mr. Woodbridge ? s first wife died in Exeter, in 1787. 
On November 10, 1793, in Newport, Rhode Island, he 
married Ann Charming, who died July 5, 1809. On 
December 14, 1810, in Morris town, New Jersey, he 
married the widow of Jonathan Stiles, Jr. The third 
Mrs. Woodbridge died July 12, 1822. Two years later, 
on August 16, 1824, in Utica, New York, he married 
Mrs. Abigail Wolcott. His fourth wife died May 20, 
1835. H* s children were twin daughters by his first 
wife, one of whom died in infancy; and a son by his 
second wife. 

One of Mr. Woodbridge's hobbies was the education 
of women, a work in which he maintained that he was 
the earliest pioneer. 

An amusing picture of him as he appeared late in 
life is found in the diary of Mr. C. C. Baldwin, former 
librarian of the American Antiquarian Society, Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts, under date of February 20, 
1834, a year almost to a day before Mr. Woodbridge's 


" I was visited at the Antiquarian hall this morning by the 
venerable William Woodbridge, now of Utica, N. Y. He is in 
his 8oth year. ... He had the airs and dry humor of an old 
pedagogue about him. I laughed heartily to hear him complain 
of the innovations that have been introduced into the system of 
education. ' When, said he, ' will people be done trying ex- 
periments? There are several conceited fops now at work at- 
tempting to palm off upon the community their crude and im- 
practicable schemes in the work of instruction. There's Noah 
Webster, old as he is, is as full of changes as the moon. Do 
but look at his productions! I have been striving for more than 
half a century to put down his spelling book. But cui bono? 
It is in use everywhere. And there is his great dictionary, which 
he calls his opus magnum. What is it but a great evil, mega 
biblon, mega kakon. But, alas, tempora mutantur et nos muta- 
mur in tills. We can make no progress in the great work of edu- 
cation until we return to the point from which we have diverged, 
but hie labor, hoc opus est, and I fear it is now too late to ac- 
complish so desirable an object. He introduced his Latin so 
thickly that I could not remember half of it." 

Preceptor Woodbridge was a mixture of visionary 
and practical man. He loved change with truly 
American fervor, and was eager and impetuous, hoping 
always to accomplish great things. It is small wonder 
that such a nature lacked the patience necessary to 
bring success to a new school that had yet to earn a 
name. It was in shift and change that he found play 
for his unusual genius. 



The student should bear the labouring oar. 


ABBOT has been a name of honor in Massachusetts 
ever since George Abbot left Yorkshire, England, 
in 1640 to settle in Andover, where he built a garrison 
house against the Indians and wrested a farm from the 
wilderness. For five generations the eldest son was 
named John, and lived and died on the ancestral acres. 
There Benjamin was born, September 17, 1762, the 
third son of John Abbot, 4th. 

Little x is known of his early boyhood except that he 
worked on his father's farm, and attended the local 
school during the winter months. In 1782 he entered 
Phillips Andover Academy, of which Eliphalet Pearson 
was then the principal. Another of his teachers was 
Jeremiah Smith, later the famous lawyer and judge. 
The instruction was evidently of the kind that pub- 
lishers' notices used to describe as "illustrated with 
cuts/' for Josiah Quincy, who was one of Abbot's 
schoolmates, thus describes an incident that occurred 
in Principal Pearson's Latin dass: 

" Unfortunately, I gave to the c a hard sound. I 
said, * nokeo, nokere, nokui.' The next thing I knew 
I was knocked" 

After leaving Phillips Andover, Mr. Abbot went to 
Harvard, where, upon his graduation in 1788, he 

* Cunningham p. 17. 


delivered the salutatory oration. He was also made 
recording secretary of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, an 
honor that was given to the first scholar of the class. 

October 8, 1788, saw Benjamin Abbot appointed by 
Dr. Phillips as temporary preceptor of Exeter, It was 
perhaps because the first preceptor had made a failure 
of the school that the appointment of Abbot was at 
first made only for the time being; but it is also likely 
that Abbot was doubtful whether he should succeed 
At any rate, he stipulated that either he or the Trustees 
might terminate the relationship at any time upon due 
notice. In Abbot's first year 13 students entered the 
Academy; in his second year, 47; and from that time 
on there was no lack of numbers in John Phillips's 
school, which now was fairly launched on its long and 
honorable career. Accordingly, on October 15, 1790, 
the Trustees made Abbot permanent Preceptor. 

Religious tolerance has always been an asset of 
Exeter. At Andover an attempt was made by one 
principal to turn students from Harvard to Yale and 
other colleges because of Harvard's liberal tendencies, 
but Mr. Abbot was in accord with the more humane 
and tolerant attitude, and to Harvard he sent most of 
the graduates of Exeter. There was no attempt to 
hamper him, for when his name was under considera- 
tion for the preceptorship, but before he had been 
appointed, he had remarked to John Phillips that he 
might not meet the Doctor's theological standards. 
To this Dr. Phillips had replied gruffly, " Have a drink 
of brandy, Mr. Abbot," and dismissed the subject. 1 

The Academy soon outgrew the recitation building 
on Tan Lane, and accordingly, under the care of the 
Founder, a new hall was erected on Front Street, where 

1 Told by John T. Perry, Class of 1843. 


the main building has since stood, on land given by 
John T. Oilman. 

That building, an excellent example of Georgian 
architecture, was of wood, heavy oak for the most part, 
and contained four rooms on the ground floor. 1 On 
the right of the entrance was the library of the Golden 
Branch; adjoining that was a small room used by the 
English instructor. Next came a broad staircase, and 
finally behind that, on the right, was the " philosoph- 
ical room," containing physical apparatus that today 
would be ludicrously antiquated. Half way down the 
entry on the left was the door into Dr. Abbot's room, 
or the Latin room, as it was called. At the head of the 
stairway was the school library, and at the right of 
that the main hall where were held the annual school 
exhibitions. In 1821 wings were added on the ground 
floor to supply needed rooms. In that building Ben- 
jamin Abbot ruled and taught for forty-four years, 
his first six years having been passed in the original 
building on Tan Lane. 

The Latin room was the center of the life of the 
school. It was bare, unrelieved by bust, cast, or even 
a map; the only ornament being the old family dock 
of Dr. John Phillips, the Founder, which ticked accu- 
rately in the corner, its handsome case rather out of 
place amid the Puritan simplicity of the hall. From 
the door of the Latin room a central aisle ran to the 
large chimney and fireplace opposite. In the aisle 
stood a huge cast-iron stove, its pipe running almost 
the width of the room to the chimney. In extremely 
cold weather the fireplace blazed with burning logs to 
eke out the heat from the stove. Rows of unpainted 
pine desks, or " boxes," as the boys termed them, rose 
on an incline from the fireplace toward the entrance. 

1 William G. Perry, Bulletin, March, 1907. 


Each desk was occupied by two boys, who exercised 
an exclusive and jealous right of ownership over it. 
Everyone respected that right and the whole school 
would have resented any violation of the privacy of 
individual desks. The lids, when raised, offered some 
slight chance for idling and inattention; but the Doc- 
tor's eye soon caught those who took advantage of it. 
Evidently no attempt was made to prevent the pupils 
from writing or carving their names or initials on the 
woodwork of the room, for the desks of Eton were 
never more deeply scarred than were those of Exeter. 
Every bit of exposed woodwork bore its carving, and 
the walls and ceilings were pencilled and scratched. 
In the bell tower, reached by a steep flight of stairs 
from the second floor, was a rude " D. W." deep cut 
by the knife of Daniel Webster of the class of 1796. 

The rear seats of Dr. Abbot's room were raised two 
steps above the floor, and on one of them, near the door, 
sat the monitor. The Doctor himself sat in an octag- 
onal pulpit at the southwest corner of the room. The 
recitation bench was an enclosed pew along the wall, 
with a paneled front, in which seven or eight boys could 
be seated. Larger classes spread into the adjoining 
boxes. To hear a recitation the instructor turned half 
way round, and even then faced his class at the end of 
the row, at an angle. Thus the classes recited in sight 
and hearing of those who were supposed to be busily 
studying, a plan the soundness of which may be ques- 
tioned; but one of the Doctor's old pupils, Dr. N. E. 
Soule, once remarked that he learned a great deal about 
Ariovistus before he ever studied Caesar, from hearing 
the higher classes recite. 

Dr. Abbot never stirred from his desk through the 
long hours of recitation, but Professor Joseph G. Hoyt, 


who introduced many reforms during his years from 
1841-1859, scandalized the school by stepping down 
from his desk to explain problems on the board. Till 
then it had been supposed that instructors, like the gods 
on Olympus, would not descend from their exalted 
stations for mortals. 

Morning and evening prayers were held seven days 
a week in the Doctor's room. The only difference on 
Sundays was that no fires were built, and sometimes 
in winter the room was deadly cold. 

A day under Dr. Abbot was long and full of exacting 
duties. It began at half -past seven with prayers in the 
study room. Since there were no artificial lights, it was 
often difficult to read the responses, which were from 
the Bible, and were continued in order. After the 
prayer, the students would fall to work until ten o'clock, 
when a brief recess of twenty minutes broke the morn- 
ing session, which ended at twelve. 

During spring, summer, and fall the afternoon ses- 
sions lasted from three until six; during the winter 
from two until five. The lack of artificial light made 
early closing imperative. The last half hour was always 
devoted to prayers. Towards the close of his days as 
principal, Dr. Abbot conducted the evening prayers 
only, those in the morning being conducted by Professor 
Soule or by some instructor. 

In pleasant weather the hours between dinner and 
three o'clock were spent by the students in the Acad- 
emy yard, at football, or at bat-and-ball, the latter an 
outgrowth of one-old-cat or two-old-cat. At best the 
play time was a brief one, for school soon reassembled 
and the grind was on again. Nor did evening afford 
hours for idleness, for every boy was required to be in 
his rooming house, quietly at work at seven o'dock. 


By nine o'clock he must go to bed. Landladies were 
asked to enforce that rule; but they probably needed 
little urging, for candles were expensive. So the day 
for the students ended as it had begun too soon. But 
the life was sane and wholesome. Boys thrived under 
it; and the two principals, Abbot and Soule, also 
thrived, for together they served eighty-five years as 
heads of the school, from 1788 to 1873, and since Mr. 
Soule served seventeen years as assistant, their total 
years of service at Exeter were one hundred and two. 
That Abbot or any other principal of the Academy 
ever employed flogging is exceedingly doubtful. Dr. 
Nicholas E. Soule, '35, said that when he entered there 
was a tradition that Dr. Abbot had once upon a time 
resorted to flogging, but it was only a tradition. 
Alpheus S. Packard, of the class of 1811, says: 

" It * gives me great pleasure to review in this way the mem- 
ory of the admirable discipline and manners of the school of 
seventy years ago, if that could be called discipline, where was 
never heard a loud tone of censure or command, no motion 
seen to quell disorder, except now and then a light tap at the 
desk of the Principal. There were rebukes and sometimes 
severer methods, but such were always administered in the library, 
and always with effect; for in presence of the school the 
erring one was directed to go to the library, while the Principal 
followed with impressive bearing, and we knew that it was a 
grave occasion. Mr. Abbot, who soon became Dr. Abbot, was 
feared, respected, and loved alike by student and townsman; and 
the decorum and manly bearing which characterized the school 
while he was at its head must have deeply impressed itself upon 
the lives of those who were so fortunate as to be his pupils." 

It seems, therefore, that even in private the vener- 
ated Doctor used nothing more severe than stern looks 
and words to accomplish his ends; and the following con- 

1 Cunningham, p. 234-235. 


tribution, which appeared in the Boston Advertiser of 
August 31, 1877, from the pen of George Lunt, class 
of 1 8 1 8, bears out that supposition: 

" One striking piece of evidence in favor of the high character 
of the Academy consists in the fact that no corporal punishment 
was inflicted on any pupil in the classical department, presided 
over by Dr. Abbot, so far as I have heard, during the two years 
that I was under his charge. There were occasional rumors of 
the use of the ferule on the English side, in a separate depart- 
ment; but I do not know they were ever traced to any authentic 
source. On one or two solemn occasions Dr. Abbot would di- 
rect a supposed culprit to go to the Philosophy Room, a section 
of the building seldom visited. The doctor would follow with 
measured pace. What took place at these times we never 
knew; but the good doctor's manner upon his return was pain- 
ful to witness, and was rather that of one who had suffered 
himself than of a master who had exacted from an offender the 
punishment due to his delinquency. These occasions were rare 
indeed; but I am sure if repentance and reformation did not fol- 
low upon reproof, dismissal was the inevitable consequence." 

Dr. William G. Perry, class of 1833, said in the 
Bidletin of March, 1907: 

" The tradition about this room (the library) was that boys 
were brought in here to be flogged. Nothing of that land was 
done in my day, and I never heard of anyone who had known 
of it." 

There is no doubt that Dr. Abbot ruled as well with- 
out flogging as the much-hated Dr. John Keate, long 
Lower Master and Head Master at Eton, in England, 
ruled by means of unlimited birching. Henry Ware, 
Instructor at Exeter in 1812-1814, once said that when 
he was an assistant in the Academy he asked Dr. Abbot, 
" How is it that when I am here (in the study hall) 
the boys are so noisy, and when you come they are so 


still?" Dr. Abbot said he had two rules in governing 
the students. The first was, Obsta principiis (resist 
beginnings), and the second, Suaviter in modo, fortiter 
in re (gentle in manner, but decisive in action). 

Dr. Abbot himself used to relate with humorous 
appreciation a remark that the father of Lewis Cass 
once made to him. When young Cass entered the 
Academy as a pupil of Dr. Abbot he was so unruly that 
his father despaired of him; but after he had been there 
for a time the father, on meeting Dr. Abbot, said to 
him, " If Lewis was half as much afraid of the Almighty 
as he is of you, Sir, I should never have any more 
trouble with him!" 

One punishment that always proved effective was the 
requirement " to sweep." The two boys appointed to 
that task remained after evening dismissal and thor- 
oughly swept and dusted the recitation rooms. Also, 
if it was winter, they brought up from the basement 
sufficient wood for the next day's fires; and their task 
was not ended even then, for they must tend the fires 
all the next day. If, on the morning after they had 
swept, the floor did not appear clean, the Doctor would 
say, " Monitor, who swept last? " 

" Smith and Jones, Sir." 

And the answer would come, "Smith and Jones, 
sweep tomorrow!" 

The task of sweeping and tending the fires was origi- 
nally regarded as a necessary duty, to be shared by 
rich and poor alike, and the sweepers were to be chosen 
in strict alphabetical order; but the monitors, whose 
duty it was to keep a book in which they entered black 
marks against offenders' names, would report to the 
principal the two names against which stood the most 
black marks. Thereupon the principal would pro- 


nounce the irrevocable order, " Smith and Jones, 
sweep." Black marks were added to the list not only 
by the monitors, but by the principal too, who, if he 
saw a boy out of order, would say, " Monitor, note 
Brown, 77 and down would go a black mark against 
Brown, to be added to other black marks till they 
totalled enough to bring the dreaded order to sweep. 

" The fear o' hell's a hangman's whip 
To baud the wretch in order," 

yet there is no doubt that the chastening influence of 
the hated "Sweep!" helped to restrain many a boy 
who was neither a wretch nor very much of a sinner. 
Sweeping as a penalty was abandoned in 1887. 

The monitors mentioned above were appointed by 
the principal, and the position was one of honor and 
trust; nor did they forfeit the respect of their fellow 
students, although they were required to report infrac- 
tions of the rules. Monitors for church and chapel are 
still appointed; but the position does not now carry its 
former significance. 

In some respects Principal Abbot's life was circum- 
scribed; but if it ran in restricted channels, it neverthe- 
less ran deep and strong. He never traveled abroad; 
he seldom went farther away than Cambridge, where 
he presented each year his half dozen boys for examin- 
ation. He never but once asked leave of absence; and 
the shortness of the vacations, of which there were 
four, two of three weeks each, and two of a week, gave 
no time for travel or diversion. Except for the eight 
weeks of vacation the whole year was devoted to study. 
Teachers today who enjoy almost three months of rest 
in the summer can hardly appreciate the steady pres- 


sure that for years was necessary to carry the Academy 
along as Benjamin Abbot carried it. For many years 
he carried on the correspondence with parents and 
guardians regarding admission, studies, and the conduct 
of the boys, virtually without aid, until the appoint- 
ment of Judge Jeremiah Smith as treasurer in 1828; 
and in those days every candidate was subjected to the 
same exacting scrutiny that the good Doctor applied 
to each boy when he heard him recite. 

For a large part of his period of service Dr. Abbot 
had as assistants young men fresh from college, who, 
preparing for other positions or for the ministry, got 
their own subjects in hand by teaching elementary 
Greek and Latin, but who could be of little aid in the 
administrative duties of the school. Many such in- 
structors remained but one year; in fact, by an early 
vote of the Trustees no assistant was to be retained 
longer than one year. Just why that vote was passed 
is not clear. Perhaps it was to keep the supreme power 
in the hands of one man; that, at any rate, was the 
effect of it. At the same time it lost to the school many 
a young man who might have grown to be of value. 
The vote was long ago rescinded. 

In time the need of a permanent assistant to Dr. 
Abbot, one who, on occasion, might temporarily hold 
the reins of power began to be felt, and in 1811 the 
Trustees appointed Hosea Hildreth, A.M., with the 
title of Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philos- 
ophy, on the English side. 1 Professor Hildreth taught 
successfully for fourteen years, but resigned in 1825 
to enter the ministry. Other professors of importance 
under Mr. Abbot were: Gideon L. Soule, who later be- 
came principal; Isaac Kurd, Theological Instructor, 

1 I.e., in the department which required no Greek and Latin. 


1817-1839, John P. Cleaveland, 1825-1826, who re- 
signed to enter the ministry; and Francis Bowen, 
1833-1835, who was proprietor and editor of the North 
American Review for ten years, and was long a professor 
at Harvard. 

Some of the instructors under Mr. Abbot were Daniel 
Dana, 1789-1791; John Phillips Ripley, named for the 
Founder and appointed by him, in 1781; and Abiel 
Abbot, 1792-1793, who became an early historian of 
Andover. The more famous men who served for a 
short period as instructors were Joseph S. Buckminster, 
an account of whose connection with the Academy 
appears elsewhere in this volume; and James Walker, 
1814-1815, who taught one year after graduating at 
Harvard. He later served as President of Harvard for 
seven years, but resigned in 1860 because of old age 
and infirmity. Also, the twin Peabodys, William B. O. 
and Oliver W. B., taught a year each, the former 1816- 
1 8 1 7, the latter 1 8 1 7-1 8 1 8. Altogether there were dur- 
ing Dr. Abbot's fifty years as principal no fewer than 
thirty-six assistants, many of whom remained less than 
a year, and only two or three who taught for more than 
two years. There were, of course, one or two other 
teachers who held permanent places; notably Profes- 
sor Hildreth after 1811, and Professor Soule after 
1822; but the constant stream of new graduates from 
Harvard must have been wearing. 

Of one thing Dr. Abbot was very certain: the onus 
of all education rested squarely on the shoulders of the 
student. He believed that the student should bear the 
laboring oar; and he never neglected to put his belief 
into practice. The student must prepare the lesson; 
the student, not the instructor, must answer the ques- 
tions. That, perhaps, as much as anything, was the 
secret of his success as a teacher. 


The students who entered college from Exeter under 
Dr. Abbot were famous for their exact knowledge of 
Latin and Greek. Many of them remarked that they 
found college absurdly easy after their gruelling drill 
in construing; and a bit of correspondence quoted by 
the Exeter News-Letter of August 23, 1838, from the 
Record, of Lynn, Mass., shows that others, too, found 
them to be well fitted. The letter reads: 

"We well remember the dignified appearance and paternal 
solicitude manifested by Dr. Abbot, more than thirty years since, 
when he offered a little company of well-trained scholars for 
admission to Cambridge college. We were there in another com- 
pany of the same number of youth, for the same purpose, from 
Leicester Academy, fitted and offered by its then no less distin- 
guished preceptor, Ebenezer Adams, since then instructor in 
Exeter, and afterwards professor at Dartmouth college, near 
which he now lives. We had been accustomed with pride to 
consider ow academy and instructor as No. i, and that all those 
issuing thence, would be No. i, of course. Our little squad, 
together with that from Exeter, and one or two other scholars, 
made up the first division for examination, when by coming 
in contact with the Exeter scholars, we were first made sensible 
of our mistake, and humbled into a knowledge of our relatively 
inferior rank. Leicester, indeed, was then and is now, second 
to no other academy than Exeter, in New England. The 
Exeter scholars excelled, especially in scanning and correct 

Nor was Dr. Abbot content with sending his pupils 
away well prepared mentally: he was solicitous for 
their morals, too, as appears from an entry in the diary 
of William Smith, of the class of 1821, who afterwards 
entered Dartmouth. The entry, which was quoted by 
Professor H. D. Foster (Exeter, 1881, Professor of 
History at Dartmouth) in the Academy Bulletin for 
June, 1911, is as follows: 


" Tuesday evening. The day before examinations all the 
scholars going to College were invited to take Tea with Dr. Abbot. 
The conversation whilst at tea was rinding out what College each 
scholar was going. After we had taken a very light supper, 
leaving much room for what might follow ( arrectis auribus quod 
venere adstamus? His first wise advice was to be careful with 
whom we formed friendship, that we should never do it in haste, 
that often we should be deceived by a kind of friendship which, 
would not last, that true merit did not consist in vain show. 
* Be particularly careful that you use all men with civility and 
politeness. With regard to your college life and your behavior 
whilst there, I would caution you to make it your first endeavor 
to get the good will of your instructors. It has got to be 
fashionable to oppose the College government, but how just 
soever your reasons may be for finding fault and think you are, 
badly treated by them, it will not be your interest to oppose or 
go contrary to their laws and regulations. Much better suffer 
wrong than try to get restitution from them. Remember if you 
are esteemed by them it will be a good recommendation for 
you to the public. If you contend with them the world will 
hold you in fault. As it respects your reading periodical publica- 
tions I would advice you to read very little at present. In 
fact that class of reading belongs to a later period of life. 

" ' Attend strictly to your lessons and you will in time reap 
the reward of your labours with interest. 

" ' Let me, my young friends, caution you against one of the 
most destructive habits, that can possibly befall you, that is 
dissipation. If you are carried away by that whirlpool you 
know not where it will leave you. If the Farmer is Dissipated 
and inattentive he will spend his interest and very soon become 
poor. If the Merchant is not attentive to his business he 
cannot prosper, and if the Scholar neglects his studies and in- 
clines to dissipation, he loses his reputation, disappoints the 
ardent hopes of parents, and his life sooner or later will be 
miserable. Recollect that this state is only an infancy, as it 
were, to another which will have no end, and as we spend our 
lives here, depends our happiness or misery hereafter. Now 
is the time to lay a foundation for usefulness. You are full of 
animation, your hopes are high. 

" ' Therefore, if you wish to arrive to distinction and honors 


avoid all appearances of vice, be frank and open and you will 
make your present and future lives happy . 

" Such was the good advice received from Dr. Abbot, which 
was given by the way of his last blessing. And I have no doubt 
in saying that its effects will be good." 

Upon his appointment to the Preceptorship in 1788, 
Mr. Abbot received a salary of i33-6s.-8d. a year. 
From 1792 to 1795 it was 150 a year; and in October, 
1795, it was increased to 210. About 1796 the reck- 
oning began to be made in dollars and cents. For that 
year and for several years afterwards his salary was 
$625.00. In 1800 it was raised to $700.00, in 1806 to 
$750.00, and the next year it was made $1,000.00. 
Until 1822 it remained the same; and after that date 
there is no record. The salary was, of course, in addi- 
tion to the use of the principal's house. Occasionally 
the vote to add two or three hundred dollars to the 
principal's salary has a significantly modern sound 
" in consideration of the high prices of the necessary 
articles of life." 

No doubt Mr. Abbot lived on his thousand a year 
quite as well as many a man of the present day can live 
on three or four times that amount, for his home life 
was exceedingly simple and unpretentious. 

On November i, 1791, he had married Hannah Tracy 
Emery, of Exeter, who died December 7, 1793, at the 
age of twenty- two. The blow was heavy, but Mr. 
Abbot turned courageously to his school duties, and to 
caring for his infant son, who had been born August 6, 

Five years after the death of his first wife, on May 

i, 1798, Mr. Abbot married Mary Perkins, of Boston, 
a woman of strong and beautiful character. On ac- 
count of her high social position many of the villagers 
at first looked askance at her, and assumed that she 


would " put on airs." But Mrs. Abbot mingled freely 
among people of all classes, and concerned herself so 
sincerely with bettering the condition of the poor- that 
it was not many weeks before she was loved by every- 
one. Her unfeigned goodness could neither be resisted 
nor denied. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Abbot were born one son and two 
daughters. The eldest daughter died in infancy; the 
other, Elizabeth, married Dr. David W. Gorham, of 
Exeter, class of 1851. The son, Charles Benjamin, 
class of 1814, became a farmer at Glenburn, Maine. 

Mr. Abbot and his wife had first lived in the old John 
Phillips mansion, but in 1811 the Trustees built a new 
house for the principal on open land near the Academy 
building, now known as Abbot Common, and there Mr. 
Abbot lived until his death in 1849. Moving from the 
house on fashionable Water Street, in the heart of the 
community life, was so severe a wrench that Mrs. 
Abbot shed tears of regret. The new house stood " in 
the sands," almost in the country from the little village, 
and as is evident from a letter l written by Dr. Abbot 
to the Honorable Jeremiah Smith, probably in 1838, 
both the house and the surroundings were exceedingly 
" raw." 

"Dear Sir, 

In complyance with your request, expressed last 
evening, that I should state a few facts, not probably known to the 
Trustees, & which may have some bearing in adjusting the salary of 
my Successor in office, & in relation to the request I have made for 
continuance in the house of the Trustees I now occupy. 

" I came into it at the request of the Trustees. It was then im- 
perfectly painted within, without Blinds & many additions & con- 
veniences have since been made the grounds before & behind 
the buildings were an intire waste. These improvements have been 
made & the yearly expenses for repairs & preservation have been 
incurred, with few exceptions, without charge on the Treasury. 
These circumstances with a residence of 27 years has acquired an 


interest in the situation, which we too strongly feel to relinquish it 
suddenly and our request is, that we may be permitted for the 
present to remain, on such terms as the Trustees may think proper 
to grant. 

" I would also mention another circumstance, which may have 
influence in adjusting the salary of my Successor in office. As Prin- 
ciple, & Clerk of the Board of Trustees I have never made a charge 
for stationary or Postage on letters which expense at times has not 
been small, & which I apprehend is not incidental to the office of 
Clerk or Principal. 

In much haste 
Respectfully yours 

Tuesday morning B. Abbot " 

Augt. 21. 

But the letter also shows that Mr. Abbot made many 
improvements and that in time both he and Mrs. Abbot 
became as much attached to the new home as they had 
formerly been to their earlier residence. 

Mr. Abbot never kept a cow or a horse, and seldom 
drove; but the deep garden that he made behind the 
house was his constant delight. There he grew many 
rare and beautiful flowers, and in caring for them he 
strengthened that gentle but firm philosophy which 
carried him through school events that under less skilled 
or weaker hands might have been crises. Tenderness 
of heart was one of his most marked characteristics, 
whether it was in dealing with a boy, with his fellow 
townspeople, or with animals. In his garden grew some 
cherry trees, which marauding robins looted with cheer- 
ful regularity. Every season the Doctor would remark 
to his wife, " My dear, those robins must be killed! " 
and seizing his old shotgun he would rush out; but once 
under the trees he would content himself with a mild 
" Shoo! Shoo! " and return to the house without having 
fired a shot. 

But if Dr. Abbot's personal life was simple and se- 
cluded, the life of the Academy, at least at Commence- 


ment time, was not: for there are no ancient customs 
of Exeter round which more fragrant memories cling 
than round the " Exhibitions " of that great week in 
August when the school year ended. It was a time of 
great festivity; the Trustees were in full attendance, 
and two or three days were given to the ceremonies. 
For a week or more the students and the young ladies 
of Exeter and the neighboring countryside were busy 
gathering ground-pine and evergreen in the woods and 
decorating the chapel with the long, fragrant festoons. 
Then came the glorious day of speaking and singing. 

After the exercises in the chapel on the closing day, 
when the favored boys spoke their pieces, the military 
company escorted the Trustees to the house of the 
principal. To the students and their relatives and 
friends, to the townspeople, and to the people from the 
vicinity the occasion was of the greatest importance. 
The students who had parts, either in speaking or sing- 
ing, trained long and faithfully; for to appear before 
the admiring audience was one of the proudest ambi- 
tions of a schoolboy's life. 

The crush at the doors on the great day was terrific. 
One man relates that as a small boy he was carried 
from the foot of the stairs to the landing at the head 
without once touching the floor. 

A very old lady of Exeter used to relate that she 
and her two sisters walked in from Pequoket (the 
modern Pickpocket) several miles in the country, with 
their little parasols, to stand in line in the hope of get- 
ting a seat in the chapel or assembly hall when the 
doors for general admission were opened. 

" They paid us little country girls scant attention, 
compared with the attention they paid the town girls," 
she said, " but we had a good time, anyway. I remem- 
ber the great crush at the doors. Old Deacon Moses 


with a huge cane stood close by to preserve order." 

Last of all came the great picnic at the famous Eddy 
on Fresh River, under the pines. Tables were erected 
and rude benches hastily set up, and although life then 
was simple and the joys were primitive, the merry- 
makers doubtless enjoyed themselves just as well as 
those of our own more sophisticated and artificial age. 1 

The exhibitions were wholly the work of Dr. Abbot. 
He introduced them, and fostered them as long as he 
was principal. They were finally abandoned by Prin- 
cipal Soule, who felt that they required too much time 
and effort if they were well done; and that if they were 
badly done, they were not worth while. The last one 
was held in 1846. 

At the end of forty-four years as principal, Dr. Abbot 
had sent his resignation to the Trustees; but at their 
request he consented to remain at the head of the school 
for a few years longer. After six years more of service 
he offered his final resignation, and the Trustees could 
not refuse him the relief that he asked. 

The occasion was marked by a celebration known 
as the Abbot Festival, which was altogether the most 
remarkable gathering of the kind in the history of 
American schools. The committee in charge was com- 
posed of Edward Everett, chairman; Francis Bowen, 
John G. Palfrey, and others. A number of graduates 
signed a paper to raise money for Dr. Abbot's portrait, 
which was duly painted by Chester Harding and un- 
veiled at the celebration. The list of signers contained 
the names of some of the greatest men of that or any 
other day in American history, including Daniel Web- 
ster, Edward Everett, Leverett Saltonstall, Jared 
Sparks, George Bancroft, John P. Gushing, Oliver W. 

1 For the programmes of some of the Exhibitions, see the Appendix. 


B. Peabody, and George Lunt. Hundreds of the two 
thousand graduates of the Academy returned to pay 
homage to the man who had done so much for them in 
their formative period. They came from the senate 
chamber, the Presidents cabinet, the bench, the court 
room, the capitals of states, and the professor's chair. 
Daniel Webster presided; and among the speakers were 
Saltonstall, John P. Hale, Palfrey, and Jonathan Chap- 
man. Lewis Cass sent a letter of regret. 

One of the best speeches of the day was made by 
Judge Jeremiah Smith, a Trustee, who declared that 
his was an honor that belonged to no other man liv- 
ing: x " You were his (Dr. Abbot's) scholars, I was his 
teacher. It was little that I had to impart, but that 
little was most cheerfully given. I well remember the 
promise he then gave; and Providence has been kind 
in placing him in just that position where his life could 
be most usefully and honorably spent." Judge Smith 
had been Abbot's teacher at Phillips Academy, An- 
dover, in 1783. 

After the morning speeches, a procession headed by 
Chief Marshal Nathaniel Oilman, Jr., formed and 
marched to the First Congregational Church, where 
dinner was served. After dinner the most important 
speech of the day was delivered by Daniel Webster. 
It is a matter of regret that only fragments of it have 
been preserved. To the Exeter News-Letter of Sep- 
tember 4, 1838, we owe most of what we have of it. 
Says the News-Letter: 

" We have here, sir, formed a little republic; we have had a 
public opinion; but, sir, there never was yet an Exeter boy 
who could obtain respect or countenance by setting himself up 
against your will 

1 Cunningham, p. 30. 


" We do not regret, sir, that you have arrived at the age 
when you must retire from the trust. You, no doubt, have 
desired it, and be assured, sir, that we have prayed for it; for 
you have all that makes old age desirable, the reverence and 
respect of all around you. 

"And now, sir, I present you with this token of our remem- 
brance. We greet you with the best feelings, and with hearts 
full of hope for your welfare and happiness." 

At the close of the speech, Mr. Webster presented 
Mr. Abbot with a silver pitcher, the gift of the alumni. 

Of the same speech, " G. O." in the Boston Adver- 
tiser of July 20, 1881, said: 

" Daniel Webster, in presenting a gift, spoke in a calm and 
deliberate manner, when his voice and his presence seemed to be 
at their best: ' Some men have wrought on brass, some men have 
wrought on marble, but Abbot wrought in mind.' At the con- 
clusion of this sentence the applause was like a sudden peal of 
thunder. Never have I heard anything so eloquent in Webster 
or any other orator as that passage, and as he went on to say 
how wonderfully he had wrought on his mind, hundreds of his 
former pupils were glad to own the influence of Dr. Abbot 
in the formation of their characters." 1 

Although the claim has often been made that Exeter 
was early a school of national scope, as regards its stu- 
dent representation, the early registration books do not 
support the claim. It is true that even before 1800 
there were students from the West Indies and some 

1 Governor C. H. Bell in his sketches of the Academy, records 
that among the Webster papers at the N. H. Historical Society are 
two folded sheets of paper meant to be notes for Webster's Exeter 
speech; but the following Latin quotations are all that appear: 
"Arcebat eum ab illecebris peccantium, praeter ipsius bonam inte- 
gramque naturam, quod statim parvulus sedem ac magistram studio- 
rum Massiliam habuit, locum Graeca comitate et provincial! parsimo- 
nia mixtum ac bene composition." Agricola of Tacitus, chap. 4. 

"Mihi ille detur puer quern laus excite t, quern gloria juvet, qui 
victus fleat. Hie erit alendus ambitu, hunc mordebit objurgatio, hunc 
honor excitabit, in hoc desidiam nunquam verebor." Quintilian 1-3-7. 


from the Southern states, and even two from France; 
but the numbers of such were few, and it was not till 
1819 that any very large number of states was rep- 
resented. In that year the registration was: New 
Hampshire, 8; Massachusetts, 7; Maine, 5; Connecti- 
cut, 2; Pennsylvania, i; Florida, i; Cuba, 2. The 
usual proportions were one-half from New Hampshire, 
one-third from Massachusetts, a few from Maine, and 
the rest scattering. The few who came long distances 
no doubt helped, in that day of difficult travel, to give 
the school a national character rather more pronounced 
than the actual numbers warranted. Four students 
who had come from the West Indies in Preceptor Wood- 
bridge's day were the first of a long and constantly in- 
creasing roll from foreign lands. Some of them came 
on merchant vessels to Portsmouth or Salem, and some 
sailed up the Squamscott to Exeter in the ships of Cap- 
tain Noah Emery, whose vessels were in the West India 
trade. In later years more and more boys came from 
the Islands. During Principal Abbot's term of service 
twenty-three registered from the West Indies. Some 
of them, as their names show, were of Spanish blood; 
others were the sons of English or American planters 
or traders. Their presence in the school helped to give 
a breadth of view to the student body that was of in- 
estimable value. In 1799 sixty students entered, the 
largest number in any one year under Benjamin Abbot; 
in 1809 there were twenty-four, the smallest number 
during his term of service. The average number that en- 
tered was thirty-nine. He planned to keep the enroll- 
ment as near seventy as possible. That number just 
filled the main study room, and gave the few instructors 
all of the work that they could do. Occasionally Dr. 
Soule would report to Dr. Abbot that there were seventy 
boys in the Academy, and he would reply, " Quite 


enough, quite enough," and would refuse others admis- 
sion till after the next graduation. 

Benjamin Abbot owed a great deal to the untiring 
efforts of Judge Jeremiah Smith, who, himself a teacher 
at Phillips Academy, Andover, in 1783-1784, had 
taught the young Abbot, then a student at Andover. 
As a boy Judge Smith showed his zeal for learning by 
following the local teacher about as he served different 
communities. When, news came of Burgoyne's inva- 
sion, he left Harvard to enlist. At the battle of Ben- 
nington his captain, who had promised the lad's father 
to protect him, sent the boy on an errand, but in the 
fight he found him at his side. To his reproof the boy 
replied, " Oh, sir, I thought it my duty to follow my 

After having been Chief Justice and Governor of 
New Hampshire, Judge Smith moved to Exeter in 1797. 
In 1837, when he was in his seventy-eighth year, a son 
was born to him. He thus recorded the event in his 
diary: " P. M., filius natus fuit, quern Deus a malo 
defendat: baptiz: a Rev. J. Hurd, 22 October, 1837, 
nomine Jeremiae, anglice Jeremiah." That son entered 
the Academy in 1849, became a lawyer, taught at the 
Harvard Law School, and served the Academy as Trus- 
tee 1868-1874, and 1898-1902. The last position 
is now filled by his son Jeremiah, class of 1888, who 
was elected President of the Board of Trustees, Decem- 
ber 16, 1919. 

One of Judge Smith's tasks for the Academy was 
the straightening out of the old John Phillips notes, 
many of which had become valueless. Also, from 
1830-1840 he took over the heavy task of admitting 
boys to the Academy, thus relieving Principal Abbot 
of much work. One boy who wrote as follows he re- 
fused admission: " I immagine I shall wish the privi- 

JEREMIAH SMITH, Senior, Trustee, 1828-1842 


lege of your library; & Mrs. S. to select books for me. 
Tell her I learnt a goodeel from Johnson." But he con- 
stantly helped boys through the school from his own 
means. One boy writes a " When I came from school 
Saturday noon ... I must say I felt more homesick 
than I ever expected to be. I was greatly rejoiced to 
see a mosquito, although he did come to bite me; he 
looked like an old friend. . . . But in the afternoon I 
went to walk in the woods, and coming back stopped 
in at Judge Smith's to pay my tuition, and found that 
an excellent place to cure homesickness they were 
all so kind and pleasant." 

One task Judge Smith left unfinished, that of writing 
a history of the Academy. But he left about forty 
pages of manuscript on it. Judge Smith was born No- 
vember 29, 1759, in Peterborough, New Hampshire, 
and died in Dover, New Hampshire, September 21, 

Dr. Abbot sent a small number of boys to college 
every year. Just how many there were cannot be reck- 
oned; but of the whole number 474 received college 
degrees 231 from Harvard; 112 from Dartmouth; 
73 from Bowdoin; 25 from Yale; 18 from Brown; 5 
from Amherst; 3 from Union, and one each from Wil- 
liams, the University of Vermont, Wesleyan, and West 
Point. The whole number of students enrolled during 
Dr. Abbot's term of office, from 1788 through 1838, 
was 1991, from seventeen states and five foreign 

A school is known by the character of its graduates, 
and there is no more brilliant page in the annals of an 
American school than that which contains the names 
of the more illustrious graduates under Benjamin 

1 Life of Jeremiah Smith, by J. H. Morison, p. 462. 


Daniel Webster (1782-1852), an account of whose 
loyalty and devotion to the Academy appears elsewhere 
in this volume, entered in 1796, and left at the end of 
two terms to tutor for Dartmouth. 

Lewis Cass (1782-1866), LL.D., became Governor 
of Michigan, U. S. Senator, Secretary of War, Min- 
ister to France, and U. S. Secretary of State. His ac- 
count of his debt to the school also appears elsewhere 
in this book. 

Joseph Stevens Buckminster (1784-1812), well 
known as a brilliant classical and theological scholar, 
and first lecturer on Biblical criticism at Harvard, died 
at the age of twenty-eight. A hundred years have 
but added to the fame of his loftiness of ideals and pur- 
ity of life. 

Leverett Saltonstall (1783-1845), lawyer, was a 
member of Congress; he left most of his library to the 

Nathaniel A. Haven (1790-1826) was a famous 

Edward Everett (1794-1865), orator, statesman, 
and scholar, early won fame by delivering an oration at 
Cambridge, August 27, 1824, in which he turned to 
General Lafayette, who was present, and addressed him 
in an apostrophe perhaps as brilliant as any that ever 
came from the lips of an American orator. He was 
President of Harvard 1846-1849, 

Jared Sparks (1789-1879), scholar, editor, and 
writer, was President of Harvard 18491853. 

Reverend John G. Palfrey (1796-1881) became an 
editor and author. 

John A. Dix (1798-1879) was a statesman and 
soldier. In 1861 he was appointed Secretary of the 
Treasury by President Buchanan, and did much to put 
the government on a sound financial basis. His tel- 


egram to Lieutentant Coldwell is known to every 
American school-boy: " If anyone attempts to haul 
down the American flag, shoot him on the spot." 

George Bancroft (1800-1891), historian, graduated 
at Harvard in 1817, and from Gottingen, Germany, in 
1820. He received the degree of D.C.L. at Oxford in 
1849, and that of Doctor Juris at Bonn in 1868. 

Theodore Lyman (1792-1849) was best known as a 
Massachusetts statesman and philanthropist. He 
added to his fame in 1835 by rescuing William Lloyd 
Garrison, at much personal risk, from an infuriated 

Oliver W. B. Peabody (1799-1848) and his twin 
brother, William B. O. Peabody (1799-1847), were 
famous as lawyer and preacher, respectively. The 
latter was Instructor in the Academy in 18161817, 
and the former in 1817-1818. 

Francis Bowen (1811-1890) was a scholar and a 
lecturer. In 1853 he was elected Alford Professor 
of Natural Religion, etc., at Harvard. 

Richard Hildreth (1807-1865) was a lawyer and 
an author. 

To those names may be added the following, and 
still the list is far from complete or exhaustive: 
Joseph G. Cogswell (1786-1871), scholar; Jonathan 
Chapman (1807-1848), lawyer; Ephraim Peabody 
(1807-1856), clergyman; John L. Sibley (1804-1885), 
librarian at Harvard, benefactor of Exeter; Nicholas 
Emery ( -1841), Judge, Superior Court, Maine; 
Mark Newman (1772-1859), Principal, Phillips Acad- 
emy, Andover, 1794-1809; George W. Storer (1789- 
1864), Rear Admiral, U. S. N.; Jonathan P. Gushing 
(1793-1835), President, Hampton-Sidney College; 
Alpheus S. Packard (1800-1884), Professor, Bowdoin; 
Thomas W. Dorr (1805-1854), Governor of Rhode 


Island; John P. Hale (1806-1873), U. S. Senator, 
Minister to Spain; Alpheus Felch (1806-1896), U. S. 
Senator, Governor of Michigan; Alpheus Crosby 
(1810-1874) , Professor of Greek, Dartmouth; John H. 
Morison (1808-1896), clergyman and author; Abiel 
A. Livermore (18111892), President, Meadville Theo- 
logical Seminary; Jeffries Wyman (1814-1874), Pro- 
fessor, Harvard Medical School; George J. Abbot 
(1813-1879), U, S. Consul, Sheffield, England; Ben- 
jamin F. Butler (1818-1893), Soldier, Governor of 
Massachusetts; Nathaniel Holmes (1814-1901), Pro- 
fessor, Harvard Law School, Judge, Superior Court, 
Missouri; Ezra Abbot (1819-1884), Professor, Har- 
vard; Fitz J. Porter (1822-1901), General, U. S. A.; 
George Walker (1824-1888), U. S. Consul General, 
Paris, France; Charles H. Bell (1823-1893), lawyer, 
Governor of New Hampshire; Joseph C. Billiard 
(1821-1905), insurance adjuster, benefactor of Exeter; 
Abner L. Merrill (1826-1916), benefactor of the town 
of Exeter and of the Academy. 

To Benjamin Abbot must be ascribed the character 
of the Academy as it is known today. He found the 
school without history and left it famous for scholar- 
ship and the devotion of its graduates to church and 
state. It has spread its name and fame through those 
qualities of service and good citizenship that can come 
only from sound and thorough training of mind and 
heart, reinforced by moral strength and courage. Later 
principals and teachers have at best but followed 
Abbot's precepts. Fortunately, in growing and expand- 
ing to meet the changing conditions of the years, the 
same ideals of hard work and orderly conduct have been 
maintained. - 




Let us labor to repay to the cause of Learning, what a most ex- 
cellent Institution for Learning has done for us. 

DANIEL WEBSTER, in a letter to the Golden Branch. 

THE Academy has never had a son of whom she is 
more justly proud than of Daniel Webster; al- 
though he spent only nine months as a student here, no 
four-year alumnus ever showed more loyalty and devo- 
tion. He served as a Trustee from 1835 until his death 
in 1852, but he was present at only two annual meetings 
of the Trustees, August 25, 1836, and August 22, 1838, 
the latter being the year in which he presided at the 
Abbot jubilee. But a number of letters to Jeremiah 
Smith have recently been found, which show that he 
was consulted on legal problems touching the school, 
and that he gave valuable advice. 

In speaking of his father's efforts to educate him, 
Webster says: x 

" He said, i My son, . . . exert yourself I Improve your 
opportunities! Learn! Learn! J The next May he took me 
to Exeter, to the Phillips Exeter Academy, and placed me under 
the tuition of its excellent Preceptor, Dr. Benjamin Abbot, who 
is still living. . . ." 

Continuing the same theme in his uncompleted 
autobiography, Webster says: 2 

1 Curtis's Life of Webster, Vol. I, p. 17. 

2 Writings of Webster, National Edition, Vol. XVII, p. 9-10. 



" I recollect no great changes happening to me till I was four- 
teen years old. A great deal of the time I was sick, and when 
well was exceedingly slender, and apparently of feeble system. 
I read what I could get to read, went to school when I could; 
and when not at school, was a farmer's youngest boy, not good 
for much, for want of health and strength, but was expected to 
do something. Up to this period, I had no hope of any education 
beyond what the village school-house was to afford. But now 
my father took an important step with me. On the 2Sth day of 
May, 1796, he mounted his horse, placed me on another, 
carried me to Exeter, and placed me in Phillips Academy, then 
and now under the care of that excellent man, Dr. Benjamin 
Abbot. I had never been from home before, and the change 
overpowered me. I hardly remained master of my own senses, 
among ninety boys, who had seen so much more, and appeared 
to know so much more than I did. I was put to English grammar, 
and writing, and arithmetic. The first, I think I may say, I 
fairly mastered between May and October; in the others I made 
some progress. In the autumn, there was a short vacation. I 
went home, stayed for a few days, and returned at the commence- 
ment of the quarter, and then began the Latin grammar. My 
first exercises in Latin were recited to Joseph Stevens Buck- 
minster. He had, I think, already joined college, but had re- 
turned to Exeter, perhaps in the college vacation, and was acting 
as usher, in the place of Dr. Abbot, then absent through indispo- 

" It so happened, that during the few months during which I 
was at the Exeter Academy, Mr. Thacher, now judge of the 
Municipal Court of Boston, and Mr. Emery, the distinguished 
counsellor at Portland, were my instructors. I am proud to 
call them both masters. I believe I made tolerable progress in 
most branches which I attended to, while in this school; but 
there was one thing I could not do. I could not make a declama- 
tion. I could not speak before the school. The kind and 
excellent Buckminster sought, especially, to persuade me to per- 
form the exercise of declamation, like other boys; but I could 
not do it. Many a piece did I commit to memory, and recite 
and rehearse, in my own room, over and over again; yet when the 
day came, when the school collected to hear declamations, when 
my name was called, and I saw all eyes turned to my seat, I 



could not raise myself from it. Sometimes the instructors 
frowned, sometimes they smiled. Mr. Buckminster always 
pressed, and entreated, most winningly, that I would venture; 
but I could never command sufficient resolution. When the 
occasion was over, I went home and wept bitter tears of 

Regarding Webster's instruction by Joseph S. Buck- 
minster a great deal of confusion has arisen, because of 
the extreme youth of Mr. Buckminster at the time. 
Mrs. E. B. Lee, biographer of Mr. Buckminster, adds 
to the confusion by assuming that Webster entered the 
Academy in 1800, the year that young Buckminster 
graduated at Harvard and returned to Exeter as instruc- 
tor of ancient languages. In the fall of 1800 Webster 
was entering his senior year at Dartmouth; it was, as 
Webster clearly states in his account of his Exeter days, 
in the fall of 1796 that the two boys came into such 
close and intimate contact. Though only a boy him- 
self, Buckminster must have seen in the uncouth 
Webster those extraordinary traits which later de- 
veloped. Daniel Webster was born January 18, 1782, 
and Buckminster was born May 26, 1784. Therefore, 
when, after the fall vacation of 1796, Webster returned 
to the Academy and fell into Mr. Buckminster's class 
in Latin and public speaking, Webster was fourteen 
years and nine months old, and Buckminster, his 
teacher, was twelve years and four months old. It is 
the extreme youth of Buckminster that has been a 
stumbling block; but the date of Buckminster 's birth 
is confirmed by the official records at Portsmouth. The 
boy read the Greek testament at five years, and read 
his father's sermons to the domestics at five to seven 
years. Hence it is not so strange that, being tall and 
dignified far beyond his years, he heard classes at the 
age of twelve. 


A great many stories of the uncouth manners of the 
youthful Webster still linger about Exeter, His first 
appearance, mounted on a bony horse, is said to have 
excited mirth. His homespun suit was far too small for 
his large frame, and his manner was that of mournful 
shyness. There is a story to the effect that Webster's 
father begged 'Squire Clifford, in whose family Daniel, 
with other students boarded and roomed, to correct the 
boy's table manners. " For one thing," said the father, 
" he does not even know how to hold his knife and fork 
properly." Mr. Clifford was soon aware of that, for 
while waiting for his meal to be served, Daniel would 
sit at table with his knife and fork held upright on either 
side of his plate. Realizing Daniel's sensitive nature, 
as also did Nicholas Emery, a teacher, Mr. Clifford per- 
suaded another young student to make a vicarious 
sacrifice of his feelings for the sake of the shy Daniel. 
Accordingly, at the next meal the young student held 
his knife and fork upright by his plate, whereupon Mr. 
Clifford reproved him openly but gently. The hint 
was not lost on Daniel. 

Webster's study table in Mr. Clifford's house still 
remains. It is merely a hinged leaf that folds against 
the wall when not in use. The house itself is the oldest 
in Exeter, having been built in 1658 as a block or gar- 
rison house for safety from the Indians. 

Another story of Webster is that Benjamin Abbot 
once directed him to hold a book behind a pane of glass 
and look at his reflection. In that crude mirror Daniel 
saw his soiled face, and ran down to Kimming's brook, 
a dingy remnant of which flows at the foot of the hill 
near Merrill Hall, to wash his face and hands. 

A tradition founded on error often thrives quite as 
well as one based on fact; and the man who first 
hazarded the guess that because Webster left the Acad- 


emy at the end of nine months he was dismissed, has 
much to answer for. The false story has been kept 
alive by generations of Exeter schoolboys, but it needs 
no denial to those who know the facts. Webster had 
become passionately fond of the school, and remained 
so throughout his life; he says that he passed some of 
his best days here, and formed friendships that he cher- 
ished till his death. The Academy, too, had every 
reason to be proud and satisfied with the boy's advance- 
ment. He had been promoted to the head of his 
class, and from there to the next class above, where he 
was making rapid strides in Latin and mathematics. 
That Webster's father was satisfied there can be no 
doubt. The real reason for the boy's withdrawal can 
be found first in the expense on the Webster family in 
keeping him in the Academy, for small though that ex- 
pense was, it must have borne heavily on the up-country 
farmer who was striving at the same time to educate 
other children. The second reason was of equal weight: 
Webster found that by working with a tutor he could 
enter college in a few months. Thus, " overleaping a 
cold decree," he began to study with the Reverend Mr. 
Wood of Boscawen, and entered Dartmouth in the fall 
of 1797. Of his entrance he says: a " It was a mere 
breaking in; I was, indeed, miserably prepared, both in 
Latin and Greek." Later, by study at home, he 
mastered Latin. 

According to Dr. Abbot, Webster's habits of study 
were careless; he would let his great, lustrous eyes 
wander round the room, but he seemed when called on 
always to have had the question in mind; and when 
called on in subjects that he liked he never failed to 
recite well. One instructor, Nicholas Emery, noticed 
that the other boys made fun of Webster's rustic 

1 Writings of Webster, by F. Webster, Vol. XVII, p. 10. 


manners and outgrown clothes. At the close of the 
second quarter Mr. Emery questioned Webster and 
found that he might not return to the Academy after 
the short vacation. Thereupon he promised Webster 
that at the opening of the new term he should be ad- 
vanced to a higher class if his standing warranted. Of 
Mr. Emery's encouragement Webster wrote in later 
life: x "These were the first truly encouraging words 
that I ever received with regard to my studies. I then 
resolved to return ; and pursue them with diligence and 
so much ability as I possessed." The impetus thus 
acquired carried Webster a long distance in his struggle 
for education and success. He returned to his tasks 
with boundless energy; and at the opening of the new 
quarter Mr. Emery said before the assembled class: 2 
" Webster, you will pass into the other room, and join 
a higher class "; and added, "Boys, you will take 
your final leave of Webster; you will never see him 

The following letter, 3 written by Edmund Chadwick, 
of the class of 1835, * s enlightening regarding Webster's 
appearance and his intellectual acquirements: 

" Some persons have questioned whether Daniel Webster ever 
looked so elegant as he is represented in one of the capital steel 
engravings in Curtis's life of the great statesman. But the 
picture looks just as Webster did, when, in 1836, as an honored 
Trustee of the Academy, he assisted the Venerable Dr. Abbot 
at our final examinations in Latin. The circumstances of that 
day have caused me to remember exactly how he looked then, 
very different from his plain, homespun appearance when he 
came from the backwoods to Exeter as a student, just forty years 
before. He had now been out of college thirty-five years, and 
had led a busy life as teacher, statesman, lawyer, hunter, and 
fanner. It was five years after his great debate with Hayne. He 

1 Correspondence, Vol. I, 48-52. 

2 Curtis's Life of Webster, Vol. I, p. 19. 
8 Cunningham, p. 135. 


was fifty-four years of age, and at the very zenith of his powers 
as a lawyer, orator, and statesman. One would think it was 
high time he had forgotten all his Latin; but, luckily, he had not. 
" I nearly trembled as Dr. Abbot said, ' Mr. Webster, Chadwick 
has read the whole of Virgil ' , and the great constitutional law- 
yer selected a passage, not in the Aeneid, but in the Georgics, 
to try my skill. Turning to the place, the venerable Doctor says, 
' Scan!' At the third or fourth line he shakes his big head, 
* Wrong! scan that line over again. 7 I tried the line again and 
again, with the same result, 'Wrong, wrong!' What shall 
I do? The Doctor never helps a student at recitation. Will he 
tell me to construe, translate, or send me crestfallen to my seat? 
Awful moment! To be so disgraced, in such a presence! but, 
mmbile dictu, Mr. Webster lifts his keen, black eyes from his 
book, and says to Dr. Abbot, c I think he is right, sir.' Presto! 
Dr. Abbot's big head comes down; he and Mr. Webster com- 
pare books. All is courtesy. ' Go on! you are right, sir. It was 
only a difference in our books. 5 Never had the illustrious Web- 
ster a more grateful client than the humble pupil then before 
him. Thanks that he had remembered how to scan * ! All 
honor to the great teacher, Dr. Abbot, and to his greatest pupil, 
Daniel Webster! " 

In 1834, two years before he was elected a Trustee, 
Daniel Webster sent his younger son, Edward, to be 
entered as a student in the Academy. In quite a 
different condition was the family of Webster then from 
that of almost forty years previous, when young Daniel, 
shy and unknown, timidly knocked for admission. But 
best of all, the same school was still guided by the same 
principal, though many classes of schoolboys had gone 
through and out on their way to the work of the world. 
Webster's first letter to his son Edward follows: 

"Washington, June 23, 1834. 1 
"My Dear Son: 

"Fletcher wrote me from Exeter the next day after your 
arrival, and informed me that you had been so fortunate as to 
1 Cunningham, p. 137 


be received at Colonel Chadwick's and was commencing your 
studies. I am glad you are so well situated, and trust you will 
make progress in your studies. 

" You are now at a most important period of your life, my dear 
son, soon growing up to be a young man and a boy no longer, 
and I feel a great anxiety for your success and happiness. 

" I beseech you to be attentive to all your duties, and to ful- 
fill every obligation with cheerfulness and punctuality. Above 
all, remember your moral and religious concerns. Be constant 
at church and prayers, and every opportunity for worship. There 
can be no solid character and no true happiness which are not 
founded on a sense of religious duty. Avoid all evil company 
and every temptation, and consider that you have now left your 
father's house and gone forth to improve your own character, 
to prepare your own mind for the part you are to lead in life. 
All that can be done for you by others will amount to nothing 
unless you do much for yourself. Cherish all the good counsel 
which your dear mother used to give you, and let those of us who 
are yet alive have the pleasure of seeing you come forward 
as one who gives promise of virtue, usefulness, and distinction. 
I fervently commend you to the blessing of our Heavenly 
Father. . . . 

"I wish you to make my best respects to Dr. Abbot, and re- 
member me to Colonel and Mrs. Chadwick and their family. 
If I do not hear from you sooner, I shall expect to find a letter 
from you when I reach Boston. 

" Your affectionate father, 


" P. S. Since writing this I have received your letter, and am 
very glad to hear from you. 

" Give my love to your friend Upham. I remember the great 
tree and know exactly where your room is. Charles sends 

Edward Webster was rising rapidly as a civil engineer 
at the time of his sudden death in 1848. 

The occasion of the Abbot festival in 1838 gave 
Webster a peculiar opportunity to express his debt of 
gratitude to Principal Abbot and to the school. 


On the walls of the Golden Branch literary society 
of the Academy, of which Webster was an honorary 
member, hangs the following letter, written but four 
months before his death. It is a prophetic farewell 
to the old school: 

" Washington, June 7, 1852 

" To the Pupils of Phillips Exeter Academy, an elder Brother 
Student presents these copies of an address lately delivered by 
him in N. York. My Brothers ! let us do honor to the Founder 
of our academy! Let us cherish, affectionately, the memory of 
the venerable & beloved Benjamin Abbot! And let us labor to 
repay to the cause of Learning, what a most excellent Institution 
for Learning has done for us. My Brothers, Farewell! 


No fewer than nineteen men served as Trustees under 
the reign of Dr. Abbot. They did much for the school, 
but after all their chief duty was to enforce the strong, 
firm policy of the principal. A short account of the 
Trustees appointed during Dr. Abbot's years follows. 

Paine Wingate, Trustee 1787-1809, was born in 
Amesbury, Mass., May 14, 1739, and died in Stratham, 
N. H., March 7, 1838. He was a grandson of Col. 
Joshua Wingate, who served at the capture of Louis- 
burg. Paine Wingate graduated at Harvard in 1759, 
studied theology, and began preaching in the Congre- 
gational Church, Hampton Falls, N. H., on December 
14, 1763, where he preached till his dismissal, March 
1 8, 1776. Then he moved to Stratham and became a 
farmer. He was a member of the New Hampshire 
legislature, a delegate from New Hampshire to the 
Continental Congress in 1787-1788, and a United 
States Senator from New Hampshire from March 4, 
1789, to March 2, 1793. He served his state in Con- 
gress 1793-1795, and was a judge in the superior court 
from 1798 till 1809. He was the last survivor of the 


original members of the United States Senate, and was 
for several years the oldest graduate of Harvard. His 
counsel in the infant days of the Academy was of the 
greatest value, and the Founder placed much reli- 
ance on his sound judgment. 

Judge Oliver Peabody, a Trustee 1794-1828, was 
born in Andover, Mass., September 2, 1753, and died 
in Exeter, August 3, 183 1. He studied law, and entered 
politics. He was State Senator, and for nine years was 
State Treasurer. For the last twenty-two years of his 
service as Trustee, he was Treasurer of the Academy. 
A handsome man of winning and persuasive personal- 
ity, he graced all that he undertook. He was the father 
of the two well known graduates of the Academy, 
William B. O. and Oliver W. Peabody. 

Joseph Buckminster, D.D., Trustee 1801-1812, was 
born in Rutland, Mass., October 14, 1751, and died in 
Readsboro, Vt, June 10, 1812, the day following the 
death of his brilliant son, Joseph S. Buckminster, 
though so many miles away that he could not have 
known of his son's death. In 1770 he graduated from 
Yale, and was a tutor there 1774-1778. In January, 
1779, h e became pastor of the North Church in Ports- 
mouth, N. H. He was distinguished for his fervent 
eloquence; and he upheld the conservative and ortho- 
dox principles in the great controversy which led to 
division in the Congregational Church. A great blow 
was the liberal leanings of his son, who became a Unita- 
rian through his Harvard training. Mr. Buckminster 
was the first appointee as theological instructor under 
the terms of the Founder, at a salary of i33-3s.-2d. ; 
though apparently he never served. 

Jesse Appleton, D.D., Trustee 1802-1803, was born 
November 17, 1772, in New Ipswich, N. H., and died 


in Brunswick, Me., November 12, 1819. His daughter 
married President Franklin Pierce. 

Colonel John Phillips, Trustee 1802-1820, son of 
Judge Samuel Phillips, of Andover, was born August 
1 8, 1776, and made a brilliant record at Harvard, where 
he graduated in 1795, as Latin Salutatorian. He was 
elected State Senator for Essex County, Mass. One 
act of generosity was endowing the Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary to the extent of impoverishing his 
mother. He died September 10, 1820. 

Daniel Dana was born in Ipswich, Mass., July 24, 
1771, and died August 26, 1859. He was graduated 
at Dartmouth in 1786, and served the Academy first 
as Instructor 1789-1791, and as Trustee 1809-1843. 
He preached in Newburyport, Mass., and in London- 
derry, N. H. In 1820-1821 he was President of Dart- 
mouth. As a Trustee of Exeter he did admirable ser- 
vice, and was a constant attendant at the meetings of 
the Board. His name also occurs often as a member of 
useful committees. 

Nathaniel A. Haven, Trustee 1809-1830, was born in 
Portsmouth, N. H., July 19, 1762, the son of Reverend 
Samuel Haven, and died in Portsmouth, March 13, 
1831. He graduated at Harvard in 1779, and studied 
medicine and surgery. Late in the Revolutionary War 
he was captured by the British while he was serving as 
surgeon on an armed vessel. He was confined as a 
prisoner of war on the ship " Jersey " in New York 
harbor, but was soon exchanged on the special request 
of General Washington. After the war he became a 
business man, and in 1823 was elected President of the 
Portsmouth Savings Bank. In 1809 he was elected to 
Congress; and in addition he was clerk of the Federal 
Five Society. 

Reverend Jacob Abbot, Trustee 1812-1834, was born 


in Wilton, N. H., January 7, 1768, and was drowned 
November 2, 1834, by the upsetting of his boat while 
crossing a pond between the meeting house and his 
home, which was then in Windham, N. H. Mr. Abbot 
had settled in the Congregational parish in Hampton 
Falls in 1798, but was dismissed from the parish in 
1827. Mr. Abbot graduated from Harvard in 1792, 
and received the honorary degrees of A.M. at 
Bowdoin in 1815, and that of S.T.D. from the same 
college in 1823. He was much esteemed as a pastor, 
and led the countryside in new ideas of agriculture. 
He introduced the grafting of apple trees, and tilled his 
soil with much skill and science. Also, he had often 
at his house young men who were preparing for Har- 
vard, or were conditioned, or were on suspension from 
the college. 

Reverend Nathan Parker, Trustee 1821-1833, was 
born in Reading, Mass., June 5, 1782, and graduated 
from Harvard in 1803. In 1805 he became tutor at 
Bowdoin College for two years. Between the time of 
leaving college and 1807 he studied theology, and on 
September 14, 1808, he was ordained minister of the 
strong South Parish, Portsmouth, N. H. R. H. 
Eddy's " Genealogical Data " says of him, under the 
name of Susan Pickering, who was the wife of Reverend 
Parker: " He died Nov. 8, 1833, universally lamented, 
respected, and beloved. He was a true man. In 
thought, heart, purpose, word, act, deportment, directly 
and indirectly, he was true." 

Samuel Hale, a Trustee for thirty-eight years, from 
1831-1869, was bora in Barrington, N. H., in 1793, and 
died in Rollinsford, N. H., in 1869. He graduated from 
Bowdoin in 1814, and for a time was in politics; then 
he entered business in Portsmouth. Rev. Dr. Peabody 
spoke of him as " a man of singular vigor and energy, 


wise in counsel, prompt in action, of liberal culture and 
literary tastes; and although always crowded with busi- 
ness of his own, always ready to give his time and best 
thought to the interests of learning." x 

Samuel D. Bell, Trustee 1834-1838, was born in 
Francestown, N. H., October 9, 1798, and died in Man- 
chester, July 31, 1868. He graduated from Harvard in 
1816, and was admitted to the New Hampshire bar 
three years later. He won renown by his able prosecu- 
tion of the robbers of the Exeter bank in 1828. In 
1840 he was one of a committee of three to revise the 
state statutes. He became police judge of Manchester, 
and rose to the office of Chief Justice of the state in 
1859. He gave much time to history, and became an 
early member of the New Hampshire Historical Society. 
His mind was unusually alert, and his general knowl- 
edge was wide and exact. As a lawyer he was con- 
sidered one of the ablest ever developed in the state. 

Charles Burroughs, DJX, Trustee 1835-1867, was 
born in Boston, December 27, 1787, and died in Ports- 
mouth, N. H., March 5, 1868. He graduated at Har- 
vard in 1806, studied theology, and was made a priest 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church in 1812. He was 
rector of St. John's Church, Portsmouth, for almost half 
a century. For thirty years he was President of the 
New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, and for forty 
years was President of the Portsmouth Athenaeum. He 
was also corresponding member of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. 

1 Bell's Sketches of the Academy, p. 69. 



The violent spasm of the earthquake has hardly subsided when 
Dr. Soule said calmly, " Foster, construe that next sentence." 

A graduate of 1871. 

GIDEON LANE SOULE, third principal of the 
Academy, came of sound Puritan stock. 1 The 
first of the name to emigrate from England to America 
was George Soule, who came in the Mayflower. John, 
his eldest son, and Moses, his grandson, became well- 
known citizens of Duxbury, Massachusetts. Barnabas 
Soule, son of Moses, removed to North Yarmouth, 
Maine, and married the great-granddaughter of that 
militant divine, John Wheelwright, who founded the 
town of Exeter. Moses, the son of Barnabas, had a son 
Moses, who became the father of Gideon L. Soule. In 
that way the principal of the Academy came to be the 
descendant of John Wheelwright, who, driven from 
England by religious intolerance, fled to Massachusetts 
for freedom, then fled to the wilds of New Hampshire 
for freedom, and finally, when New Hampshire was to 
be united with Massachusetts, rather than come again 
under the domination of the men who had persecuted 
him, fled once more, this time to Maine, where at 
length he died, still a martyr to the cause of religious in- 

1 The Soule Family 



Mr, Soule was born in Freeport, Maine, July 25, 
1796, on one of those stern, rock-bound farms, the sub- 
jugation of which has made many a man strong. He 
was the second child in a family of eleven children. 
In his early years he was not strong; but fondness for 
sports kept him much out of doors and laid the founda- 
tion for that vigorous constitution so necessary to a 
schoolmaster. In wrestling he is said to have excelled; 
and he was unusually skillful in throwing stones and 
snowballs. 1 

Like many a farmer's boy, young Soule had scant 
opportunity for schooling. For three or four months 
in the winter, when work on the farm was slack, he at- 
tended the district school; but during the busy seasons 
he worked early and late on the farm. When the boy 
was seventeen, however, his father, having determined 
to fit him for college, put him under the tuition of the 
Reverend Reuben Nason, pastor of the church in Free- 
port. Close application to his books soon fitted him to 
enter the Academy. 

Mr. Soule's life as a student was marked by hard 
work. Most of his interest lay in the classics, which he 
studied under Dr. Abbot. So strongly did he impress 
his principal that Dr. Abbot was never content after 
Mr. Soule's graduation until he had him enrolled as a 
permanent instructor. In the fall of 1815 Mr. Soule 
entered Bowdoin College as a sophomore. During his 
college course he held high rank, although he did not 
stand at the head of his class, perhaps because of de- 
ficiency in scientific studies. Of his ability in the clas- 
sics, Alpheus S. Packard, of the class of 1811, who was 
long librarian at Bowdoin, and knew Mr. Soule well, 
said that he had no superiors in his class, the largest and 
ablest of that day. Mr. Soule graduated from Bowdoin 

1 Cunningham, p. 41. 


in 1818, and at commencement gave the Intermediate 
Latin Oration. 

That fall he returned to the Academy as instructor 
in ancient languages; but since by vote of the Trustees 
instructors could not be kept more than one year, he 
withdrew in 1819 to enter the Andover Theological 
Seminary. The next school year he spent as instructor 
in Greek and Latin in Phillips Academy, Andover. 
Then he took charge of a small school in Amherst, New 
Hampshire; but before long he returned to Bowdoin 
to do graduate work, in order to accept a permanent 
position in the Academy. On April 20, 1882, he was 
elected Professor of Ancient Languages. 

At the outset he feared that he might not be equal 
to the task; but he was well trained as a teacher, and he 
succeeded as a disciplinarian. His connection with the 
Academy covered a period of fifty-four years: two as 
a student, one as an instructor, sixteen as a professor, 
and thirty-five as principal. 

Since Principal Abbot began to rely more and more 
on the younger man, Dr. Soule gradually assumed 
charge, and therefore there was no sensible break or 
change in authority when in 1838 Dr. Abbot resigned. 

As a teacher Dr. Soule was neither original nor 
progressive, but accepting the standards as he found 
them, he held generations of schoolboys to their tasks. 
At the end of his long searching drills in Latin a boy 
was well fitted for college. There was no seductive 
selection of studies; all must taken Latin and Greek for 
better or worse. By constant drill in construing, in 
which no point was too minute to escape scrutiny, he 
taught boys the classics. To do that work to the end, 
and to administer the school was all that Dr. Soule 
asked. Instead of wasting time at teachers' meetings, 
he stayed at school and taught. 


For a good many years after becoming principal 
Dr. Soule clung to the fixed rules for governing the 
students; but in time he saw that those rules were, 
after all, based on elementary laws of observance of 
others' rights. Therefore, at the opening of school each 
year he made a set speech meant to cover all forms of 
conduct without naming any specific offences. After 
exhorting the boys to remember at all times that they 
were Exeter gentlemen, he would say: " The Academy 
has no rules until they are broken. But there is one 
rule I wish to make: whoever crosses the threshold of 
a billiard saloon, crosses the threshold of the Academy 
for the last time." The rule sometimes aroused the 
curiosity of boys to enter the forbidden portals. One 
old boy writes that Professor Wentworth, temporarily 
in charge before Dr. Scott was elected, carried out the 
strict letter of the law and dismissed him without a 
hearing after he had broken the rule from curiosity 
" to see what such an iniquitous place could be like/' 

But although conservative, Principal Soule readily 
agreed to reforms suggested by others. One of them 
was opening a club for room and board in the house on 
Spring Street formerly occupied by Messrs. Williams 
as a printing shop. The dub was the outgrowth of 
one founded in 1849 by John P. Allison, which had 
used the house known as the Phillips buildings on the 
corner of Tan Lane and Main Street. A matron was 
hired to do the work, and the success was immediate, 
for the cost to each student for board, room, service, 
washing, fuel, and light was but little more than two 
dollars a week, whereas in private houses the cost was 
twice as much. Then, as at the present time, prices 
were constantly increasing- Some of the older boys 
managed the club, and they made the venture so 
satisfactory that in 1852 the Trustees voted to build a 


new dormitory. Consequently, Abbot Hall, named in 
honor of Benjamin Abbot, was built, at a cost of twenty 
thousand dollars. It accommodated at that time fifty 
roomers, and provided kitchen and dining rooms for the 
club. Until 1903, when Alumni Hall was opened, it 
was the chief dining hall for the students, and always 
furnished board at cost. The meals were never very 
elaborate, but they were wholesome, of good quality, 
and generous quantity. Originally a charge of one 
dollar a year was made for a room in Abbot Hall. 
Gradually, as the cost of living advanced, the rates too 
have increased. 

Another reform effected with Dr. Soule's approval, 
but not at his suggestion, was that which made the 
principal and the other instructors a regular faculty, 
with the usual powers of such a body. That reform, 
together with the one following, were products of the 
fertile brain of Joseph G. Hoyt, Professor of Math- 
ematics 1841-1859. On March 24, 1857, the Trustees 
voted " That it is expedient to constitute the Instruc- 
tors a Faculty & that Dr. Burroughs & Dr. Peabody 
be a committee to report on the subject." The follow- 
ing November the Trustees voted to accept the report, 
which, unfortunately, was not recorded except in 
effect; but the purport of it is clear, since from that 
time on powers were delegated no longer to an auto- 
cratic principal, who as an individual was liable to se- 
rious error in dismissing or retaining students, but to a 
deliberative body of the whole. That report was in 
effect the Magna Charta of modern Exeter. There is no 
doubt that as a principal answerable to no one except 
the Trustees, and to them often only in a distant fash- 
ion, Dr. Soule had sometimes acted arbitrarily and ill 
advisedly. One case in particular was that of dismissing 
several students who had dared, without official sane- 



tion, to form a literary society as a rival to the Golden 
Branch. The fulness of discretion intended to be con- 
veyed to the newly created Faculty is reflected in the 
vote: " That the report be adopted as a recommenda- 
tion, but as not obliging upon the Faculty in all its 
details, they having liberty to depart from it, if circum- 
stances require." 

In July, 1858, the Trustees voted another radical and 
revolutionary measure, also the suggestion of the rest- 
less and progressive Hoyt. It was that students need 
no longer study in the main building under the eye of 
an instructor. Until that time most of the preparation 
of lessons had gone on in the recitation room. It 
was tiresome to teachers and pupils alike, and was open 
to objection on many counts. It is difficult to study 
while others are reciting; moreover, the rooms were 
badly ventilated, dimly lighted, especially in winter, 
and with difficulty kept clean. But the chief reason 
for the innovation was that the Academy had always 
striven to treat its charges as men and not as children. 
Self reliance and manliness had always been fostered 
and encouraged; and it was merely a slight extension of 
privilege to allow work to be prepared outside of class, 
without faculty supervision. No custom at Exeter is 
today more prized by the undergraduate than that 
privilege of studying in the quiet of his own room. 
Some boys, of course, do not thrive under the greater 
freedom; but in general the plan has worked satisfac- 
torily. An argument in favor of it is that boys early 
learn the self reliance that college demands. The break 
between Exeter and college is thus but slight, and most 
Exonians find themselves able to meet the requirements 
of college life, where much personal liberty is allowed. 
And the scholarship of the school has not suffered by 
the change. 


One effect of the various innovations was the sudden 
and steady growth in the number of students. In 
1849-1850 there were 70 enrolled; in 1852-1853, 93; 
in 1855-1856, 116; in 1860-1861, 151. From that 
time until the year 1890 the increase was uninterrupted. 

Another change, likewise suggested by Professor 
Hoyt, was dividing the school into classes, the Jun- 
ior, the Middle, and the Senior. There was also a 
preparatory class, to be kept as small as possible, and 
an advanced class, which did the work of the Fresh- 
man class in college. Every effort was made to in- 
crease the size of this latter class, and a great many 
boys from the Academy entered the Sophomore class 
in college, and some even the Junior class. Previous to 
the time of this innovation, which came in 1854, stu- 
dents had remained in Exeter until they were fitted for 
some college class, without special reference to the time 
of entering or leaving the Academy. 

Still another rule that Dr. Soule changed was that 
which required the students to be in their rooms at 
seven o'clock at night. By 1870 the rule named eight 
o'clock, and gradually even that requirement was 
abandoned. For a good many years Dr. Soule stated 
that there were no rules until they were broken. This 
laxness was no doubt partly the cause of the unruly 
life at Exeter during the dark days which followed. 
The old eight o'clock rule was revived in the fall of 
1922, and has worked well. In spite of some few 
necessary rules, the spirit of Exeter is much broader 
than mere rules which may be transgressed. A com- 
mittee of the Faculty several years ago submitted a re- 
port on school regulations, of which this sentence is a 
significant part: "The government of the Academy 
is one of principles and men, not of rules' and penalties." 

Dr. Soule ruled completely over the growing faculty 


and school until his resignation. The trouble over con- 
stituted authority which later did the school so much 
harm had not yet showed its head. Professor Went- 
worth was exceedingly fond of having his own way; 
but both he and Professor Cilley served willingly in 
subordinate positions till Principal Soule's resignation. 
Mr. Cilley records in his private diary under date of 
May 12, 1859, when he had been teaching in the Acad- 
emy three months, and when Mr. Wentworth had been 
here a year, that Mr. Wentworth came near having a 
private fight with Principal Soule in the latter's house, 
where the two young teachers were calling. At that 
time Mr. Soule was sixty-three, and Mr. Wentworth 
twenty-four. Happily the fight was averted, and Mr. 
Wentworth continued to work loyally under Mr. Soule. 
Dr. Soule carried the forms of dignified bearing far- 
ther even than did Dr. Abbot, though with no greater 
effect. He was very tall, and carried himself with a 
dignity that was sometimes taken for pompous affecta- 
tion* As he passed among the boys playing football on 
the green, he would gravely raise his hat, and the boys 
would hold the ball till he had gone. But an anecdote, 
related by Richard Montague, of the class of 1871, of 
a slight earthquake shock that was felt in Exeter, shows 
that Dr. Soule's dignity was real, not assumed. " The 
Doctor," he says, " stood it (the earthquake) better 
than we did, but, at last, even he rose from his seat and 
looked out of the window. Then he saw that Abbot 
Hall was still standing and the trees were growing as 
they had been growing the day before, and, resuming 
his seat, he said calmly, ' Foster, construe that next 
sentence/ I have ever felt since, that no matter what 
earthquakes of opposition might assail the purpose 
... our motto should be persistent application to the 
work in hand." 


That Principal Soule's manners had also another 
effect on his pupils is evident from an address by Pres- 
ident Eliot of Harvard, at the Centennial celebration 
in 1883. x "Not knowing from personal experience/' 
he said, " I asked a distinguished graduate of the school 
last evening, who is prevented from being here today, 
what it was that he felt that he owed to Exeter. He 
said: c I got there my first lesson in manners.' ' What 
was it? ' said I. ' I was a scrubby little boy,' said he, 
c and I met Dr. Soule in the street and he touched his 
hat to me, and it set me to inquiring how such an 
unparalleled emergency was to be met. 7 He soon 
learned to meet it and he is one of the most cultivated 
gentlemen and polished scholars of our day," 

Regarding the lessons that he learned in Exeter under 
Principal Soule, Francis Rawle, class of 1865, said at 
the reunion in 1903: "As I look back to my own 
life here, I feel, and I feel it more strongly year by year, 
as the meaning of life grows clearer to me, that Exeter 
training and life stood for Obligation. Whatever of 
friendship, whatever of training I took from here, I 
took, above all, the belief it was more than a belief, 
it was a sense that that which is required of you, 
must be done. It was not that it was taught in words; 
it was in the life of the place. It seemed all around 
you. It was better than teaching what you must not 
do ; it was teaching what you must do, and that stands 
on a higher level and comes nearer home to youth than 
the other. It was as if there had been impressed on 
the life here, in some subtle way, the full meaning of 
these words of Emerson: 

" So nigh is grandeur to our dust, 
So near is God to man, 
When duty whispers low, c Thou must/ 
The youth replies, c I can.' " 

1 Centennial celebration pamphlet. 


During Dr. Soule's principalship there were few in- 
structors or professors appointed; but some of those who 
were appointed left an indelible stamp on the Academy. 
Under Dr. Abbot ten professors and thirty-six instruc- 
tors had been named. Under Mr. Soule there were but 
six new instructors and nine professors. The change 
from constantly breaking in new men, which had 
obtained under Abbot, was of the highest value to 
Exeter, for the men who remained helped to carry on 
a continuous policy. Chief among those who grew up 
with the school were Professors Hoyt, Wentworth, 
Cilley, and Pennell. To them and to Soule is owing 
the success of the middle period of the history of 

Joseph G. Hoyt, " The Great Teacher/ 3 was born 
in Dunbarton, New Hampshire, January 19, 1815. 
His father was indifferent to education, and the boy 
had but three months' schooling a year, but aided by 
his mother he entered Yale in 1836, and graduated 
sixth in a class of one hundred. Elected Professor of 
Mathematics at Exeter in 1841, he brought to his 
teaching a zeal, and an infectious inspiration that fired 
his students with the ambition to keep pace with him. 
Professor Hoyt also threw himself into the life of the 
town. He was long chairman of the school board, 
brought about the building of the new town hall, the 
town library, the planting of shade trees, the building 
of sidewalks, and the erection of schoolhouses. In 
1850 he was on a committee to revise the state constitu- 
tion. His defeat in 1858 for the nomination for con- 
gressman was a sharp disappointment. Besides other 
activities, he lectured on economics, education, poetry, 
and orchard culture. On April 13, 1842, he married 
Margarette Chamberlain, of Exeter. In December, 
1858, Professor Hoyt was elected Chancellor, or Pres- 


ident, of Washington University, St. Louis. Though he 
regretted to leave Exeter, he saw before him a field that 
he felt he should not reject. Soon after going to St. 
Louis he was stricken with consumption. Still young, 
full of fire and eagerness for work, he was appalled at 
the thought of an early death. In the preface to his 
collected writings, he wrote, only three weeks before 
his death: * " I shrink from the cold obstruction, the 
oblivion of the grave. Like a timid child, I dread to go 
out alone into the darkness. The firelight on the 
hearthstone of home is more attractive to me than the 
brightest star in the far-off heavens." He died Novem- 
ber 26, 1862, and was buried in Exeter, near the grave 
of the Founder. But in the minds and hearts of those 
whom he taught, and in their children's children, he 
still lives. 

Another instructor under Dr. Soule who set a high 
standard of scholarship was Robert F. Pennell, '67, 
Professor of Latin. He was born in Freeport, Maine, 
July 13, 1850, and died October 22, 1905, in San 
Francisco. On graduating from Harvard in 1871 he 
began to teach in Exeter with marked success. His 
recitation room was noisy, full of snapping of fingers, 
and eager calling of answers, but the boys never got be- 
yond his control. It was largely due to the wish of 
boys in his class to please him with a recitation that the 
habit of finger snapping grew up in the Academy. 
Sometimes a student would rush to his desk to win 
recognition. A favorite penalty of Professor Pennell 
was to require the boy who was unprepared to report at 
his house the next morning at six o'clock. He resigned 
in December, 1882. 

To take the place of Mr. Pennell Mr. George L. 
Kittredge, now Professor of English at Harvard, was 

1 See Addresses, p. 279. 


appointed in 1883; from 1885-1888 he was Professor 
of Latin. In his class the same zeal that had distin- 
guished Professor PennelPs work still persisted, un~ 

Some of those who studied at Exeter under Dr. Soule 
were Paul A. Chadbourne (1823-1883), President of 
Williams College; Joseph C. A. Wingate (1830-1903), 
U. S. Consul; Jeremiah Curtin (1840-1906), linguist 
and translator; Edward R. Sill (18411887), poet; 
Robert T. Lincoln (1843-) ? Secretary of War, Minister 
to Great Britain; Ulysses S. Grant, Jr. (1867-), law- 
yer; George S. Hale (1826-1897), lawyer; Christopher 
C. Langdell (1826-1906), Dane Professor of Law, Har- 
vard; William E. Dorsheimer (1832-1888), Lieutenant 
Governor of New York; William R. Ware (1848- 
1917), Professor, Mass. Institute of Technology; 
Sylvester Waterhouse (1831-1902), Professor, Wash- 
ington University; Jeremiah Smith (18371921), Pro- 
fessor, Harvard Law School; Benjamin F. Prescott 
( I 833~i895), Governor of New Hampshire; Bradbury 
L. Cilley (1838-1899), Professor, Exeter; George A. 
Wentworth (1835-1906), Professor, Exeter, author of 
mathematical texts; Frank W. Hackett (1841-), law- 
yer, Assistant Secretary, U. S. N.; William M. R. 
French (1847-1914), director Art Institute, Chicago; 
Herbert H. D. Peirce (1849-1916), U. S. foreign am- 
bassador; George W. Atherton (1837-1906), Pres- 
ident, State College, Pennsylvania; John O. Green 
(1799-1886), Professor, Harvard Medical School; 
George S. Morison (1845-1903), civil engineer, made 
minority report favoring Panama instead of Nicaragua 
for canal; Marshall S. Snow (1842-1916), Professor, 
Washington University; Augustus Van Wyck (1850-) , 
Judge, Superior Court, New York; John E. Leonard 
(1845-1878), Judge, Superior Court, Louisiana; 


Wilmon W. Blackmar (1841-1905), Captain, U. S. A., 
Civil War, Commander G. A. R.; Nathan H. Dole 
(1852-), author; Charlemagne Tower (1848-1923), U. 
S. Ambassador to Germany and Russia; Edward Tuck 
(1842-), banker and philanthropist, Paris, France; 
August Belmont (1853-), banker; George E. Wood- 
berry (1855-), poet and professor; John A. Mitchell 
(18451918), founder and editor of "Life"; Philip 
Hale (1854-), music and dramatic critic; John Hub- 
bard (1849-), R ear Admiral, U. S. N.; George A. 
Plimpton (1855-), President Ginn and Company; 
Prentiss Cummings (1841-1917), lawyer. 

Under the principalship of Dr. Soule 631 Exeter men 
received college degrees. That means, of course, that 
many more than that number left the Academy for 
college, since always a certain percentage enter pro- 
fessional schools before they finish their course, or 
leave college for other reasons. But during the years 
of Principal Soule the number who went to college was 
large and constant. The record of Exeter men who 
fitted for college under Dr. Soule and afterwards re- 
ceived college degrees is, Harvard, 413; Dartmouth, 
64; Yale, 48; Bowdoin, 25; Amherst, 21; Brown, 13; 
Boston University, 8; Columbia, 5; Union, 4; Williams, 
3 ; Trinity, 3 ; Princeton, 3 ; Wesleyan, 3 ; West Point, 
2 ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2 ; and Ox- 
ford, Heidelberg, Colby, Marietta, Vanderbilt, Univer- 
sity of Vermont, Pennsylvania, Lafayette, Colgate, 
University of St. Louis, University of North Carolina, 
Tufts, Syracuse, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, i 

Mr. Soule married Elizabeth Phillips Emery, daugh- 
ter of Captain Noah Emery, of Exeter, on August 26, 
1822. His home life was quiet and uneventful; he 
cultivated his garden, kept a cow, and he and his sons 


cut the firewood on the woodlot on Epping road. Two 
of the sons, Charles Emery, class of 1833, and Augustus 
Lord, class of 1837, became successful lawyers. 
Augustus was for five years Justice of the Massachusetts 
Supreme Court. The third son, Nicholas Emery, class 
of 1835, was for many years a teacher and physician in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and served as Trustee of the Academy 
from 1879 to 1886. For some years before his death, 
which occurred March 26, 1919, at his home in Exeter, 
in his 94th year, he had been the oldest living graduate 
of both Exeter and Harvard. 

Harvard gave Principal Soule the degree of LL.D. 
in 1856. 

Dr. Soule sent the Trustees his resignation on June 
19, 1872, but they prevailed on him to retain his office 
a little longer. On July i, 1873, however, they felt 
that his wish must be granted, and accordingly accepted 
his resignation, but made him Principal Emeritus with 
a salary and the use of the principal's house for life. 
He lived six years longer, in peaceful retirement, his 
chief delight to watch the abounding life of " his boys " 
as he called the students. Until almost the end he took 
long walks through the surrounding woods and fields, 
but was at length forced to confine his strolls to the 
town, which he knew and loved. Finally, as the result 
of a cold, he died suddenly on May 28, 1879, in his 
eighty-third year. He was buried in the family lot near 
the grave of the Founder. 

During Principal Soule's years only eight new Trus- 
tees were elected. A short account of each follows. 

James Bell, a brother of Samuel D. Bell, was born 
in Francestown, N. H., November 13, 1804, and died 
in Gilford, N. H., May 26, 1857. He served as Trustee 
1842-1852. He prepared for college at Phillips Acad- 
emy, Andover, and graduated from Bowdoin in 1822. 


He was admitted to the bar in 1825, and practised in 
Gilmanton, Exeter, and Gilford. One of his chief ser- 
vices was as attorney for a company controlling the 
title to flowage and riparian rights about Lake Winne- 
pesaukee. He served as legislator from Exeter in 
1846, and in 1855 he was elected United States Senator. 
He was exceedingly modest and retiring, yet he was 
a man of great versatility and attainments. 

Andrew P. Peabody, A.M., LL.D., was born March 
19, 1811, and died March 10, 1893. He graduated 
at Harvard in 1826 and then spent three years in the 
Harvard Divinity School. After serving for a year as 
tutor in mathematics at Harvard he succeeded in 1833 
Reverend Nathan Parker as pastor of the South (Unita- 
rian) Church in Portsmouth, N. H. In 1860 he became 
preacher to Harvard, and Professor of Christian 
Morals. In 1881 he resigned to devote himself to 
literary work. In 1868-1869 he was acting president 
of Harvard. In 1852 Harvard made him Doctor of 
Divinity, and the University of Rochester granted him 
the degree of LL.D. in 1863. While in Portsmouth, 
he was made a Trustee. This was in 1843; he served 
the Academy well till his resignation in 1885. Mr. 
Peabody served as Trustee 42 years, the longest period 
of such service in the history of the Academy. 

Dr. David W. Gorham, A.M., M.D., was born in 
1799, in Charlestown, Mass., and died in Exeter, 
October n, 1873. He entered the Academy in 1815, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1821. He then studied 
medicine, and settled in Exeter. He married the 
daughter of Principal Benjamin Abbot. His method- 
ical business habits and sound discretion were of the 
greatest value to the Academy, which he served as 
Trustee from 1844 tmtfl his death in 1873, when he 


was succeeded as Trustee by his son, Dr. William H. 

John Kelly, Treasurer 1842-1855, was born in 
Warner, N. H., March 7, 1786, and died in Exeter, 
November 3, 1860. At the age of eighteen he gradu- 
ated from Dartmouth, and studied law. In 1831 he 
removed to Exeter, and became editor of the News- 
letter. Of public offices he held that of State Repre- 
sentative and Register of Probate. His articles on the 
early history of men and events in New Hampshire 
were of great value, being both accurate and relieved 
of dryness by keen humor and subtlety. 

Amos Tuck, Trustee 1853-1879, was born August 
2, 1810, in Parsonfield, Maine, and died December n, 
1879, * n Exeter. He was educated at Hampton Acad- 
emy, and at Dartmouth. He studied law in the office 
of James Bell, of Exeter, and was admitted to the 
Rockingham bar in 1838. In 1842 he was elected to 
the General Court, and from that time on he was 
constantly in political life. After serving in the state 
legislature, he was elected to Congress in 1847, largely 
because he scorned to follow the dictates of the time- 
serving politicians, but boldly denounced them. That 
was the making of his career. As the first anti-slavery 
Independent he carried the fight to the bitter end. 
Near him in Congress sat Abraham Lincoln. In 1860 
Mr. Tuck was a member of the New Hampshire 
national nomination committee which chose Abraham 
Lincoln as color bearer in the presidential election. 
He was also one of the committee chosen to wait on 
Mr. Lincoln in Springfield with the news of his nomina- 
tion. There Mr. Tuck congratulated his old friend 
of the Thirtieth Congress. Later he practised law in 
New York for railroad corporations. He was a trustee 
of Hampton Academy and of Dartmouth as well as 


of Exeter. One of his chief characteristics was a 
passionate fondness for the town of Exeter, which he 
always regarded as his home. 

Francis Bowen, class of 1829, Trustee 1853-1875, 
was born in Charlestown, Mass., September 8, 1811, 
and died in Boston, January 22, 1890. After gradu- 
ating at Harvard, he became instructor in intellectual 
philosophy and political economy in the University. 
In 1839 he went to Europe to study. Returning in 
1841, he devoted himself to literature, and became 
editor and proprietor of the North American Review. 
After losing a professorship at Harvard because of his 
articles on the Hungarian question, he was reappointed 
by President Walker in 1853. He opposed the political 
opinions of Kant, Fichte, Cousin, Comte, and John 
Stuart Mill; the last named replied to his critic in his 
"Logic." In political economy he opposed Adam 
Smith on free trade, Malthus on population, and 
Ricardo on rent. His writings on philosophy and 
economics were enormous. 

Judge Jeremiah Smith, class of 1849, served two 
terms as Trustee. The first was 1868-1874; the second, 
1898-1902. His value as a Trustee was great, for he 
knew the traditions and felt keenly the spirit of the 
school. He was born July 14, 1837, graduated from 
Harvard in 1856, studied law at Harvard, and was 
admitted to the New Hampshire bar in 1861. At 
the age of thirty he was appointed a Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the state. From 1890 until 1910 
he was Story Professor of Law at the Harvard Law 
School. On April 5, 1865, Judge Smith married Han- 
nah Webster, of Dover, N. H,, who died in 1904. As 
a lawyer and as a lover of Exeter he followed the high 
example set by his illustrious father, Judge Jeremiah 
Smith, Senior. 

George S. Hale, class of 1839, was born in Keene, 



N. H., September 24, 1825. His early years were 
marked by great outbursts of passion; but his strong 
will triumphed, and he became most calm and gentle. 
At the age of thirteen he entered the Academy, and 
went to Harvard before he was fifteen. There he 
held high rank, and stood among the first eight of the 
Phi Beta Kappa in 1842. He spent the year after 
graduation in making up his mind between the minis- 
try and the law. Then he attended the Harvard Law 
School, taught school, and traveled abroad when his 
eyes failed. After that he returned to practise law in 
Boston. His career was most brilliant; many of his 
services were for great railroads. He espoused the 
cause of the colored troops, and by a personal appeal 
to President Lincoln obtained pay for the colored 
troops equal to that of the whites. Also, he was promi- 
nent in every public work for years. The list of 
benevolent societies to which he belonged contains 
the names of most of those well known in Boston. 
In 1870 he was made a Trustee to take the place of 
Samuel Hale, and served till his resignation in 1893. 
From 1885 tiU I 8Q3 he was President of the Board, 
and was one of the most loyal and zealous workers 
that the school ever knew. His devotion was un- 
bounded, and he made frequent trips to Exeter to 
oversee the progress of the school. At the centennial 
celebration in 1883, ^ e delivered one of the addresses, 
He died at his summer home, " Schooner Head," Mt. 
Desert, Maine, July 27, 1897. 

Charles Burley, class of 1834, was Treasurer 1880- 
1889. He was born in Exeter, August 19, 1820, and 
died here February 4, 1897. For several years he was 
a stationer in Chicago, but returned to Exeter in 1858 
to engage in business as a florist. From 1869 to I 88o 
he was treasurer of Robinson Female Seminary, Exeter. 


And Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, 
and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until 
the going down of the sun. 

ANY history of the Academy during the latter years 
of Principal Soule's life, and for thirty years 
after his death, resolves itself into a story of the lives 
and activities of two men, Professor Wentworth and 
Professor Cilley, for they had a more profound in- 
fluence on the Academy until the early nineties than 
any other persons except Dr. Abbot and Dr. Soule. 
Each gave his life and his peculiar genius to Exeter. 
Both had opportunities to go elsewhere at higher 
salaries; yet both, like many an Exeter teacher of later 
years, chose to leave his lot to the end with the school 
of John Phillips. 

Although the boys in the Academy from 1860 to 
1890 always spoke of the teachers Soule, Wentworth, 
and Cilley as " The Great Triumvirate," the greatest 
of the three was undoubtedly Wentworth. On the slow 
decline of Dr. Soule it was he who by. his strength, 
tact, and general ability came to hold the balance of 
power. He won a hold on parents and alumni compa- 
rable only to that held by the famous Dr. John Keate 
of Eton. Alumni sent their sons to Exeter because 
of Wentworth. He ruled in fact if not in name until 
his resignation. He knew the school and its ways so 
much better than any new principal could have known 



them, that he found little difficulty in controlling the 
elements that governed the Academy. 

When Wentworth and Cilley came, the Academy 
was still characterized by devotion to the classics, 
Greek and Latin, with just a smattering of mathemat- 
ics and a little history; before their day ended Exeter 
had grown and expanded, had passed through many 
stages of hesitation and almost of despair, to find it- 
self at last secure in the strength of a new curriculum 
enlarged to meet every modern need, and with an 
equipment that was to keep pace with other wants. 
But before that happy time came, Professor Went- 
worth 3aad resigned as a teacher, and was serving as 
a Trustee. 

George Albert Wentworth was born in Wakefield, 
New Hampshire, July 31, 1835, the son of Edmund 
and Eliza (Lang) Wentworth. An ancestor was 
William Wentworth, who emigrated from England to 
Massachusetts in 1636, and in 1639 signed the " com- 
bination for a government at Exeter." In 1852 young 
Wentworth entered the Academy, relying for the most 
part on his own efforts to pay for his education, but 
helped somewhat by free tuition. 

At the Academy he found a sturdy boy a little more 
than three years his junior, who was destined to be a 
life-long friend and colleague. Bradbury Longfellow 
Cilley, son of Joseph Longfellow and Lavinia Bagley 
(Kelly) Cilley, was born in Nottingham, New Hamp- 
shire, September 6, 1838. In 1842 the family moved 
to Exeter, to the farm long owned by Judge Jeremiah 
Smith, early treasurer and mentor of the school. In 
the fall of 1851, at the age of thirteen, young Cilley 
entered the Academy, where he and Wentworth were 
much together. Both of them entered Harvard as 
sophomores in the fall of 1855. While in college they 


roomed together in number 25, Stoughton Hall. Mr. 
Cilley records some things of interest in their doings 
as undergraduates. He speaks of hearing lectures by 
the President, and by Lowell, Agassiz, Wyman, and 
others. Also, he speaks of attending church with 
regularity. That, incidentally, was a lifelong trait, 
though he never became a member of any church. 
Both Cilley and Wentworth took high stand in college, 
and were elected to Phi Beta Kappa. 

About that time it became known that there was a 
vacancy at Exeter, and it was doubtful which of the two 
brilliant young men would be appointed. It fell to the 
lot of Wentworth. Cilley merely records in his diary 
of March 23, 1858: " At the meeting of Trustees of the 
Academy, Wentworth, my chum, was appointed teacher 
instead of me. So I am in the market still." There 
was no rancor; he merely resigned himself, secure in 
the thought that his talents would find reward. 

Perhaps Wentworth was appointed over Cilley be- 
cause he had taught school during his college course. 
The records for the Kingston, N. H., school board for 
1856-1857 say: "The Winter Term was taught by 
Mr. George A. Wentworth. The school made a very 
creditable appearance at the closing examination, and 
the satisfaction expressed by parents and scholars would 
deter us from making any comments, did we not feel 
that circumstances demanded it. 

" The Committee have, for years past, specified 
certain directions, relative to the exercises of the school, 
for the teacher to follow, making due allowance where 
they could not be made practical, and the disregard 
of many of them by the teacher, during this term, we 
consider entirely unwarrantable. 

" Due attention should be paid to deportment in 
a school. A little regularity in passing to and from the 


seat, and decorum in the several classes at recitation, 
serve to give that finished appearance which is ever 
desirable, but which was greatly wanting in this school 
during the past term. We believe, however, that the 
school has been a useful one, especially to those larger 
scholars whose days in the school-room have been few 
and far between." 

Thus early did Wentworth show the slight regard 
that he always had for mere formal order in the class 
room. He ruled his own demesne with laxity, but lie 
was at every moment master of the situation. He in- 
vited his students to a combat of wits in which it was 
give and take; but he was still the ruler whose will was 
law, none the less because it was unwritten. 

On leaving college, Cilley returned to the farm at 
Exeter, where he worked in a desultory fashion; he 
felt that he should teach when the chance offered. 
Meanwhile he " looked at Blackstone," uncertain 
whether after all he might not take up law. Late in 
November he went to Albany Academy to teach Greek 
and Latin. He enjoyed the life and work there, and 
seemed settled permanently; but the next month he re- 
ceived a letter from Mr. Wentworth urging him to be 
a candidate for a place in the Academy. On January 
19, 1859, he received the appointment, and resigned 
his post in Albany, though not without a good deal of 
regret. On February 14 he taught his first class in 
Exeter. Except for a year's absence when he went 
abroad for his health, he taught without break until 
his death. 

Sbule, Wentworth, and Cilley were at times assisted 
by young graduates from Harvard; but for the most 
part they did all of the teaching. Until 1874 there 
were just three helpers Orlando M. Fernald (1860 
1861), Payson Merrill (1861-1862), and William 


Putnam (1870-1871). For fifteen years the work of 
the school went on smoothly. Meanwhile, Principal 
Soule was growing feeble, and the two wheel horses, 
Wentworth and Cilley, came more and more into power. 
Wentworth, under the stimulus of authority, began to 
show a positive, domineering temper; he never could 
brook interference with his authority. When he had 
taught Greek and Latin for about a year, he gave over 
the task to Cilley, so that he could devote all his time 
to mathematics. 

Professor Wentworth early earned the nickname of 
" Bull " for his bull-like strength, and from his habit 
of roaring like the bulls of Bashan at shirkers. Round 
him there grew up a tradition of mingled savagery and 
tenderness; of withering sarcasm and the refined gentle- 
ness of a woman; of biting personal remarks and of 
unasked aid and comfort to the poor and helpless. 
One graduate says: 

" ' Bull J Wentworth I recall as a rather heavy, slow-moving, 
deliberate man, careless of personal appearance, even-tempered, 
very sympathetic withi boys in trouble, who very frequently 
made a bluff at being very severe, but the bright ones in his 
classes did not have any real fear of him. I think he was 
generally loved by all who sat under him for any period of time. 
Personally, he was very kind to me and probably was the cause 
of my being permitted to remain at Exeter at least six months 
longer than would have been the case without his influence." 

Another alumnus proves by the following that Pro- 
fessor Wentworth could take a joke as well as make one: 

" I remember one day in the history class Scammon (6 ft. 3 in. 
tall) was reciting Roman history, and said, ' They fit a battle, etc.' 
Professor Wentworth said, * Scammon, is there any such word 
as fit in your vocabulary? ' Of course the boys all laughed. 
Then Scammon replied, 'Yes, sir; fio, fis, fit. 9 Then there was 
a roar. And Professor laughed long after tie boys had subsided." 


A member of the class of 1874 says: 

"His eccentricities, his withering sarcasm, his independent 
manner of conducting himself in the recitation room and on the 
street, reading his newspaper from the post office to his recita- 
tion room (while Perkins in the assembly at chapel had de- 
nounced studying on the street as bad form), might be illustrated 
by many an incident. Yet ' Old Bull,' as we called him, had a 
warm heart and did me many a little favor." 

Francis Rawle, '65, wrote of him: 

" I owe him very much, probably more than any other one 
man; he jogged my mind when it most needed jogging." 

No other anecdote of this powerful teacher better 
shows his true temper than the following by Thomas W. 
Lamont, '88: 

" It was twenty-one years ago last winter when I was a 
i prep ' at Exeter and suddenly taken down with scarlet fever 
no one on hand to look out for me or care for me in such 
a dread disease. I was in one of the little dormer-rooms at the 
top of what was then Gorham Hall, and because the dormitory 
was full of other boys I had to be moved. Who was to do it? 
' Bull ' Wentworth was the man who marched into my room, 
wrapped me up as tenderly as a mother and carried me down 
to a warm, heated carriage that he had prepared, took me to a 
private house, carried me up again and himself put me to bed. 
That is the sort of thing that men will always remember of him. 
He had a big brain, but a bigger heart." 

Towards the latter days of his teaching Professor 
Wentworth grew even more free and easy in his dass- 
room duties than he had been at first. He would often 
come in a half hour late; and while some of the boys 
put their problems on the board, he would read the 
morning paper on the platform. But he was always 
aware of all that was going on, and would come down 
with awful severity on those who were not doing their 


best. His habit of being late to class fostered indif- 
ference in his pupils and made the row of the poorer 
students in mathematics hard* Under him recitation 
was a battle of nimbleness of wit ; not unmixed with 
trickery on the part of the student and badinage rein- 
forced by age and position on the part of the teacher. 
The bold student bluffed sometimes successfully and 
thrived; the timid often suffered exquisitely. The roar 
of " Bull " when defied was realistic. He tossed and 
gored unmercifully, yet withal kept a kindly manner. 
Relieved from the goring in " Bull's " class, the stu- 
dents tried the same tactics with other instructors, often 
to the rout of the teacher. With one in particular they 
succeeded. Many a cold day the class would open the 
window and nurse the thermometer in the snow until 
a scout announced the coming of the enemy. Then 
with boos and upturned coat collars the boys would 
damor for a cut; and only too often they got it. 

During his years of service, Wentworth was invari- 
ably made the confidant of boys who had fallen into 
trouble. No matter how serious the offence, he was 
ready to forgive the fault and help the sinner, under 
the one condition that the boy must tell the whole 
truth, and he had an uncanny faculty of detecting half 
truths. If the boy saw the light in time, he could count 
on the hearty support of the strongest single factor in 
Exeter authority. Wentworth was always ready to 
pardon every weakness to which school boys are prone; 
lack of sympathy was not one of his failings. In con- 
sequence, many boys came to rely on that fountain of 
help, and deliberately sinned and were forgiven. 

Professor Wentworth became famous as the author 
of a series of mathematical texts. For a long time he 
used geometrical figures, which he had the students 
keep in note books. Finally he collected the figures, 


and from them made his first text. By putting but one 
proposition on a page, and by making clearness the 
first essential, he made his texts popular. In all he 
wrote thirty-four texts on mathematics, some of which 
were translated into many foreign languages. 

When Principal Fish was struggling, in 1891, to make 
reforms, Mr. Wentworth opposed him. In order to give 
every chance to the new Principal, the Trustees voted 
Mr. Wentworth a year's leave of absence. Mr. Went- 
worth felt the tenseness of the situation, and therefore 
sent in his resignation as a member of the Faculty from 
Cairo, Egypt, on December 22, 1891. In 1899 he ac- 
cepted a position on the Board of Trustees and served 
until his death. 

On August 2, 1864, Professor Wentworth married 
Emily Hatch, of Covington, Kentucky, who died May 
i, 1895. He himself died suddenly in the railway sta- 
tion in Dover, of valvular disease of the heart, on May 
24, 1906. 

His gifts to the school were important. In 1897 he 
gave $4,000 towards a permanent mathematical fund; 
in 1903 almost $17,000, or half of the cost of Hoyt 
Hall, and in his will he bequeathed $10,000 more for 
the Wentworth Professorship of Mathematics. 

In the class room Professor Cilley was quite as much 
master as was Professor Wentworth. He was always 
punctual, was gruff with those who did not put forth 
their best effort, and by roaring sometimes intimidated 
those of little courage ; but he worked faithfully to teach 
the boys their Greek. If there was one thing that he 
hated fervently it was affectation and cant. Outspoken 
to the verge of rudeness in all matters, public and pri- 
vate, even in class he would not brook a stilted or over- 
fine translation. Throughout his life he was generous 


to every good cause, and often gave beyond his means. 
Of him Principal Amen once said: 

" Mr. Cilley was a man of gruff exterior; but he had a heart 
big and warm. Once during my first weeks in the school he 
called me to the desk at the end of the hour and said * Amen, 
why don't you recite better? You study your lesson, don't you? ' 
I assured him that I did, and he replied, ' I'm not so cross as I 
seem. When you pick up chips and do other work at my house, 
you do it well: now, just do your Greek with as much confidence, 
and you won't fail again.' And I didn't fail again." 

To some, Professor Cilley's bluntness seemed merely 
bad manners, but no one could come to know him well 
without recognizing his sincerity. He was willing to 
accept mediocre accomplishment if it was unaccom- 
panied by pretense. In the fall of 1897 he permanently 
dismissed from his class a student who he felt was an 
evil influence in the school. Facts became known later 
that justified his action. 

Both Wentworth and Cilley were full of zeal for the 
community. They always spoke at town meeting and 
attended the Republican caucuses. Also, Mr. Cilley 
was chairman of the building committee of the Second 
Congregational Church, and in 1888 was president of 
the day at the 25oth anniversary of the founding of the 
town. On the day when he visited Athens, Greece, he 
wrote to a friend in Exeter that grand as was the 
Acropolis, he would rather be sitting on a nail keg in 
Kelly and Gardner's store at home. So much were 
Wentworth and Cilley interested in town affairs that no 
public work was undertaken without their help. 

On August 3, 1864, Mr. Cilley married Amanda C. 
Morris, of Dover. Throughout her life she was active 
in church and philanthropic work; and she was the 
chief builder of the Exeter Hospital. 

For years Professor Cilley suffered from gout. In the 



school year 1889-1890, with his wife and two daughters 
he sailed for Hamburg. A record in his diary for 
September n, 1889, shows that he was in a low state of 
health. It reads: " Term begins at home, but without 
me. I feel blue enough. It seems as if my work was 
done I was dead & not buried." 

Their foreign travels included Germany, Italy, 
Greece, Switzerland, and England. Early in 1890 they 
returned, with Mr, Cilley's health much improved. In 
1898 he was again attacked by gout, but he kept bravely 
at his tasks. The wish which he frequently expressed, 
" I want to die in the harness," was granted, for toward 
the last he was carried to the class room in a hack. 
He heard his final recitation at five o'clock, February 
28, a month before he died. At the stroke of the bell 
he closed his book with his customary remark, " That 
is sufficient," and on March 31, 1899, he died. 

Professor Cilley never edited texts or wrote articles 
on Greek or the study of it. He was content to teach 
with accuracy, and to lead a simple, retired life, far 
from ambition and all its disquiet. 

The following story told by Camillus G. Kidder, 
class of 1868, at the alumni reunion in 1903, illustrates 
in a way the freedom and at the same time the restraint 
exercised over the students by Wentworth and Cilley 
near the close of Dr. Soule's long period of service. 

" It used to be said of Exeter in my time that there was 
absolute freedom, tempered by expulsion. In those days, I 
think it was in the year 1868, there came to this town a circus. 
At that time Exeter was what is regarded in theatrical circles 
as a one-night stand; it may be that its course is upward 
now, I don't know. On the afternoon of the day in which 
the circus was to perform in the evening, Dr. Soule at prayers 
called attention to the fact that it was here. That, I may 
say, was a work of supererogation; we knew it. He advised 
those who could profitably spare the time to go. He then went 


on to apply a moral. He said that the animals were interesting; 
the jokes of the clown, we should find, although somewhat trite, 
would be amusing. He said that it was particularly valuable 
to notice the folk that were brought in from the country-side, 
we should have a fine opportunity to study character. And 
then he continued in his impressive manner, * I have only one 
thing to say. I trust you will remember there, as everywhere, 
that you are young gentlemen.' We were dismissed. That 
evening the Academy was pretty universally there. There had 
been a plan, hastily formed, to take charge of the circus; it 
was thought that the proceedings might be varied and the clown 
assisted somewhat. But when we arrived we found Professor 
Wentworth well down in front on one side. Professor Cilley, 
in an equal coign of vantage, was also there. So the plan was 
abandoned, and all that was done was, I think, that one of our 
class had a theory that he could ride the trick mule which 
proved to be erroneous." 

Neither Wentworth nor Cilley would tolerate any- 
thing short of the greatest attainable perfection in class 
work. Both of them won and kept a great hold on 
those who sat under them. Not only the Academy but 
the whole country owes them an incalculable debt of 



God forbid that I should fail to remember the strong and wise 
counsels which he gave to me in what was the turning point of 
m y Efe. A Member of the Class of 1878. 

IT WAS a common remark among those intimately 
acquainted with Exeter that, when Principal Soule 
resigned, if neither Wentworth nor Cilley was elected 
to the principalship, the man who should be so honored 
would find a road of thorns. When in the early seven- 
ties Mr. Soule showed signs of failing strength, the 
Trustees made him Principal Emeritus, gave him a 
pension of twelve hundred dollars a year, and allowed 
him the use of the principal's house for life. Although 
reluctant to accept his resignation, they did so on 
February i, 1873. Meanwhile they gave Wentworth 
and Cilley power to carry on the school. It was gener- 
ally thought that one of the two would be elected 
principal, but according to the constitution the man 
who should be chosen to that office must be a member 
of the Church of Christ. Wentworth attended the 
First Church, and Cilley not only attended the Second 
Church, but was even chairman of the committee that 
directed the building of the new Phillips Church, as 
the Second Church voted in 1898 to call itself. But 
neither man was a member of the church that he at- 
tended. Therefore neither was eligible, under the 
constitution, for the principalship. 


It is doubtful, indeed, whether Mr. Cilley would 
have accepted the position had it been offered to him. 
He disliked discipline, and even asked to be excused 
from attending faculty meetings, which were largely 
concerned with cases of discipline. To Mr. Went- 
worth, however, authority was the breath of life. 
Even though he was not elected principal, he felt the 
responsibility which had come through his long period 
under Dr. Soule, and threw himself into carrying on 
the school. It was probably a disappointment to him 
not to be made principal in fact; but he was principal 
in all but name for a good many years. 

It was Albert Cornelius Perkins who was chosen as 
the fourth Principal of the Academy on May 22, 1873. 
He was the son of Nehemiah Perkins and Lydia 
Bradstreet (the latter a descendant of Governor Brad- 
street of Massachusetts), and was born in Topsfield, 
Massachusetts, December 18, 1833. After attending 
the grammar schools there he entered Phillips Acad- 
emy, Andover, in the fall of 1852. Like many another 
New England boy who has made a name for himself 
in the world, young Perkins obtained his education by 
a struggle with poverty. As a boy he worked in a small 
saw-mill, and learned his Latin grammar at night 
from a book fastened to the wall of the mill. A tallow 
candle stuck on a pine splinter furnished light, and the 
youthful scholar would snatch a moment's reading 
while the saw-log was running back into place after a 
board had been cut. Then he would turn again to the 
log, repeating meanwhile what he had read. There still 
exists a receipt for $125, dated December 12, 1859, 
the first year that Mr. Perkins taught after leaving 
college, which he paid to his father for the time granted 
to him for attending school during his minority. He 
had been nineteen when he entered . Andover as a 



student; so perhaps the price paid for two years of free- 
dom to attend school was satisfactory to both parties 
to the transaction. The old theory was, as George Ade 
puts it, that when a boy reached the age when his work 
could be of any slight value he must buckle to and help 
father " for the grub you have been sponging off me 
for the dozen years of your life." Most boys in private 
schools nowadays reverse the process. 

Mr. Perkins graduated from Dartmouth in 1859, 
and in 1879, when he had been Principal at Exeter for 
six years, received from Dartmouth the degree of LL.D. 
The two years following his graduation from college 
he taught at Phillips Academy, Andover. Then he 
taught in the Peabody High School and in the Law- 
rence High School. In Lawrence he was also active 
in social settlement work. His religious views were 
strictly orthodox, and qualified him in every way, under 
the Founder's stipulations, for the principalship of 

On his first appearance in Exeter the new Principal 
did not make a very favorable impression. He was 
large, ungainly, wore cowhide boots inside his trousers, 
and, as one of his admirers said of him, had a breath of 
the country about him. But he grew steadily in favor 
in every way during his days in Exeter. 

From the first he felt himself a member of the com- 
munity and took a deep interest in the welfare of the 
town. One Sunday morning when a great snowstorm 
had blown an elm tree across the sidewalk used by 
church-goers, he took an axe, cut the tree in two, and 
dragged the trunk from the walk. In town meeting 
he was listened to with respect and attention, and he 
was elected a Trustee of Robinson Seminary in Exeter. 

One handicap under which Mr. Perkins labored was 
the fact that he followed courtly and dignified Dr. 


Soule; another was that he had been principal of high 
schools and did not understand the undercurrents of 
private schools, which have many customs that have 
grown up almost unperceived, but are nevertheless of 
great authority. For example, minor cases of theft 
are usually settled as a family matter without calling 
the police. Like the early monasteries, private schools 
exercise a sort of temporal power over their little 
communities, and it is regarded as a breach of trust 
to go outside for aid in settling difficulties. The fol- 
lowing incident, related by a member of the class of 
1884, shows the difficulties that Principal Perkins had 
to contend with: 

"Among the Seniors was Hector M. Hitchings, who had 
charge of his brother Harry, a boy of thirteen, in the prepar- 
atory class. Their father, Benjamin Hitchings, was a lawyer 
of high standing in New York City. 

" In the beginning of the last term of the year 1874, Thomas 
Nast, the great cartoonist of the Tweed Ring, then at the height 
of his reputation, was scheduled for an entertainment in the 
Town Hall, and the boys of the Academy, about two hundred 
in number, occupied the entire right half of the Auditorium, 
while the townspeople occupied the left half. Eight o'clock, 
the hour scheduled for the commencement of the lecture, came 
and passed, and then eight-twenty, and no lecturer. At this 
time some of the boys began to be restless, and there was 
some clapping of hands and shuffling and beating on the floor 
with their feet, but nothing that was specially obnoxious or un- 
usual at previous entertainments under similar circumstances, 
when suddenly the little five-foot Town Constable darted down 
the middle aisle and seized Harry Hitchings, the smallest boy 
among the students and the one nearest the door, by the coat 
collar and attempted to drag him to the door; but before he had 
more than gotten the badly frightened lad to his feet, Hector 
came bounding over the heads of the intervening boys, seized 
his brother by the other arm and raised a cane to beat the 
Constable over the head, but his arm was seized by some of the 
townspeople who intervened until Professor Perkins came 


hurriedly up, and admitting that he was a party to the attempt, 
as he put it, to maintain order, insisted that the law should take 
its course and that the Constable should be allowed to eject 

" This attitude at once turned the indignation of the boys from 
the Constable, who, by this time thoroughly frightened, was 
only too glad to let go of his intended victim, to Mr. Perkins, and 
bitter and burning and indignant words were said to him to 
his face, such as doubtless he had never heard before from any of 
his students and had not expected to hear then or there. At this 
point, however, Mr. Nast came hurriedly out upon the platform, 
and by a few well chosen and apologetic words for his tardiness 
in appearing, brought everyone back to his seat and the lecture 
proceeded without further interruption." 

The feeling engendered by the occurrence, however, 
was deep seated; and from that moment until the end 
of the term and the departure of the boys to their 
various colleges, the attitude of the entire Senior Class 
was one of bitter antagonism to Mr. Perkins, and his 
influence over them was completely lost. 

As a counterpoise to that incident it is only fair 
to mention another occasion when Principal Perkins 
was concerned with a disturbance created by students 
in the town hall; but in this case he was heart and soul 
behind the students, not in an illegal way, but in a way 
to help solve their troubles. Some of the students 
had caused a small riot at a show, and were lodged in 
jail. Mr. Perkins immediately obtained their release, 
and at their trial appeared as their counsel. His de- 
fense, which he had worked out alone, was based on 
the contention that the show, not having been licensed, 
and being therefore given contrary to the law, could 
not bring suit for any disturbance. The point was 
sustained and the students were freed. The Prin- 
cipal's conduct of the case won the commendation of 
the lawyers of Exeter, who declared that Mr. Perkins 


should have been a member of the bar instead of a 

Had the Nast incident occurred after Perkins had 
come to understand the unwritten laws of private 
schools, he would undoubtedly have given the town 
constable his promise that the boy should make no 
further trouble, and thereby he would have strength- 
ened his hold over the students, not by being regarded 
as upholding lawlessness, but as maintaining the 
principles that the body politic of the school would 
itself exercise its power to punish such offenders and 
keep them in order without appealing to the sterner 
and less discriminating arm of the law. 

But if Principal Perkins suffered from his personal 
idiosyncracies and his somewhat ill-considered action 
in the early days of his service, his far weightier vir- 
tues were also recognized by his students, as is evident 
from what a member of the class of 1878 wrote of 

" He was a rather old-fashioned teacher. He gave more time 
to translations than to fine analysis of constructions. He gave 
us so many extra lessons in Latin Composition that we protested, 
and asked to be allowed to read more of the Latin Classics, 
which was granted. He was rather unconventional in his dress, 
and looked awkward on a stage, with his trousers high up his 
legs, showing his top boots. This caused some slur on his 
provincialism, and the remark that he still* had * the hayseed 
in his hair.' He had to face the criticism of a student body 
whose ideals were drawn largely from Harvard. These seem to 
be small matters. But strangely enough, it is the little things 
which upset the usefulness of Ministers and School Teachers. 

"Aside from all this, Principal Perkins had the elements of 
a great and good man, to whom a student might safely go, in the 
great crises of his life. God forbid that I should fail to remem- 
ber the strong and wise counsels which he gave to me in what 
was the turning point of my life! I sought his counsel, and 
he gave it to me kindly and freely. It was a question of my 


giving up a great moral battle and returning to the West Indies, 
and a Diplomatic career in the British Service, or continuing to 
pursue the ethical ideals which I longed for. He said, c If you 
return, your financial circumstances will be greatly improved. 
But I doubt if you will be happy in that life, after having be- 
come accustomed to the new way of life with us.' He simply 
echoed my convictions, and I have stayed and fought the matter 
out all these years." 

Many another Exonian thanks Principal Perkins for 
setting his feet on the road to victory. Herbert D. 
Foster, of the class of 1881, Professor of History at 
Dartmouth, relates that he was having trouble with 
mathematics, and in fear of being dismissed asked 
to drop the subject. After listening patiently to the 
halting request, Principal Perkins asked, " Foster, are 
you afraid of being fired for not doing your work? " 
What had been true an instant before was no longer 
true, and Foster squared his shoulders and said, " No, 
sir, I'm not! " and so ended the conquest of his educa- 

One of Principal Perkins's first tasks upon assuming 
office was to revise the schedule of studies. For a good 
many years the college requirements had remained 
unchanged; but President Eliot had come to Harvard, 
and if Exeter was to continue to fit for that college 
and others that were enlarging their requirements, 
the curriculum must be amended. The changes were 
made with the aid of the other Exeter teachers. Pro- 
fessor Cilley prepared to teach French, Professor 
Wentworth astronomy, and Mr. Perkins physics and 
botany. The modern languages, however, were soon 
taken over by Mr. Oscar Faulhaber, much to the relief 
of Mr. Cilley. 

A proof that Exeter was no longer merely a classical 
school, but was keeping pace with the new require- 


ments, was the establishment in 1875 of the Odlin 
Professorship of English, by Woodbridge Odlin, of 
the class of 1817. At first the Trustees were in- 
clined to refuse the gift; but when it became 
clear that there was no wish to establish an independ- 
ent course in English to the exclusion of the classics, 
the gift of $20,000 was accepted, and Principal Perkins 
was elected to the chair. 

In 1878 Mr. Perkins agreed to the founding of the 
Exonian, and it was by his wise counsel that the 
early traditions of journalistic fairness and usefulness 
were established. He had both to curb and to en- 
courage the youthful and fiery editors. At one time 
a whole edition had to be hastily suppressed owing 
to an attack on a member of the Faculty. But Mr. 
Perkins believed that the new undertaking was of 
value, and time has proved his wisdom. He also sanc- 
tioned the founding of the G. L. Soule Literary Society, 
in 1 88 1. The rivalry has proved a stimulus and not 
a danger. In all of those matters Mr. Perkins was 

The registration, meantime, was steadily increasing. 
In 1873-1874 it was 168; the next year it was 224; 
in 1880-1881 it was 234. While Mr. Perkins was 
Principal, 1,047 boys entered the Academy, of whom 
307 received college degrees from Harvard, 210; 
Yale, 152; Dartmouth, 17; Princeton, 14; Bow- 
doin, 9; Amherst, 8; Brown, 5; Williams, 2; Colum- 
bia, 2 ; Stevens Institute, 2 ; Johns Hopkins, i ; Boston 
University, i ; University of Vermont, i ; Marietta, i ; 
West Point, i; Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, i. 

But Principal Perkins suffered a greater disadvan- 
tage than that of an uncouth personal appearance or 
the lack of experience in private schools. He never 


felt that he had the support of Professor Wentworth, 
and that lack of support more than any other thing 
led him finally to resign. An incident will show what 
is meant. Towards the close of the Senior year of 
the class of 1879 Principal Perkins told a student that 
on account of his low standing in his studies he could 
not remain in school. The boy appealed to Professors 
Wentworth and Cilley, saying that he knew that he was 
a poor student, but that he was no worse than he had 
been for a long time; and he begged not to be sent 
home in disgrace. Both Cilley and Wentworth declared 
that the boy could attend their classes if he chose. 
Furthermore, he appeared at graduation with the other 
members of the class. The question of a diploma did 
not enter the matter, since at the time diplomas were 
not given; but the fact remained that there had been 
a direct clash between the Principal and the two most 
powerful men on the faculty, and that the Principal 
had lost. 

Again, members of the school had been forbidden to 
go shooting, owing to the accidental killing of Arthur 
Gorham at Hampton Beach. A town boy who was 
attending the Academy appealed to Mr. Wentworth, 
who told him that so long as he kept out of sight as 
much as possible he might go shooting. 

Both incidents were eagerly seized on by the stu- 
dents, for boys are quick to detect lack of harmony 
in authority. It would indeed have been a man of 
rare executive power who could have entirely swung 
the old guard to his will. Mr. Perkins was a scholar 
and a teacher; but he shrank from a contest in which 
he felt that the odds were overwhelmingly against him. 
His position was exceedingly difficult, and it is to his 
credit that he filled it better than could reasonably 
have been expected. Although he felt that he was 


shut out from many councils in which he should have 
had the leading voice, he kept his sweetness of temper 
and his courage. He had come at a critical time, and 
had much to contend with. Although the school 
grew in numbers and in material wealth, those who 
saw most clearly knew that something not quite 
tangible was wrong with it. Disorders among the stu- 
dents became so common late in the seventies that in 
1 88 1 the Trustees asked the Faculty to prepare a re- 
port on the matter. 

Not the least important of the services of Principal 
Perkins to Exeter was planning and bringing to a 
successful close the centennial celebration in June, 
1883. He saw the great opportunity to reawaken in- 
terest in the Academy among the alumni, and he threw 
himself into the task with all his power. No other 
celebration in the history of the school has been so 
important except that in 1838, when Principal Abbot 
resigned. The reunion of 1883 was attended by hun- 
dreds of alumni, who showed boundless enthusiasm for 
the old school and its masters. Mr. Perkins presided 
with tact and grace; at no time had he shown more 
polish or been more felicitous. The chief speakers 
were the Honorable Benjamin F. Prescott, the Honor- 
able Benjamin F. Butler, Edward Hale, Professor 
Alpheus S. Packard, D.D., George Bancroft, George S. 
Hale, President Charles W. Eliot, of Harvard, and 
Principal Cecil F. P. Bancroft, of Phillips Academy, 
Andover. The poet Edward R. Sill, '56, wrote a poem 
for the occasion. 

But the whole meeting expressed the conviction that 
it was the time of the parting of the ways. The old 
school with its simplicity of life and manners was gone; 
the returned alumni could not find the school that they 
had known, and they wished to be assured that the new 


school would foster, even amid change, the things of 
the spirit that they had learned to cherish. They 
looked back on the Academy's years of usefulness, 
and forward with hope for the future. Just what was 
needed to carry the great work to success no one knew, 
but the next few years proved only too well that what- 
ever it was, it had not been found. 

Although Mr. Perkins was the life and genius of 
the centennial celebration, and from every side received 
the well-earned thanks of lovers of the school, his own 
heart was heavy, for he had already resigned. His ten 
years of service as principal had been full of unselfish 
service to Exeter, but feeling as he did that he had not 
the whole-hearted support of the Faculty, he regret- 
fully resigned to become Principal of Adelphi Academy, 
in Brooklyn, New York. In' his letter of resignation he 
gave as a reason for resigning the inducement of a 
larger salary. At Exeter he was receiving $4,000 a 
year; at Adelphi he would receive $5,500. 

Upon receiving the resignation the Trustees ex- 
pressed to Mr. Perkins "their high and grateful ap- 
preciation of his services as Principal of Phillips 
Exeter Academy, of the worth of his example and in- 
fluence, and of those qualities of mind and heart which 
have secured their respect and confidence, which 
have made them warmly his friends, which have ren- 
dered their official and social intercourse with him uni- 
formly pleasant, and which give them sincere regret 
that it is desirable for him to dissolve the connection." 

The Exonian of May 12, 1883, said editorially: 

"Whenever such a change is made, those not acquainted 
with the circumstances wish to know how the teacher resign- 
ing was regarded in the school which he leaves. 

"We cheerfully and eagerly avail ourselves of this oppor- 
tunity to say that Dr. Perkins has endeared himself to our 


hearts. We admire his wisdom and his ability as a teacher, 
his sagacity as a man, and his sincerity as a Christian. He 
has been untiring in his endeavors to direct us by his counsel, 
and to lead us by consistent example to all that is manly and 

" We regret the loss which this Academy must suffer in his . 
departure, but we rejoice in the gain of the fortunate institution 
to which he is going. He will be followed by the best wishes 
and fond recollections of the many young men whose lives will 
be made more useful and more happy by his pure, powerful 
and unending influence." 

While Mr. Perkins was at the head of the Academy 
a number of teaching appointments were made. In 
1874 Oscar Faulhaber was made Instructor in French, 
and two years later his duties included teaching Ger- 
man as well. He served until 1887. Previous to 
coming to Exeter he had taught at Phillips Andover, 
and in the West. He was a south German by birth, and 
had received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at 
Tubingen in 1855. Another appointment was that of 
Frederick T. Fuller, A.B., who taught English 1875- 
1878. A third appointment was that of James A. 
Tufts, of the class of 1874, who became Instructor in 
English in 1878, and in 1885 Odlin Professor of Eng- 
lish. Since 1899 he has been the senior member of the 

Six elections to the Board of Trustees were made 
between 1873 and 1883, and there were five with- 
drawals. The elections were those of William H. Gor- 
ham (1827-1895), of the class of 1837, wh served 
1874-1879; Joseph B. Walker (1822-1913), of the 
class of 1838, who served 1874-1888; Phillips Brooks, 
(1835-1893), who served 1875-1880; Nicholas E. 
Soule, of the class of 1835, who served 1879-1886; 
Charles H. Bell, A.M., LLJD. (1824-1893), of the class 


of 1837, who served from 1879 till his death; and John 
C. Phillips (1835-1885), great-grandson of William 
Phillips, benefactor of Phillips Academy, Andover, who 
served 1881-1885. Of these men, William H. Gorham 
was the grandson of Benjamin Abbot; Joseph 
B. Walker belonged to a family of which nine mem-- 
bers, in four generations, had been alumni, the first 
member having entered in 1784; Phillips Brooks, a 
great-grandson of Judge Samuel Phillips of Andover, 
had a great affection for the school, addressed the stu- 
dents many times, and was an honorary member of 
the Golden Branch; Charles H. Bell was Governor of 
New Hampshire and United States Senator; he 
wrote a history of the town of Exeter and a short 
sketch of the Academy; and John C. Phillips, a bene- 
factor and graduate of Phillips Academy, Andover. 
In 1833 he made a gift of $25,000 to the endowment 
fund of the Academy. 

S. Clark Buzell, Treasurer 1862-1880, a native of 
Northwood, was born June n, 1806. He entered the 
Academy at the age of thirteen; on graduation he en- 
tered business in Boston, where he remained for eleven 
years. Then he moved to Exeter. In 1862 he was 
made Treasurer of the Academy, a position which he 
filled with the greatest diligence, care, and prudence 
for eighteen years. The school securities he kept under 
his constant personal supervision. On his resigna- 
tion shortly before his death, which occurred in 1882, 
the Trustees voted that " the President express to Mr. 
Buzell their thanks for his services, and a sense of 
their great value." 



THE year following Dr. Perkins's resignation was 
an interregnum, bridged by Professor Went- 
worth. Professor Cilley was on leave of absence in 
Europe for his health, and Mr. Wentworth gloried in 
the open exercise of authority that he had virtually 
held under Principals Soule and Perkins. The Trus- 
tees, looking for a new principal, felt that fresh blood 
was the tonic that was needed to start Exeter again on 
a career of progression, and some of them thought that 
fresh blood was most likely to come from the West. 
When, therefore, in 1884, Dr. Walter Quincy Scott, 
who since 1881 had been President of Ohio State 
University, resigned because of friction over a doc- 
trinal controversy, Dr. Nicholas E. Soule, a Trustee 
who lived in Cincinnati, at once recommended him as 
principal of Exeter. Dr. Scott's dash, power, and free- 
dom from convention were appealing. They won him 
regard and made friends for him and doubtless they 
were the qualities that won him the appointment as 
principal. He was chosen to the office on July i, 1884, 
at a salary of $3000 and the use of the principal's 
house on Abbot Common. 

Walter Q. Scott was born at Dayton, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 19, 1845, the s n f Abram McLean Scott, and his 
wife, Julia Ann Boyer. He was the sixth of thirteen 
children, and of the sixth generation from Hugh Scott, 



a Scotch Presbyterian who settled in Pennsylvania 
about 1670. Abram's father and grandfather fought as 
privates in the American Revolution. In 1856 the fam- 
ily removed to Fairfield, Iowa, where the boy Walter, 
like many another frontier son, grew strong in learning 
from his father to shoot, to ride, to swim, and to handle 
the axe and the plow. 

When the Civil War broke out, young Scott was 
eager to enlist, as his older brother William did, but he 
was restrained by his parents on account of his youth; 
but in December, 1863, at the age of seventeen, he en- 
listed in the Fourth Iowa Cavalry Veteran Volunteers, 
Company M. In order to do it he refused both a busi- 
ness partnership and an opportunity to enter West 
Point. He was in the field from Vicksburg to the end 
of the war. He marched with Sherman to the sea, 
served in the pursuit of Forrest, and fought at Mem- 
phis, Tupelo, Big Blue, Marais des Cygnes, Webber's 
Falls, Ebenezer Church, Selma, Columbus, and in 
other minor engagements. At the close of the war in 
1865 he was mustered out and entered Lafayette Col- 
lege, where he supported himself and graduated four 
years later, valedictorian of his class. Before gradua- 
tion he was elected to the faculty of Lafayette, for 
he had already won recognition as secretary to the 
president of the college, Mr. Cattell. Then he at- 
tended Union Theological Seminary, New York City, 
and was recalled to Lafayette as Professor of Mathe- 
matics. In 1874 he became pastor of Arch Street 
Presbyterian Church, in Philadelphia. Four years 
later he went to Wooster University, Ohio, as Professor 
of Mental and Moral Philosophy and Political Econ- 
omy. Thence he was called in 1881 to the presidency 
of Ohio State University and in 1909 was made Pres- 
ident Emeritus. 


Dr. Scott was of powerful physique and voice, tall, 
large and of noble carriage. He rode with the soldierly 
bearing that he had acquired in the Civil War; and 
his appearance on his white horse in the streets of 
Exeter became a familiar sight. As a scholar he worked 
slowly, accurately, and endlessly. He had a fine mem- 
ory, and retained what he had acquired in science and 
philosophy. Lecturing was his passion. His best 
known lectures were on " Time," " Julius Caesar," 
and " The Making of the Nation." As a preacher he 
was powerful and convincing. He spoke without notes, 
and leaning forward, let the fountain of words gush 
forth without restraint, John T. Perry, one of his crit- 
ics, remarked that if you heard the last fifteen minutes 
of his sermon, you always heard something good; but 
that the first three-quarters of an hour was likely to 
be tiresome. Liberality and breadth of view were 
strong in Dr. Scott; he preached in /the Unitarian 
Church, and defended freedom of thought. 

On coming to Exeter Dr. Scott found many dif- 
ficulties confronting him. The government of the 
school had been loosely administered by Professor 
Wentworth, as a sort of benevolent despotism. Better 
to rule like the Turks, loosely, than not to rule at all, 
seemed to be the motto. Dr. Scott tried to straighten 
matters out, but he lacked knowledge of the machinery 
and ways of eastern schools. When conflicts with the 
students arose, he asked police protection, a certain 
way to breed tumult. Also, he clashed with Professor 
Wentworth in matters of discipline, and would not 
yield. Principal Perkins had passed over many subver- 
sions of authority, but Scott was unwilling to do it. 
Accordingly, he had the following vote passed by the 
Trustees, the significance of which appears when it 


is remembered that Professor Wentworth had been in 
charge of most of the buildings named: 

" Voted, June 22, i886 ; that the government and control of 
Abbot and Gorham Halls, and of the several boarding houses, 
so far as the discipline therein, and the assignment and 
change of rooms are concerned, are the special province of 
the Principal; and that other members of the Faculty report 
to him for his determination any applications made to them 
respecting the same: and that a copy of this resolution be 
communicated to the Faculty." 

There were several provisions in the vote that were 
galling to Wentworth and Cilley. Wentworth resigned 
from control of the halls, but was at length prevailed 
upon to withdraw his resignation. Previously, most of 
the cases of discipline had been settled by Wentworth 
without reference to the faculty or the principal. But 
both Wentworth and Cilley now let the principal have 
his own way. When clashes came, they were secretly 
pleased; they could have stemmed the tide, but they 
argued that the principal had asked for supreme power, 
and therefore he should use it. The boys in the Acad- 
emy soon felt the lack of harmony, and took advan- 
tage of the chance for mischief and riot. 

One source of friction was the fact that Principal 
Scott had little reverence for old established Exeter 
customs and traditions. Having come from the West, 
where innovations are common and are welcomed, 
he could not understand that the venerable traditions 
dear to all Exonians are inviolable. He abolished the 
old penalty of sweeping-out as a punishment. For a 
hundred years the monitors had reported tardiness, 
absences, and other minor infractions, and the prin- 
cipal had required the delinquents who had the most 
black marks to sweep the hall. When one boy boldly 
objected to sweeping, Scott said, " I don't blame you; 


I wouldn't sweep myself/' and forthwith abolished the 
custom. It was a sad blow to the " old guard," who 
believed in the ancient traditions and landmarks. 

Many another venerable Exeter custom also fell be- 
fore the iconodasm of Principal Scott. For many years 
the students had held a huge bonfire on the town 
square at the close of school in June. The townspeople 
looked on while the boys danced about and cheered 
their own number and the Faculty, and in other harm- 
less ways gave vent to their superfluous enthusiasm. 
Dr. Scott objected to the celebration, and after a con- 
ference with the selectmen of Exeter announced that 
there should be no more bonfires. Hence the chief of 
police warned the boys that if they came into the 
square to build a bonfire, they would be promptly ar- 
rested. The boys thereupon prepared wooden billies, 
which they fastened, to their wrists with leather 
thongs. In turn, the officers swore in twenty special 
policemen. In the dash that followed many heads 
were broken, and a general alarm of fire was rung in, 
but the firemen refused to attack the students. Many 
of the students were arrested, and appeared the next 
day in court, charged with brawling and tumult. They 
paid nominal fines; but the townspeople hooted the 
officers and the Faculty, thus showing their sympathy 
for the boys in their andent and harmless frolic. The 
next year Judge Henry A. Shute forestalled trouble 
by persuading both the town officers and Principal 
Scott to allow the celebration. One graduate of the 
turbulent period relates that at a fight in the Academy 
yard in which every newly planted tree was uprooted, 
the boys finally expelled the police and the firemen. 

Student life at Exeter during Dr. Scott's term of office 
was thus often vicious and harmful. Feeling the lack of 
harmony between the Principal and the rest of the 


Faculty, the boys amused themselves as they chose. 
Their constant refuge in trouble, now as in the past, 
was Professor Wentworth, whose only stipulation was 
that they tell him the unvarnished truth. 

A graduate of 1888 says that once, while awaiting 
a penalty for some misdemeanor, he overheard the 
mother of a boy complaining to Mr. Wentworth that 
her son had gone to pieces in the school. Wentworth 
replied that in grinding marble some blocks thrown 
into the machine are ground to bits, but that mean- 
while they grind their brother blocks to a higher polish. 
He believed firmly in the old traditions of unrestraint. 

But Dr. Scott founded many new customs as well as 
destroyed some of the old ones. For one thing, he 
awarded diplomas to the graduating classes, beginning 
with that of 1888. In the early days certificates of 
work done had been granted, but for a good many 
years none had been given. Also in 1888 he devised 
the system of designating as honor men those students 
who attain high rank in studies. Such honors are now 
eagerly sought, and the holders form a sort of intellect- 
ual aristocracy to which every Exeter boy aspires. 

Dr. Scott was fond of the sciences rather than of 
the classics. He devised a stereopticon and had it 
made under his own direction at a machine-shop in 
Exeter. With it he gave many illustrated lectures. 
He also brought about the building of the physical 
laboratory in 1888, and he planned for the chemical 
laboratory which followed in 1891. His fondness for 
modern languages and the sciences led him to make 
changes in the curriculum. Of course certain changes 
were necessary to keep pace with the requirements of 
Harvard and other colleges; but those that Dr. Scott 
made brought him unpopularity with his colleagues on 
the Faculty, who felt that the changes were steps 


towards science rather than modifications made merely 
to meet new requirements. As a matter of fact, Dr. 
Scott held the confidence of no entire body of the 
people most concerned: he was hail fellow well met 
with the students, yet they distrusted him because of 
his reliance upon the police; the Faculty distrusted 
him because of his tactless reforms; and the towns- 
people also distrusted him. He had the unqualified 
support of no one. Yet with breezy lack of convention 
he entertained lavishly, and had as his intimate com- 
panions many of the young men and women of the 
town. He suffered greatly from his contempt of con- 

It remains, nevertheless, that in a material way, at 
least, Dr. Scott's services were of great value to Exeter. 
Besides the buildings already mentioned, he was in- 
strumental in obtaining a new dormitory, Gorham 
Hall, helped to build the first gymnasium, fostered club 
life, and established lectures as a relief from the drudg- 
ery of the class room. 

The number of students also increased steadily under 
Dr. Scott, for as yet the notoriety of student pranks 
had not caused the general public to lose confidence 
in Exeter. The registration for his five years, 1884- 
1889, was as follows: 1884-1885, 255; 1885-1886, 
240; 1886-1887, -281; 1887-1888, 320; 1888-1889, 
325. A large part of that steady growth was due to 
the confidence and affection that old Exeter boys felt 
for Professors Wentworth and Cilley. Graduates sent 
their sons and their friends sent theirs to be trained 
under the men whom they had feared and still honored 
and loved. 

But except for numbers, the years under Scott were 
years of retrogression. Under Principal Perkins in ten 
years, 1,047 boys entered, of whom 307 received col- 


lege degrees. Under Principal Scott 777 entered in five 
years, but of those who graduated only 138 received 
college degrees, divided as follows: Harvard, 79; Yale, 
28; Princeton 10; Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, 4; Amherst, Bowdoin, Brown, 3 each; Dart- 
mouth and Michigan, 2 each; Trinity, Wesleyan, West 
Point, and Williams, i each. The confidence of the 
community and of the general public in the character, 
the work, and the influence of the school was shaken. 
The impetus from the glorious old days of Abbot and 
Soule still brought some students; but it was clear 
that something must be done to regain the shattered 

Dr. Scott himself had felt for some time that he 
could not control the situation at Exeter; accordingly, 
on April 20, 1889, ^ e handed in his resignation, to take 
effect the first of the following September, which would 
close his fifth year as principal. His reason for resign- 
ing he gave as follows: 

" Out of regard for the welfare of my family I have recently 
accepted a partnership in business, from which my income will 
largely exceed my present salary." 

At the annual meeting on June 17, 1889, the Trus- 
tees passed this vote in regard to Dr. Scott's resigna- 

"Resolved, that the Trustees in parting with Dr. Scott de- 
sire to express their cordial appreciation of his faithful services 
to the Academy and of his steady interest in its success and im- 
provement. They also feel that it is proper to remember the 
constant and considerate interest which Mrs. Scott has mani- 
fested in the happiness and welfare of its pupils, and now add 
their cordial good wishes for the future happiness and pros- 
perity of both." 

On leaving Exeter Dr. Scott preached from 1890 
till 1893 at the First Presbyterian Church, Albany, 


New York. Then for several years, except for a short 
pastorate at Elmhurst, Pennsylvania, he lived a se- 
cluded life. From 1902 to 1912 he held the chair of 
Church History and Ethnic Religions in the Bible 
Teachers 3 Training School, New York City. He then 
retired and joined his son in Ellensburg, Washington, 
where he died on May 9, 1917. 

During Principal Scott's years four new appoint- 
ments to the Board of Trustees were made. 

Charles F. Dunbar, '44, Trustee 1885-1898, was 
born in Abington, Mass., July 28, 1830, and died at 
his home in Cambridge, Mass., January 30, 1900. He 
graduated at Harvard in 1851, and after a few years of 
business and literary work became Professor of Political 
Economy at Harvard. He served as dean of the col- 
lege, and dean of the faculty of arts and sciences. 
The college gave him the degree of LL.D. in 1891. 
For much of his life he struggled against poor health, 
yet he wrote much on economic subjects. 

John T. Perry, '43, Trustee 1885-1899, was born 
in Exeter, April 5, 1832, and died in Exeter, November 
29, 1901. He graduated from Harvard in 1852, a mem- 
ber of Phi Beta Kappa, and winner of a Boylston 
prize. Although admitted to the New Hampshire bar, 
he never practised, but took up journalism in Concord, 
and for twenty-five years was editor of the Cincinnati, 
Ohio, Gazette. In 1883 ^ e s ld h* s interests there 
and moved to Exeter. Here he continued his literary 
work. His very retentive memory, his omnivorous 
reading, and his foreign travels, which included the 
Orient, made him a storehouse of facts. As a member 
of useful committees and in many other ways he was 
of great service to his town. 

Francis O. French, '52, Trustee 1886-1893, was born 
in Chester, N. H., September 12, 1837, and died at his 


cottage in Tuxedo, N. Y., February 26, 1893. He was 
a descendant in the tenth generation of Edwin French, 
founder of Ipswich, Mass. He graduated at Harvard 
in 1857, and was poet of his class. He studied law 
with Amos Tuck, and in 1863 became deputy collector 
of the port of Boston. He revised the financial manage- 
ment of the Academy, and rendered other valuable 
services. As a member of the board of managers of 
the First National Bank of New York he oversaw the 
funding operations of the United States Government 

George S. Morison, '59, Trustee 1888-1903, was 
born in New Bedford, Mass., December 19, 1842; his 
immediate ancestors were of Scotch-Irish stock of 
Peterborough, N. H. He died July 2, 1903, at his home 
in New York City. His father was a graduate of the 
Academy, and was a clergyman and author of note. 
Mr. Morison graduated at Harvard in 1863, attended 
the Harvard Law School, and was admitted to the New 
York bar in 1866. But he had become interested in 
engineering, and never practised law. He became en- 
gineer for the Erie Railroad. His most notable con- 
tribution to his science was the building of five bridges 
across the Mississippi river, and nine over the Missouri, 
the latter task being of colossal proportions owing to 
the insecurity of the foundations. He also built the 
bridge over the Ohio at Cairo. He served on many 
government engineering commissions, and returned a 
minority report in favor of the canal at Panama rather 
than that at Nicaragua. He designed Soule Hall, and 
he and Mr. Wentworth between them gave the funds 
for the erection of Hoyt Hall. 



DURING the interregnum between the resignation 
of Mr. Scott and the election of the next princi- 
pal, Professor Wentworth again served as Chairman of 
the Faculty, and was strongly aided by his colleague, 
Professor Cilley. In that year, 1889-1890, 191 new 
students entered, and 334 were registered in all. 

The year passed without any great disturbances, 
for Mr. Wentworth could hold the school under con- 
trol when others could not. The discipline remained 
rather loose, however, and it was obvious that some 
radical move must be made before the school would 
again come under the complete control of the Faculty. 

The man for the difficult task was suggested by 
Sherman Hoar, '78. Although not at the time a Trus- 
tee, Mr. Hoar was afterward chosen a member of the 
board to succeed Francis O. French, whose death oc- 
curred in 1893. 

Charles Everett Fish, who was chosen as principal 
on June 16, 1890, made a heroic but an unsuccessful 
fight against the evils that he found at Exeter. He 
very nearly succeeded in overcoming them; had he 
been of a somewhat different temperament he might 
have won a complete victory. He had a clearness of 
vision that enabled him to lay some of the foundations 
that have since brought Exeter back; but he had also 
some inherent weaknesses which ruined the good work 





that he was trying to do. One reason for his failure 
was that it was a time of discord among all of the 
elements that ruled the Academy. Some have defended 
Mr. Fish, and some hold him responsible for the de- 
moralization that came upon the school. The truth 
probably lies somewhere between the two points of 

Mr. Fish was born in Cotuit, Massachusetts, May 
26, 1854, the son of John C. and Lavarah A. (Handy) 
Fish. At the local grammar school he showed such 
promise that wealthy summer residents encouraged 
him to prepare for college. Accordingly, he entered 
Phillips Academy, Andover, where he easily held first 
rank in his class, and was chosen as valedictorian. 
During his Middle year he accomplished the unique 
feat of winning both the Draper and the Means prizes; 
the first for a selected declamation, the second for an 
original declamation. Although open to the whole 
school, those prizes had never before been won by a 
lower classman. In 1874 Mr. Fish entered Harvard, 
but left at the end of his freshman year to earn money 
to send a sister to college. 

For four years he was principal of the Edward Little 
High School, in Auburn, Maine, where, on December 
4, 1878, he married one of his pupils, Mellie Rowe. In 
the fall of 1879 he returned to Harvard, and by ex- 
traordinary exertion graduated with the class of 1880, 
having spent just two years in college. 

He taught at Chicopee, and at Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts, and then opened a private school at Chicopee, 
but afterwards moved it to Worcester, where he had 
been for three years, when, at the age of thirty-five, 
he was called to Exeter. H was told that he was ex- 
pected to clean the Augean stables, and he set about 
the task with a will. 


One of the first needs that Principal Fish perceived 
was that of extending the dormitory system. Gor- 
ham Hall had been a start on an extended plan, but it 
had proved to be a source of trouble. Mr. Fish believed 
that better control was possible in dormitories, and car- 
ried his point. Also, he had the basement of Abbot 
Hall enlarged to accommodate 150 boarders. Until then 
the Abbot club had been conducted, under the over- 
sight of Professor Wentworth, by students, who hired a 
steward to assist Mrs. Ruth C. Shepard and her 
daughter in providing board, which cost from $2.85 
to $3.00 a week. In running the enlarged dining dub, 
Principal Fish made no provision for the prompt pay- 
ment of bills and had no system of checking receipts 
and expenses. As a result the accounts became badly 
tangled. That annoyed Professor Wentworth, who 
in managing Abbot Hall had tolerated no laxness; Mr. 
Fish thereupon complained of lack of support, and ac- 
cordingly Mr. Wentworth went abroad for a year, and 
while abroad resigned his professorship. 

The loss of Professor Wentworth led to much specu- 
lation among the alumni. The following that he had 
was unique in American schools. Not even the famous 
Dr, Keate of Eton had a more devoted clientele. 
Alumni had sent their sons to Exeter because of the 
strong personality of Wentworth; and they felt that 
with his passing the old Exeter was gone forever. 

Since the earliest days of the Academy, rules have 
not had much vogue at Exeter, but Mr. Fish very 
early began to make many both for the students and for 
those townspeople who kept student roomers or board- 
ers. One rule, in particular, that caused trouble was 
the decree that all rooming places must first be ap- 
proved in writing by the principal, who, however, in 
case he did not approve a student's selection, did not 


consider it necessary to give his reasons for refusing. 
The principal's arbitrary refusal to take the house- 
holders into his confidence was the cause of much bit- 

A certain lack of decision, or of willingness to stand 
by a decision that he had once made, was a further 
misfortune. On one occasion he gave the musical clubs 
permission to appear in Amesbury, and then, without 
giving any reason, suddenly required the manager to 
cancel the engagement. When the manager remonstra- 
ted with him, he changed his mind again and allowed 
the clubs to appear, not in Amesbury as at first planned, 
but this time in Portsmouth. 

On another occasion he absent-mindedly gave a boy 
permission to leave Abbot Hall to room in town; but 
meeting the boy on the street trundling his books in a 
wheelbarrow, he denied having given the permission, 
and sent the boy back to Abbot. At the end of one term 
he dismissed thirty boys, but on their promise of good 
behavior took most of them back all, it was said, 
of those who begged hard enough. 

Early in his career as principal Mr. Fish fell into 
serious difficulties with men in town whose friendship 
he needed. He had employed a detective to discover 
the evildoers in school this at the suggestion of one 
of the Trustees, he said; and besides that, he appealed 
to the police for personal protection. The second fact 
he presently denied in chapel; but the following morn- 
ing a lawyer of Exeter and one of the selectmen ap- 
peared in chapel and told the boys that Mr. Fish had 
asked police protection. There the matter rested; the 
boys were at liberty to take the word of one party or 
the other. The result was, of course, that the man 
who most needed the confidence of the undergraduates 
the boys who were soon to become alumni, and as 
such the future hopes of the school lost it. 


Another thing that caused trouble and that placed 
the Academy in the worst aspect before the public, was 
the delight that Boston and New Hampshire papers 
seemed to take in airing and exaggerating every dis- 
turbance. A correspondent of the Manchester Union 
was particularly unscrupulous and offensive. The 
Exonian replied in kind. 

By the spring of 1891 discord was at its height. In 
dealing with such matters Principal Fish seldom acted 
with that tact that is usually the greatest wisdom. He 
feared personal injury, and wore brass knuckles. At 
a memorable forbidden bonfire he was hissed, and 
quickly retorted, " Nothing but geese and snakes do 
that " an undignified sally that called forth only 

Mr. Fish failed, too, to see that Exeter, unlike pub- 
lic schools, requires care the year round. At the end 
of his first year he remarked with relief that he was 
glad to get away for the summer to Cotuit. 

"What will become of the school while you are 
away? " asked one of the Faculty. 

" What school? " innocently asked the principal. 
He had failed to grasp the requirements of his posi- 

But beside the things in which Mr. Fish failed must 
be set a long and creditable list of those in which he 
succeeded. In his fight to improve the morals of Exeter, 
he closed places that sold liquor and places that were 
otherwise notorious for disorder; and he even removed 
one or two members of the Faculty who could not main- 
tain a proper degree of discipline. But those acts, well 
intentioned and indeed salutary as they were, never- 
theless made enemies in the town on one hand and in 
the Academy on the other. 
It was only after a long fight that Mr. Fish carried 


that most important point for the good of the Academy 
persuading the Trustees to build a new dormitory. 
The plans for a building to house fifty-two boys were 
drawn by George S. Morison, of the class of 1859, 
Trustee 1888-1903. A peculiarity of the hall, named 
in honor of Principal Gideon L. Soule, is that the 
rooms open on small landings, each room being on a 
different level from every other in that well. From 
the peculiar design it was thought to be "rough- 
house " proof. Soule Hall was opened in 1893, and 
the rapidity with which it was filled with students 
proved Mr. Fish was correct in his belief that boys pre- 
ferred dormitories to private houses. 

Another reform that Mr. Fish brought about was the 
heating of Abbot Hall from the central boiler house. 
It did away with the air-tight stoves and the wood 
bins in the basement, removed the constant menace of 
fire, and also gave the students more time for their 

Another of Mr. Fish's reforms was abolishing the 
secret fraternities. They had become troublesome 
through their objectionable public initiations, their ex- 
clusiveness, which caused heart burnings and jealousy, 
and through their open planning of mischief. But the 
principal's courageous step of course filled the hearts 
both of graduate and undergraduate members of the 
societies with wrath. Nevertheless, Mr. Fish was not 
to be driven from his task, though he suffered deeply 
from those whose hostility he thus incurred. 

Principal Fish always revered the history and tradi- 
tions of the Academy. He placed a fine bronze tablet 
in the entrance to the main building, on which is the 
quotation from the constitution: " It shall ever be 
equally open to youth of requisite qualifications from 
every quarter." In other ways, too, he showed good 


taste in beautifying the grounds and the buildings. 
To those boys who held scholarships boys who were 
working their way he was invariably kind and con- 
siderate, remembering, no doubt, his own struggles at 
Andover and Harvard; but to triflers he was adamant. 
When it became evident both to the Trustees and to 
Mr. Fish that with all of his reforms he was not likely 
to succeed, he resigned, under date of March 30, 1895. 
The Trustees took the occasion to place on their record 
this minute of sincere tribute to the retiring Principal: 

" The Trustees find the resignation of the late Principal a 
proper occasion for making a permanent record of the fact that 
Mr. Fish assumed the charge of the Academy at a time when, 
in their judgment, by reason of changes of time and surroundings, 
the administration and discipline of the school stood in need 
of serious measures of reform. The task devolving upon him 
was therefore both difficult and ungrateful. To its accom- 
plishment he devoted himself with energy and fidelity, with 
full appreciation of the gravity of the situation and with a high 
and clearly defined ideal of the position ultimately attainable. 

" The Trustees recognize that an important stage in this 
long and difficult work has been accomplished under his care, 
and that to his devotion and resolution the Academy owes a 
debt which will be recognized hereafter more and more clearly. 

" They also record their strong sense of his constant efforts 
to sustain and invigorate the general tone of the school, and 
of the contribution made by him as a teacher to the improvement 
in its scholarship exhibited by its own records and those of the 
colleges for which it has prepared students under his administra- 

To show that their graceful tribute was not mere lip 
service, the Trustees voluntarily continued Mr. Fish's 
salary for a year after his resignation. 

After leaving Exeter, Mr. Fish conducted a private 
school in Waban, near Boston, for four years. Then he 
went to Poughkeepsie, New York, to prepare girls for 


Vassar; from there he went to the School of the Lacka- 
waima, Scranton, Pennsylvania; but he found his most 
congenial work as superintendent of schools in Man- 
chester, Amesbury, and Merrimack, Massachusetts, 
where he was loved by parents and scholars. At the 
age of sixty, when at the ripest period of his life, he 
was retired on a pension under the age limit rule; but 
he was unwilling to quit work, and accepted a position 
in the State University Extension movement. While 
speaking in Washington Hall, Amesbury, about the 
new movement, on the evening of October 23, 1916, he 
suddenly threw one hand to his head, and at once ex- 
pired of cerebral hemorrhage. 

In reviewing the work of Principal Fish at Exeter 
one must keep in mind the hugeness of the task, the 
forces that worked against him, and the fact that an 
artistic temperament was forced to contend with de- 
tails that were inherently distasteful. The clearness 
of vision of the man was remarkable. Many of his 
theories were sound, and have helped make Exeter a 
better school. 

During his five years of service 743 new students 
entered the Academy, but the number in actual at- 
tendance shrank rapidly because of numerous expul- 
sions and voluntary withdrawals. The numbers present 
during the years of his principalship were as follows: 
1890-1891, 355; 1891-1892, 299; 1892-1893, 251; 
1893-1894, 249; 1894-1895, 222. The Academy had 
thus lost all of the growth that it had attained during 
the principalships of Perkins and Scott, and in numbers 
actually in attendance was where it had been in the 
days of Gideon L. Soule, when the attendance was pur- 
posely kept small. 

Under Scott, 13 colleges took all of the Exeter 
graduates; but under Fish the graduates went far and 


wide, being divided as follows among 41 colleges: 
Harvard, 118; Yale, 60; Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, 14; Dartmouth, 9; Pennsylvania, 8; 
Boston University, 7; Princeton, 5; Columbia, 4; New 
York University, 4; Williams, 4; Cornell, 3; Amherst, 
Bowdoin, Hamilton, Michigan, Missouri State, Wes- 
leyan, and West Point, 2 each; Albany Law School, 
Baltimore Medical School, Buffalo Medical, Cali- 
fornia, Chicago, Columbia Law School, City of New 
York Medical, Dickinson, Drew Theological Seminary, 
Georgetown, Georgia, Iowa, Lehigh, Manhattan, Mem- 
phis Hospital Medical, Minnesota, Rochester, Rush 
Medical, Stanford, Syracuse, Tufts, West Penn- 
sylvania Medical, Union, i each. 

Three appointments to the Board of Trustees came 
while Mr. Fish was principal. These were of great 
importance to Exeter. 

Sherman Hoar, '78, Trustee 1893-1898, was born 
July 30, 1860, in Concord, Mass., and died in the same 
house in which he was born, October 7, 1898, of typhoid 
fever contracted in southern camps where as a member 
of the Massachusetts Aid Association he was serving 
among the ill and suffering United States soldiers of 
the Cuban campaign. His great-grandfather was 
Roger Sherman, one of the drafters of the Declaration 
of Independence. Mr. Hoar graduated at Harvard as 
class orator, and as winner of the Boylston prize for 
oratory in 1882. He studied law, and became a fear- 
less and fervent political reformer, showing great civic 
virtue and courage. In 1893 ^ e was elected to Con- 
gress. For four years he was United States District 
Attorney for Massachusetts. Owing to press of work 
he resigned as Trustee in the spring of 1898. He 
lectured frequently to the students, the last time in the 
winter of 1897, when he spoke on " American courage." 


He gave the Academy a fine collection of books on 
American history for the reference library, and in his 
will he left $1,000 to endow prizes for original compo- 
sitions drawn from subjects on American history. His 
death was directly due to his service of the country; but 
belonging as he did in Concord, where patriotism is 
always at flood tide ; he could not keep out of service, 
even though he was not a soldier. 

With the death of S. Sidney Smith, class of 1866, 
at Atlantic City, N. J., on January 25, 1922, the 
Academy lost a man who as Trustee had served for 
twenty-six years with astonishing zeal and devotion. 
His own personal business and pleasure always took 
a poor second place when the interests of the Academy 
were at stake. He was born in New York City, April 
15, 1849, and graduated at Harvard in 1870. Then he 
studied law. He was twice married; the first time to 
Katherine V. Toffey, who died in 1884, leaving one 
daughter, Julia P. Smith; and to Edith Cornell. To 
them was born a son, Philip S., who died at the age of 
seventeen, after having shown rare promise as a sculp- 
tor. Mr. Smith served as Trustee from 1893 to 1919, 
after 1903 as President of the Board. He came when 
the school was small, out of favor, and when seemingly 
incurable ills beset it; he left it a school of large num- 
bers, of high standing, and great promise. Under 
his direction the Academy made the vast growth that 
has come. The Plimpton Fields, and many new build- 
ings came during his years, including Dunbar, Webster, 
Hoyt, Alumni, Peabody, and other halls, besides the 
great new recitation hall, which was built in 1915 to 
take the place of the one burned in the summer of 1914. 
In all these new projects Mr. Smith worked with end- 
less care. He went over minutely each sketch and plan ; 
and meanwhile he was tireless in appeals to the alumni 


for help to carry out the enlargement of the school. 
In addition Mr. Smith was Trustee of All Souls 
Church; of the Hospital for Ruptured and Crippled 
Children; and he was one of the founders of the Gilbert 
A. Robinson Home, New York City. His unselfish work 
for the Academy must ever be a model for those who 
would serve. 

William P. Chadwick ; class of 1882, Trustee 1893- 
1904, was born in Exeter, December 28, 1864, and was 
accidentally drowned at Barnstable, Mass., September 
24, 1904. He studied privately, and entered Harvard 
Law School, from which he graduated in 1890. He 
refused an offer of partnership with Elbridge T. Burley, 
of Lawrence, Mass., in order to return to Exeter to 
care for an invalid sister, to whom he was most devoted 
until her death. From his election to the Board of 
Trustees in 1893 until his untimely death he devoted 
all of his strength and energy to serving the old school. 
On him Mr. Amen relied implicitly; and in him the 
students found a rare and true friend. In order to 
serve the Academy he literally gave up the practice of 
his profession. Extreme modesty and personal dignity 
of the old type were most prominent characteristics. 
One act for the Academy was the establishment of the 
prize for general excellence in studies, which is one of 
the most highly sought among Exeter honors. 

John E. Gardner, class of 1848, Treasurer 1889- 
1895, was born in the ancestral house in Exeter, Janu- 
ary 13, 1835, and died in the same house August 21, 
1899. After graduating at Harvard in 1856, he went 
to Chicago to enter business, but he soon returned to 
Exeter and became a partner in the long-established 
hardware business of his father. From 1895-1896 he 
served as first cashier of the Academy. 



We shall do everything in our power to keep Exeter Exeter, and 
not to have it made over into something different from what the 
founder and the benefactors intended it to be. It should always be 
kept a democratic school, and a school for earnest, competent boys. 

Dr. Amen 9 June 20, 1903 

JTM3OSE who are interested in the history of 
JL Phillips Exeter turn with relief from the trying 
days of the eighties and early nineties to the days of 
the seventh principal, Harlan P. Amen. Mr. Amen 
found the school low in numbers and morale, the 
Faculty discouraged, and the general public looking 
askance at the academy that had once held a place in 
secondary education. The wrangling and dissension, 
the changing policy, the succession of principals, had 
brought a condition that cried for change, and Mr. 
Amen wrought the change. 

Harlan Page Amen was born at Sinking Spring, Ohio, 
April 14, 1853, the son of Daniel and Sarah J. (Bar- 
ber) Amen. After attending the public school of his 
native town, he spent two years at the Portsmouth, 
Ohio, high school. Then he went to work as a clerk 
in a book store in Portsmouth, where he showed the 
qualities that later brought him success. He studied 
as opportunity offered, but he soon saw that unless 
he made a change, his chance for an education was 
small. Hence he struck out for himself. 


From his former employer, Captain Riley, he brought 
letters to Dr. Shurtleff, ex-mayor of Boston and secre- 
tary of the faculty of the Harvard Medical School, on 
whose advice he entered Exeter. He had but thirty- 
five dollars in his pocket, but he set vigorously 
to work. He sawed wood, tended furnaces, mowed 
lawns and milked cows the homely duties of many 
students who have helped to make Phillips Exeter 
famous. Yet in spite of his outside work, he took high 
rank in his studies and in his Senior year won the Gor- 
don scholarship, his chief competitor being his own 
roommate, William DeW. Hyde, afterward President 
of Bowdoin College. 

Of Mr. Amen's school days Judge Shute writes: 

" He was, I think, the most popular man, and the most re- 
spected, in his class. He was good natured, extremely modest, 
absolutely honest and dependable, and exceedingly helpful to 
stupid or lazy classmates. He was a fine player at football, for, 
although a boy of medium size, he was as quick as a panther, and 
as strong." 

From the Academy Mr. Amen went to Harvard in 
the fall of 1875, an d graduated in 1879. His work 
there was earnest and steady rather than brilliant, 
though he ranked high. His friend Hyde said of his 
college course: 

" At the end of the freshman year, when choosing our sopho- 
more dectives, I said to him, 'Now I suppose you will take 
sciences, which come easier to you.' ' No,' he replied, c I know 
I shall have a harder time and get lower rank, but I am going 
to keep at Latin and Greek until I master them.' This dili- 
gence and fine precision, acquired in seven years devoted mainly 
to classics, prepared him to master the complicated details of 
educational administration." 

One story of Mr. Amen's college days told by Judge 
Shute is illuminating: 



" I never saw him angry but once, and I and several other 
fellows who happened to be in my room have reason to re- 
member it. There was a very famous trial going on in the 
courts, and the papers were full of the details of the case, which 
we read with the greatest avidity, and with the inconsiderate 
rashness of youth settled the matter beyond peradventure that 
the defendant, one of the greatest and best men the country 
has ever known, was guilty, and this before hearing his side of 
the case. 

"One evening a half dozen fellows were in my room dis- 
cussing the matter when Amen came in to return a book to 
Brown, my chum. He listened to our strictures with increas- 
ing indignation, and finally exploded: c Fellows, it is a shame 
to talk as you are talking and condemn a man as you are doing. 
If it has come to the point that man who has given his entire 
life to the highest and best work a man can do, who has been 
tried out in a hundred ways and found true, is condemned by 
decent American citizens as you fellows are, and condemned 
unheard, then there is something wrong with the American 

"There was an awkward pause for a moment and then he 
said, very quietly and soberly, * I am sorry that I lost my temper, 
but think it over, fellows, and see if I am not right/ and he 
said good-night and was off. But we who remained felt that the 
lash had been laid across our shoulders, and that we richly 
deserved it." 

From Harvard Mr. Amen went to Riverview Acad- 
emy, Poughkeepsie, New York, as instructor in Latin, 
mathematics and English. In 1882 he became joint 
principal of Riverview, and by bringing up the school 
in standing and in numbers showed the administrative 
ability that inspired his friends to urge his election as 
principal of Exeter. 

Mr. Amen was appointed on June 17, 1895, at a 
salary of $5,000 a year. Since his income as part owner 
of R,iverview was $10,000 a year, his acceptance of the 
new position was a great material sacrifice, and he took 
it only on certain written conditions. He had been to 


Exeter to look the situation over thoroughly , and 
had made up his mind what steps were necessary. Since 
he was unwilling to undertake the task if there was any 
danger of interference with his plans, he made his 
stipulations plain. One was that the tuition be raised 
to $100 a year; another was that in 1897 & sal- 
aries of teachers be raised, if the increase was war- 
ranted by the finances of the school; another that a 
new dormitory be built and ready for use by the fall 
of 1896; and still another that new instructors be 
appointed by the principal, who should also have the 
power to remove instructors then in service. One other 
stipulation, that he be not required to speak at 
alumni gatherings or at any public meeting neither 
Mr. Amen nor the Trustees wished to hold by when 
the time came. An aversion that amounted almost to 
panic seized Mr. Amen whenever he was called on to 
speak; but he could delegate to no one else the precious 
task of telling the alumni of the progress of the school; 
so he himself broke the agreement. 

The new principal saw that the school must be re- 
built in three ways: first, by removing undesirable 
boys; second, by building up a strong and able faculty, 
with the men already on the existing Faculty as a 
nucleus; and third, by winning the confidence of the 

Mr. Amen laid the greatest emphasis on a strong 
faculty, and spared neither time nor money to engage 
the best men available. Men who he felt did not lead 
and inspire, he let go; but men who succeeded he 
clung to. When he came to Exeter, there were twelve 
instructors receiving an average of $1,850 a year; 
when he died, there were thirty-three instructors re- 
ceiving an average of $2,175. The salar y budget was 


raised during his administration from $22,000 a year 
to $71,885. 

The Faculty at Exeter has always had the greatest 
liberty of expression; a Faculty meeting is never 
dominated by the principal, but every man feels that 
he has the fullest freedom. The initiative on the 
part of the individual members Mr. Amen was careful 
to respect. He expressed his own views, but he was 
often voted down on some pet measure for which he 
had long worked. Although he doubtless felt chagrin 
in such cases, he never held an adverse vote against 
those who made it. 

Of the men who were on the Faculty when Mr. Amen 
became Principal there are three still in the Academy: 
Professors Tufts and Francis, and Mr. Ford, Assist- 
ant to the Principal. Professor Cilley, who was ap- 
pointed in 1858, and had taught Mr. Amen Greek, 
died in 1899. William A. Stone, Instructor in physics, 
resigned in 1899 to study medicine. George R. White, 
Instructor in chemistry, resigned in 1898 to found a 
school in Massachusetts; Walter R. Marsh, Instructor 
in mathematics, resigned in 1896, and later became 
Principal of St. Paul's, Garden City, Long Island; 
Frederick Winsor, Instructor in English and history, 
resigned in 1897 a^d founded Middlesex School, Con- 
cord, Massachusetts; and Samuel G. Oliphant re- 
signed in 1899 to do graduate work in Johns Hopkins. 
He is at present Professor of Greek in Grove City 
College, Pennsylvania. 

Many additional instructors were appointed by Mr. 
Amen. He often traveled long distances to talk with 
a candidate and his family; and watched to see that 
the younger men grew with their years of service. He 
gave every teacher a chance to develop his individu- 
ality; but if a teacher did not measure up to Exeter 


standards, he dropped him. He frequently said to 
his instructors, " I hold you responsible for results." 
But by results he meant far more than merely meeting 
college entrance examinations. To an alumnus he 

" Neither imposing buildings nor extensive grounds alone make 
a school great or efficient. The essential feature is a band of 
able instructors joyfully consecrated to their work; strong, 
thoroughly trained men who are natural leaders of boys; men 
of large minds and hearts, whose sympathies go out to boys, 
and whose cultured minds, good sense, and manly ways win or 
compel youth to their best effort. It is the continuous disin- 
terested, devoted service of such men that makes an institution's 
history rich in influence and traditions, effective in work, in- 
spiring in leadership. By such men alone has the Academy 
done its work in the past: by such only can its best work be 
done in the present and in the years to come." 

In appealing for a teachers' endowment fund to in- 
crease salaries ; Mr. Amen said: " The instructors in 
the Academy must be men not only of the highest cul- 
ture and refinement, but men who, by actual contact 
with the world, have a broad and rich outlook upon 
life. For such men books, music, travel, participation 
in the social life of the community, the various ameni- 
ties of civilization, are not luxuries but prime necess- 

Dr. Amen was always keenly alive to the dignity and 
worth of the position of a teacher in a secondary school 
He continually remarked to the men who had charge 
of the younger boys in Dunbar Hall that theirs was 
a chance to work themselves into the lives of these boys. 
As a matter of fact, he would have liked nothing better 
than to teach in a subordinate position, for he was 
primarily a teacher. He had no patience with the 
college man of Ph.D. rank who scorns secondary school 



teaching. To a candidate for the position of instruc- 
tor in French, he wrote: 

" I am forced to believe from your letters that you look upon 
work in a secondary school as beneath your ability and ac- 
quirements. I should be unwilling to recommend for appoint- 
ment to a position in the Academy any one who had this feeling 
about secondary school work. Secondary school work of the 
highest kind implies as high scholarship and as great ability 
as work which is being done in the great majority of the colleges 
of our country. We have never had to urge a college Instruc- 
tor to come to Exeter. The attitude of many college Instructors 
toward secondary school work is unreasonable and unpardonable. 
It shows great lack of appreciation of the dignity and worth 
of secondary school opportunities. 

" Both in England and Germany secondary school work is 
looked upon most favorably by the best scholars, and some of 
the greatest men have won their reputation in secondary work. 
The time has come in our country when a few strong scholars, 
at least, ought to appreciate the best opportunities which are 
open to men who are by nature and training equal to the de- 
mands made of the Instructors in schools like this. 

" It does not follow that because a man is successful in college 
that he will be successful in a school of this kind. I think that 
it is unfortunate that the colleges themselves are giving the im- 
pression to their candidates for the doctorate of philosophy that 
secondary school work should be beneath their consideration." 

The educational creed of Dr. Amen is well illustra- 
ted by the following letter, which he wrote to the head 
master of another school: 

" The elements of a satisfactory education are comparatively 
few in number, and are older than our country. I agree with 
you perfectly that a great deal of time is being wasted in our 
schools and colleges. I believe that the swing of the pendulum 
will soon be in the other direction, and that people are learn- 
ing that the great educational need of the present time is not 
more subjects, but fewer thoroughly taught and learned. There 
is little effective work done in schools and colleges compared 
with what was accomplished a generation or two ago. There 


is much " lecturing " and much " listening/ 5 but too little per- 
sistent, constant use of the student's own individual initiative 
effort in many studies." 

The classics received Dr. Amen's strongest support, 
yet he did not insist that every boy take Greek. In 
the days when science was receiving more than usual at- 
tention, he still fostered Latin and Greek. 

On this subject on January 18, 1904, Mr. Amen 

"I do not believe that there is any perfect substitute for 
Greek in school or college studies. If we could insist on ideal 
conditions, I should feel that Greek ought to be maintained 
as a college entrance requirement. In this practical age, how- 
ever, when many useful studies are pressing for recognition, I do 
not believe that it is feasible or advisable that Greek should 
be a specially protected subject for admission to college. 

" I am confident that our own work in Greek has gained in 
interest and efficiency from the moment when we required 
only those students to take Greek who understood in some 
measure its value and could appreciate the beauty and inspira- 
tion which cling to the subject, and who study Greek, as it 
ought to be studied, enthusiastically and effectively." 

As to the general policy of the Academy, Mr. Amen 
wrote on April 20, 1903: 

" It has been a difficult task to steer our way safely between 
a proper degree of modern progressiveness and the Academy's 
ancient traditions. There is much in the ancient tradition that 
ought to be preserved and that marks the Academy as a distinct 
and effective institution. 

"We are doing our utmost to keep alive in the school the 
best of the things which made the Academy's reputation in 
the past, and yet to lay hold of anything that is really good 
in more modern methods of instruction and discipline. The 
earnestness and independence which have always characterized 
the Academy are precious relics of the past, and we shall maintain 
them at any cost. . . . 




"I believe with you that there are parents enough in the 
country who wish the simplest and the best things in education 
'without frills and pretense' to support the school in its aim 
to attend strictly to business, to insist upon good work, and take 
the consequences whatever they may be." 

As a teacher himself Mr. Amen was magnetic, thrill- 
ing. Following the habit of the earlier principals, 
he taught Latin, and in his classroom idlers found 
themselves working to keep pace with his enthusiasm. 
He made every student feel that he was the most 
highly favored being in the world to have the oppor- 
tunity of studying Latin in this great old school; that 
his usefulness in life depended on the daily task 
of translating into polished, exact prose the author that 
the class was reading. He had the rare faculty of 
making Latin real, vital. The Roman again walked 
the streets and spoke in the Forum. Cicero, no longer 
a misty character of antiquity, but a man of flesh and 
blood, a modern lawyer, shouted his invectives against 
the defenseless Catiline. Mr. Amen expected his stu- 
dents to put themselves in the place of the characters 
they read about. " A fleet off the mouth of the Tiber," 
" What, then, says your friend Hortensius? " and a 
thousand other phrases of vivid English he poured in- 
to the attentive ears of his students. Every chance to 
read or translate was seized on eagerly. Mr. Amen's 
kindling, appreciative eye at a happy modern turn 
of expression from Latin was a sweet reward for a 
school boy. From the moment he entered the room 
until the end of the hour he was the personification of 
restless, unceasing energy. He would pace the platform, 
turn a page, seat himself, rise with a gesture to spur 
on a laggard, then walk down the platform again, lead- 
ing his soldiers with Caesar's own fire; and his stu- 


dents were an eager, impetuous, blindly devoted Tenth 

In the early years of his principalship Mr. Amen 
knew every boy personally. Though he easily forgot 
names, his ability to recall faces and circumstances 
was little less than marvelous. He made every student 
feel that he was his personal friend. To the scholar- 
ship boy, depressed by lack of means and fleeting op- 
portunity, his example and inspiration were priceless. 
Many a boy on the point of giving up in despair, after 
a single interview found new courage. But the hard- 
ened transgressor, the boy who insisted on flinging 
away his chance, found small hope unless he reformed. 
Half-hearted effort, slackness, ease of life, found a 
bitter enemy in the man who never spared himself. 

High standing in scholarship Mr. Amen prized more 
than anything else. The students who were honor men 
won their way straight to his heart. Therefore, when 
on April 24, 1906, Tome Institute, in Port Deposit, 
Maryland, proposed that Exeter join in forming a 
society to stimulate high scholarship in schools after 
the fashion of Phi Beta Kappa in colleges, Mr. Amen 
eagerly approved the plan and appointed a committee to 
make an early report. Owing to carelessness the report 
was not sent to Tome for a year, with the result that 
Exeter was not one of the charter members. But the 
Exeter chapter of the Cum Laude Society is Beta, 
and has done much to foster the things of the mind. 
The founders of Beta Chapter at Exeter were Harlan 
P. Amen, William A. Francis, Arthur G. Leacock, 
Charles H. Clark, Nathan W, Helm, John C. Kirtiand, 
Jr.; and the charter members were James A. Tufts, 
Joseph S. Ford, Howard A. Ross, Wilhelm Segerblom, 
and Walter D. Head. The members elected from the 
Senior class each year must have completed a full 


course of study, with an honor record, and stand in the 
first fifth of the class. Up to the end of 1919 the 
chapter has elected 250 members. It also elects one 
or two honorary members each year. The new mem- 
bers are initiated at a luncheon in Alumni Hall at the 
close of school in June. 

From the earliest days of the Academy one of its 
chief characteristics has been willingness to dismiss 
boys who are out of place, either because of low morals, 
lack of application, or general unfitness. The catalogue 
announces that " Boys whose influence is felt in any 
way to be injurious will be removed from the school." 
That is but another way of repeating the famous dictum 
of Dr. Arnold of Rugby, that " The first, second, and 
third duty of a schoolmaster is to get rid of unpromis- 
ing subjects." Mr. Amen early set about clearing out 
the dead wood which had drifted in during the lax 
years. In one year he dismissed one hundred boys. 
That heroic measure inspired confidence among the 
alumni and parents that the school was at last to be 
made a safe place for boys. And Mr. Amen had the 
faculty of dismissing a boy and still keeping his friend- 
ship. Many a man feels as does a successful lawyer 
of Washington, D.C., who said at an alumni reunion at 
which he was a speaker: " I am one of the large num- 
ber who did not graduate for a reason! But I 
count myself an alumnus, and wish to pay tribute to 
the effectiveness of my rude awakening at the hands 
of Principal Amen. It was the beginning of my new 

Courtesy alike to the highest and to the lowest was 
unfailing in Dr. Amen. He was so easy of approach, 
and listened so attentively to any sort of grievance, 
real or fancied, that he suffered greatly. He would 
waste hours on idlers and triflers when important en- 


gagements pressed, and having spent his daylight hours 
on visitors, was obliged to toil at his desk at night. 
Once he and an instructor had charge of a funeral many 
miles away. As they were about to take the train for 
home the instructor asked Mr. Amen if he had had 
luncheon. " No/' was the laughing reply, " nor break- 
fast nor supper." A hastily bought lunch supplied the 
immediate need; but the greater need of some re- 
straining influence was never supplied. 

For several years Mr. Amen followed the laborious 
method of writing the Academy correspondence by long 
hand; but as the school grew, he hired a typist and in- 
stalled business methods in the office as elsewhere. 

Dr. Amen was a loyal townsman. He would never 
admit that there was any diversity of interest between 
the town and the school. When building new dormi- 
tories to house the students, he did it slowly, so as not 
at once to take roomers from deserving private houses. 
As a matter of fact, during his day the school grew 
so rapidly that there were always more boys for private 
houses than could well be accommodated. At an 
alumni reunion in 1904 he said with satisfaction: " The 
town and gown conflicts have ceased. The townies are 
now our friends." That the " townies " were indeed 
his friends is evident from the positions of dignity and 
service with which they honored him. He was a trustee 
of the Cottage Hospital and chairman of the building 
committee; a deacon in the Second Congregational 
Church, chairman of the Merrill Institute, and a direc- 
tor of the Exeter and Hampton Electric Company and 
of the Exeter Banking Company. 

The increase in the number of students under Dr. 
Amen was regular and notable. In all, 4,066 entered 
while he was principal, an average of 214 new boys a 


year. The actual enrollment of new boys was as fol- 


The percentage of the graduates who entered college 
was also steadily raised; few in comparison with earlier 
years entered the Academy merely for courses prepara- 
tory to entering business. 

The educational aims and plans of Dr. Amen and his 
hopes for the school have thus been noted. His con- 
tribution to its material resources belongs in another 



22 3 ; 












IN FORMING plans for a successful school, Dr. 
Amen saw that material growth must keep pace 
with numbers and scholarship. Hence he laid deep 
and permanent plans. According to the agreement with 
the Trustees a new dormitory was ready for use in the 
fall of 1896. It was named for Dr. Andrew P. Pea- 
body, of Harvard, who, though not an alumnus of 
Exeter, was a loyal friend; he served as a Trustee 
1843-1885, longer than any other Trustee in the his- 
tory of the Academy. The new dormitory took many 
students who would have roomed in town; but the 
school was growing, and Dr. Amen was a master 
hand at conciliating those who had a grievance. Also, 
in 1896, the Lawrence House, facing Abbot Common, 
came into the possession of the Academy. In 1901 
this hall was rebuilt for thirty boys, and two resident 
masters, under the name of Dunbar Hall. Mr. Amen 
was aware that younger boys had ceased to come to 
the Academy; older students came for a finishing 
course of a year or two before entering college, in- 
stead of for three or four years. Hence he planned 
the new hall expressly for younger boys; and it im- 
mediately proved a success. Dunbar was burned in 
April, 1907, and was rebuilt the following year. Web- 
ster Hall, named in honor of Exeter's most famous 
alumnus, similar in plan to Dunbar but housing older 
boys, was built in 1912. 



Mr. Amen's infectious enthusiasm made itself felt in 
various ways. By appealing to the alumni he obtained a 
new dining hall, which was dedicated in 1903. At the 
same time Hoyt Hall, similar to Peabody, and named for 
Joseph G. Hoyt, " The Great Teacher," was dedicated. 
The new dining hall was especially needed, since the 
old hall in Abbot was too small, and because the 
many "eating dubs 7 ' in town charged more than 
some boys could well pay. Another advantage is that 
Alumni Hall provides a room where the athletic teams 
can have training table fare under Academy super- 

Besides the dormitories, Mr. Amen added several 
houses to those owned by the Academy. Chief among 
them is the fine old Colonial mansion known as the 
Gilman House on Front Street, built in 1736 by Dr. 
Dudley Odlin, who at his death bequeathed it to his 
nephew, John Odlin, of whom in 1782 Colonel Nicholas 
Gilman bought it. The Colonel has frequently been 
called by historians the brains of the Revolution in 
New Hampshire. He had taken part in the campaign 
against Burgoyne, but his greatest service to his state 
had been in the management of the public finances. 
The house was handed down through successive gen- 
erations of Gilmans until, in 1905, with the Commodore 
John C. Long estate on the corner of Elm and Court 
Streets, it was given to the Academy by D. Hunter 
McAlpin, '82, and his brother, Charles W. McAlpin, 
'84. The house sheltered many a French officer during 
the Revolution, and later Daniel Webster and others. 
About it cling interesting memories of the great family 
of the Gilmans. 1 

Other houses added largely through Mr. Amen's ef- 

1 The Bulletin, March, 1906, contains an article on the house by 
George B. Rogers. 


forts are the Veazey, the Merrill, the Watkins, the 
Williams, the Porter, and the Hooper House. Also, 
Honorable Edward Tuck, '58, made a gift of the Tuck 
House on Front Street. One of the chief acquisitions 
was the Plimpton Playing Fields of about 350 acres, 
the home of football, baseball, track, hockey, 
and tennis. The donor was George A. Plimpton, '73. 

Dr. Abner L. Merrill, '38, did much for the Academy. 
The first of his gifts came in 1896, when he endowed 
annual prizes in public speaking. Later he gave the 
Merrill buildings, which include the administrative 
offices, the additional recitation hall, the Merrill busi- 
ness block on Water Street. To those gifts he added 
several thousand dollars; and finally, in 1913, at Dr. 
Amen's death, he endowed the Harlan Page Amen Pro- 
fessorship with $50,000. 

Including the Founder's gift of $60,000, the total 
gifts to the Academy when Dr. Amen became principal, 
amounted to $475,000; at his death, the total, exclud- 
ing certain unproductive buildings, amounted to 
$1,371,446.81. Most of the increase was owing to 
the initiative of Mr. Amen. Old alumni who had not 
visited the school for years returned to see the new 
Exeter. Scholarships and unrestricted donations 
multiplied. Among the chief legacies were those of 
Joseph C. Hilliard, '38, who gave the Academy $200,000, 
subject to certain life annuities, and $10,000 for the 
Hilliard scholarship. As a young boy Mr. Hilliard 
had walked to and from his home in Kensington while 
a student, and made his living by tapping shoes. Later 
in life he won fame as the insurance adjuster who 
settled the millions of losses in the Chicago fire to the 
satisfaction of both the companies and of the policy 
holders. In 1909 Hubert E. Teschemacher, '74, gave 



$50,000 to found scholarships for Exeter boys who 
enter Harvard. Also, the Robert S. Morison Profes- 
sorship of Latin and the Wentworth Professorship of 
Mathematics were founded. To increase the latter, 
Mr. Wentworth gave in 1903 half of the cost of Hoyt 
Hall, $16,889.06. Others have added to the fund until 
it now amounts to over $50,000. 

By special appeal Dr. Amen influenced certain men 
to establish annual prizes in subjects in which they were 
specially interested. As a result, these prizes were 
established: the Sherman Hoar, '78, history prizes; 
the Nathaniel Gordon, '33, Bible prizes; the Prentiss 
Cummings, 7 6o, Greek prizes; the Frank B. Stevens, 
? 8o, Latin prizes; the Henry L. Mason, '84, Latin 
prizes; the Norman F. Greeley, '92, Latin prizes; the 
Pitts Duffield, '88, English composition prize; the 
Henry J. Hooper, '03, memorial prize; the Pierre La 
Rose, '91, prize in memory of Marshall Newell, '90; 
the Wilmon W. Blackmar, '64, history prizes. 

One building that was especially dear to Dr. Amen 
is the Benjamin Price Davis, '62, Library. Funds for 
its erection were provided in an unusual fashion. Edwin 
Fay Rice, '71, remarked to William E. Merrill, '87, that 
he would give his library to the Academy when a 
fireproof building was provided. The offer appeared in 
the Bulletin, and on the death of Mr. Davis in 1907 
he gave in his will $50,000 for the building. The 
cornerstone was laid on October 26, 1911. The 
library has a special room for the Rice collection; and 
besides that it has an alcove for the books given by 
Dr. Amen in memory of Mrs. Amen. 1 Three rooms on 
the first floor are used for recitations in English. 

1 As a memorial to Mrs. Amen Dr. Amen planned to leave 5,000 
volumes in the Amen alcove in the Davis Library. Half of them he 
placed there before his death; and in his will he made this provision: 


Besides material equipment, many new scholarships 
were founded during Mr. Amen's years. Aside from 
those already named are the Susan G. Perkins, $3,000; 
the John T. Perry, $2,000; the Margaret E. Langdell, 
in honor of Christopher C. Langdell, '45; the Olena 
S. Pingry, $3,000. To the income of these scholarships 
the Trustees add tuition scholarships, known by the 
name of Phillips, so that the income pays a major 
part of the expenses of those who hold the larger ones. 
About $16,000 is awarded every year to some 150 

Exeter has always given the individual student every 
chance to develop his own personality; the freedom 
has even been called license by critics. Dr. Amen soon 
saw the need of offering assistance and oversight to 
undergraduates in a more organized way than mere 
chance, as had been the practice in the past. There- 
fore he planned the present system of Faculty advisers. 
By it each student is assigned to some member of the 
Faculty, to whom he goes for help and advice on every 
phase of his school life. This standing in loco parentis 
has broadened the influence of the Faculty on the 
students. Many an apparently hopeless situation has 
thus been satisfactorily met. A Faculty member feels 
that failure in an advisee is a personal disgrace, and 
success a corresponding credit. 

The sum of $3,000 is given to the Trustees of the Academy, to 
be known as the Mary Rawson Amen fund, in memory of Mrs. Amen. 
One half of the income is to be added to the principal until it ac- 
cumulates to $25,000. The other half of the income is to be expended 
for books of permanent value, to be kept in the Davis Library in 
a room or alcove, to be known as the Mary Rawson Amen room or 
alcove. When the principal accumulates to $10,000 the Trustees 
may at their discretion expend a portion of the income upon pictures, 
furniture or works of art for the adornment of the room or alcove. 


Although, as has been remarked, Dr. Amen was 
always ready to remove the idle and vicious for the 
protection of the rest, he was ready to give the worthy 
boy the best fighting chance. Hence he appointed 
preceptorial instructors, who help boys who are un- 
evenly or poorly prepared to keep their class standing. 
Many a boy who would otherwise be lost to the school 
is thus kept in good standing. 

When he came to Exeter Dr. Amen found a Faculty 
of ten and a student body of 191 ; he left a Faculty of 
thirty-three and a student body of 572. Meanwhile 
he had increased the Academy lands from less than 
twenty acres to more than four hundred, and the num- 
ber of buildings from nine to thirty-two. Also, he 
increased the resources of the school from $475,000 
to $1,371,450. That included $250,000 which he 
raised for the Teachers' Endowment Fund. But his 
greatest service was restoring Exeter to the confidence 
of the public. He had the foresight of a prophet, the 
educational zeal of a Loyola, the vigor of a Hercules; 
and he used those gifts to bring success to his school. 

Many offices and honors came unsought to him. In 
1886 Williams College gave him the degree of A. M.; 
and in 1911 Dartmouth made him LittJD. The year of 
his death he was elected an overseer of Harvard. He 
was also a member of the Archaeological Institute of 
America, of the American Philological and the American 
Historical Associations, the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society, the American Whig Society of Prince- 
ton, the New England Association of Colleges and 
Preparatory Schools, of which he was President, 1909- 
1911; of the Headmasters' Association, of which he 
was President in 1910; of the Harvard Teachers' As- 
sociation, of the Schoolmasters' Club, and of the Ap- 


palachian Mountain Club. He also served on the New 
Hampshire committee for the selection of Rhodes 
Scholars. He was a member of the Twentieth Century 
Club of Boston, and of the University Club of New 


SCHOOL life under Dr. Amen grew rich and varied. 
The clubs which had previously led a precarious 
existence found a champion in the new principal. He 
encouraged the glee club by asking Mr. Ralph H. 
Bowles, Instructor in English, to take charge of it. The 
musical clubs were excellently drilled, and gave con- 
certs successfully. Many other clubs were formed with 
Dr. Amen's approval. Some of them died when the 
enthusiastic founders went to college; but from time 
to time the old ones are revived. 

Although Dr. Amen paid the greatest attention to 
the mental development of the students, yet he saw 
that in becoming a well-rounded young American a 
boy must have perfect physical growth. 

He was perhaps the more ready to recognize that 
important fact because he himself was fond of a vigor- 
ous outdoor life. His favorite exercise in vacation 
time was walking in the mountains. One summer when 
he was principal at Riverview he set out with three 
pupils for a walking tour. They tramped through Bur- 
lington, Montpelier, and St. Johnsbury to the White 
Mountains. Twice they ascended Mt. Washington, 
once by the Crawford bridle path, and once by Tucker- 
man's Ravine. Passing down the east side, they 
walked through the Glen to Jackson, through the Craw- 
ford Notch to Bethlehem, and through Franconia 
Notch to Plymouth and Lake Winnepesaukee. The 



distance that they covered was 275 miles, and they 
made it in eleven days. At other times Dr. Amen 
found opportunity for tramping in the White Moun- 
tains with companions. He frequently walked up Mt. 
Washington, and he set a record for running down the 
mountain that stood for a long time. 

It is natural that a man of such personal tastes should 
have looked with a kindly and encouraging eye upon 
all sorts of wholesome outdoor sports. 

Dr. Amen's views on sport can best be seen from 
the following article by him, which appeared in the 
Boston Globe, February 5, 1905, when football was 
under such severe fire in the public press that its 
existence was threatened: 

" Mental and physical alertness, discipline, self-reliance, self- 
control, the power of unified action can hardly be better taught 
than through the game of football. 

" One cannot condemn too strongly the brutal and unsports- 
manlike features of the game, unfair tactics in playing, the wrong 
methods adopted in obtaining and coaching candidates for teams. 
These, however, are not necessary features of the game, and can 
by sincere, concerted effort among the leading colleges and pre- 
paratory schools be so completely removed that we can obtain the 
benefits of the game without the evils which President Eliot so 
justly condemns. 

" Football is too good a game to let go. It can be, and should 
be, at once redeemed from the qualities which have too often 
characterized it. The faculties of colleges and preparatory schools 
have the remedy for its evils in their own hands. Each institu- 
tion should in a determined way set about cleaning its own house- 
hold and not wait for others to set the example. 

" It seems to me that it would greatly assist matters if every 
college would, first, not allow any candidate for a team to repre- 
sent the institution in football or any other form of athletics until 
he had been a member of that institution at least one year and 
had done satisfactory work in every subject of his schedule of 


" Second, continue to demand a good standard of scholarship 
from every member of an athletic team. 

" Third, it would be well to limit the number of contests in 
each season* In football the number of match games could well 
be limited to six or seven. They now frequently reach the 
number of thirteen or fourteen. 

" Fourth, I would insist that the proper officials should 
promptly order from the field any member of either team who 
fails to observe every rule which now exists, to secure a clean, 
manly, sportsmanlike game. The number of officials can be in- 
creased until the infringement of rules will be a practical im- 
possibility. A greater number of officials to secure a stricter 
observance of the rules is, I understand, already under considera- 
tion by the committee on rules." 

In 1897 paid coaches for the athletic teams were 
first regularly provided; not primarily to encourage 
greater skill in their games, but to see that the boys 
played the games sanely and safely. In 1895 Dr. 
Amen appointed as director of the gymnasium and of 
athletics, Mr. Howard A. Ross, who during his sub- 
sequent years of service has brought athletics to a high 

During his early days as principal, Dr. Amen was 
much troubled by dass rushes.. By devising other ways 
of getting rid of the superfluous energy of the students, 
he did away with rushes so effectively that the 
cup given by one of the classes as an annual trophy 
for interclass track meets now arouses little enthusiasm, 
and the class games are played in almost complete 

Abducting the class speakers before the annual 
dinners was a favorite game. In the spring of 1899 
the Upper Middle toastmaster, Ralph W. Varney, was 
carried away by a rival dass. A shout of " All out!" 
given lustily in the yard, brought a generous response, 
and a heroic rescue was effected. On another occasion, 


when the class of 1900 held a dinner at Whittier's, at 
Hampton, the class of 1901 dug a deep pit on the car 
tracks some miles from town, and piled the gravel on 
the rails. Fortunately the motorman stopped the car 
in time to avert a serious accident. Dr. Amen did not 
expel the ringleaders, but accepted their apology and 
imposed long terms of probation. The members of the 
offending class received in derision the term of " pick 
and shovel gang/' which clung to them to the end of 
their career. Sometimes vile-smelling compounds from 
the chemical laboratory were thrown through the win- 
dows where class dinners were in progress. 

Once at a class riot in chapel on Washington's Birth- 
day, Dr. Amen called for volunteers to put down the 
disturbance. "Jim" Hogan tackled vigorously, and 
members of all the classes measured their length on 
the floor before order was restored. 

The danger arising from class riots was great. In 
1904, MacFadyen, toastmaster of his dass, was kid- 
napped by a crowd led by " Tad " Jones. Dr. Amen 
corrected by telephone the false report that had reached 
the Boston papers that two students had been killed 
in a rush; and in chapel the next morning he spoke 
with feeling on the harm that may arise from rushes. 
He eliminated the practice not by forbidding it, but by 
substituting better things. 

But old traditions that had been observed by genera- 
tions of school boys, and that were not vicious, Dr, 
Amen never disturbed. 

The casual visitor to a recitation in the Academy 
is always startled and sometimes shocked by the old 
Exeter custom of snapping the fingers. If the boy 
hesitates in Ms recitation, a fusillade of snaps from 
those who know or think that they know rings out. 
It is often disconcerting to a new boy, but he soon 


learns to stand to his guns, no matter how fast the 
musketry rattles about him. 

Principal Amen once asked a new instructor what he 
should do if a student snapped his fingers in class. " I 
should give him a chance to apologize, and if he didn't 
do it, I should mete out a severe penalty/' answered 
the young man, eager to play up before the principal. 
Dr. Amen explained with some amusement the old 
custom. The practice began probably in the early 
sixties. At any rate, it had become well established 
long before Dr. Amen's time, and he made no attempt 
to abolish it. 

In so strong a nature as Dr. Amends it is only natural 
to find certain weaknesses. He let the drive of busi- 
ness absorb his time and efforts to the exclusion of the 
gentler and more humanizing occupations. Leisurely, 
scholarly life he valued highly, and sought to obtain 
it for his teachers; but his restless energy could not 
allow him to relax or enjoy a quiet life. Music and 
art he valued at their true worth, but he could not 
find time to cultivate them as he would have wished. 

Mention has already been made in a previous chap- 
ter of the degree to which his courtesy and his natural 
kindness allowed even strangers to encroach upon his 
time. That and his unflagging devotion to his great 
tasks at length began to tell upon his health. His wife, 
who was Mary Browne Rawson, of Whitinsvflle, 
Massachusetts, was a woman of rare tact and beauty 
of character whose influence over her husband was 
great. She alone could persuade him to take time for 
rest; but she died on August 1 8, 1901, at Lake Sunapee, 
New Hampshire. After her death, Dr. Amen became 
irregular in his hours for rest and at meals. He would 
let the most trifling duty deprive him of sleep, and 


he ate whenever work seemed to slacken. The result 
was a steady decline in his strength. 

Every day he overdrew his store of vitality; that 
there could be but one outcome he himself well knew, 
but he spent his force generously to the end. For years 
he knew that he was growing weak. On September 28, 
1907, he wrote to one of the Trustees: 

" It seems to me almost impossible to think of giving up my 
work, and yet the time may soon come when I shall be com- 
pelled to do this. As I wrote H , it seemed to me that it 

would break my heart to drop the work here when we have so 
nearly attained complete success. 

" Mr. P asked me over the telephone this morning whether 

I did not think a trip abroad would bring the needed relief. I 
am not at all sure of this. In many ways, I feel that I could 
fight out the battle here on the ground." 

With the feeling that he could not trust details to 
subordinates, Dr. Amen straggled on, always hoping 
for the strength that did not come. In 1911 he finally 
went abroad for a few weeks; also, he made a trip to 
California for change; but he soon returned and drove 
on at the daily toil. 

Dr. Amends last appearance in chapel, on Friday, 
November 7, 1913, was the occasion of a display of 
surpassing devotion on the part of the school. He 
spoke briefly of the Andover football game which was 
to be played the next day. He had high hopes of 
seeing a victory after a series of eight defeats. Not 
always did the students understand Dr. Amen; but on 
that eventful morning the veil was lifted, and the 
undergraduates saw revealed the man who was spend- 
ing his life for them. 

After lie had spoken briefly, the response, which 
came instinctively from the students, was without 








parallel in the history of Exeter. Never to football 
hero, benefactor, or public man has so marvelous a 
tribute been paid. Those who were fortunate enough 
to be present spoke in subdued voices of what they 
had heard, as if they had had a glimpse of things 
usually hidden from men. At the close of his speech, 
when wave upon wave of clapping sounded through the 
chapel, and a long cheer for " Amen " was called for 
and given, he was finally forced to respond, and said 
with his characteristic energy and hopefulness that he 
would finish what he had to say at the celebration on 
the morrow. 

But this speech was never to be given. When the 
game was over, and the victory for which he had so 
long waited had been won, Dr. Amen lay dying. 

Early on the morning of November 8, he had suffered 
a shock of apoplexy. With characteristic thought 
for others he tried to telephone without arousing any- 
one, but he fell and never regained consciousness, and 
the following afternoon the slow tolling of the Phillips 
Church bell told the school and the town what they 
dreaded to hear. 

At the announcement of Dr. Amen's death, telegrams 
of condolence poured in from every part of America. 
Alumni associations, college and school presidents, and 
individuals expressed their sorrow and sense of loss. 
Editorial comment in the great eastern papers and 
magazines paid tribute to the great work that he had 

The funeral was held on the Wednesday following 
his death. Representatives came from many of the 
great New England colleges and preparatory schools. 
It was a notable gathering which met in the chapel 
that gray November afternoon. Dr. Amen's life-long 
friend, Dr. William DeW. Hyde of Bowdoin, preached 


the funeral sermon, and was followed by Dr. Dana of 
Exeter. The students marched to the cemetery in 
double file. 

At a meeting of the Academy Trustees on December 
1 6, 1913, this minute, presented by Dr. Hyde, was 

" In profound sorrow for the death of Doctor Harlan Page 
Amen, Principal of the Phillips Exeter Academy, the Trustees 
record their affectionate and grateful appreciation of his tireless 
industry in the arduous work of his office, his unfailing courtesy 
to Trustees, instructors, fellow-townsmen, parents and pupils; his 
ardent zeal for the upbuilding of the material equipment, intel- 
lectual standing, moral tone and spiritual life of the Academy 
qualities and services which have made association with him 
during the past eighteen years a constant joy and inspiration, 
and which will remain a precious heritage to his children, his 
friends, the alumni, and those who in the years to come shall 
cherish and perpetuate the Exeter Spirit he did so much to 
develop and define." 

When President S. Sidney Smith of the Trustees met 
the Faculty at a special meeting after Dr. Amends 
death, he announced that the school would be managed 
for the year by a committee composed of Joseph S. 
Ford, Assistant to the Principal, Professor Tufts, and 
Mr. Smith. 

To the announcement that that was to be "Dr. 
Amen's year " the school responded in a way that is 
characteristic of the best in Exeter traditions. In 
studies, in athletics, in school life, and best of all in 
spirit and morale, the highest mark ever known in 
Exeter was reached. Co-operation between teachers 
and pupils has always been characteristic of the Acad- 
emy, but during " Dr. Amen's year " there was a subtle 
fervor easily felt but hard to define. Could the prin- 
cipal have known, he would have been infinitely 


cheered; he would have seen that his long labors had 
been rewarded; that he had indeed done for his old 
school all that he had tried so hard to accomplish. 

This sonnet was written by James P. Webber of the 


A brotherhood of all who bear her name: 

Those older children who have left her gate, 
Those younger sons who at her hearth still wait 

And those who at her altar tend the flame 

A sane democracy with no mean aim: 

But teaching youth in this, our little state, 
To love united service and to hate 

The tinkling cymbal of a selfish fame: 

This was his dream; nor did he idly gaze 
As if enraptured of some castled steep 
Of cloudland .glorious in the setting sun; 

But wrought with tireless hand through crowded days, 
Like one who hastened lest the eternal sleep 
Should steal upon him ere his work was done. 

In the truest and deepest sense Dr. Amen lives on. 
Exeter men everywhere are helping others in remem- 
brance of the great service he rendered them, and axe 
thus spreading far and wide the hopefulness and cheer 
that so permeated his life. He lives in lives kindled 
to greatness by contact with him, in kind words spoken 
and generous deeds performed, in acts of daring done 
for what is right and in scorn for selfish, miserable 
aims. He lives in minds awakened by Mm to a new 
dawn of learning, in souls sweetened by his gentleness 
and love. And men through his influence will go on 
"pulling together," "each one doing his part," and 


" fighting," all " doing their daily tasks in faith and 
heartily ; as to the Lord and not unto men." 

When Mr. Amen became principal, he welcomed as 
new trustees those who would work with him and with 
the older men on the Board. Mr. Dunbar was still a 
member, but he resigned in 1898, as did John T. Perry 
in 1899. With George S. Morison, William P. Chad- 
wick and S. Sidney Smith representing the former 
Board, came Dr. Amen's lifelong friend, Reverend 
William DeW. Hyde, Mr. William A. Bancroft, and Mr. 
George A. Plimpton. Also, Mr. Robert Winsor was 
elected to the Board. The last trustee elected during 
Dr. Amen's life was Mr. Jeremiah Smith, Jr., who in 
June, 1907, became the junior member of the Board. 

Reverend William DeW. Hyde, dass of 1875, was 
born in Winchendon, Mass., September 23, 1858. In 
the fall of 1872, at the age of thirteen, he entered the 
Academy. Here he was prominent as a scholar, and 
as a member of the Golden Branch and of the Christian 
Fraternity. Though young, he competed with his 
room-mate .and lifelong chum, Harlan P. Amen, for a 
scholarship. At Harvard he was a member of Phi Beta 
Kappa, and was a class-day speaker. After graduation 
from college he studied divinity at Union Theological 
Seminary and at the Andover Theological Seminary. 
After preaching a few years he was called in 1885 to 
become President and Professor of Mental and Moral 
Philosophy at Bowdoin College, a position he held 
with great brilliance until his death on June 29, 1917. 
Under him Bowdoin grew from 119 students to 434, 
but he was quite as much concerned with the scholar- 
ship and standing of the college intellectually as with 
the material growth. In a large measure he did for 
Bowdoin what his friend Dr. Amen did for Exeter. 
As a speaker and preacher at schools and colleges he 


was eagerly sought. He wrote many volumes on reli- 
gion and philosophy. One of his most famous books is 
" Practical Ethics." His honorary degrees included 
D.D. from Harvard and Bowdoin, and LL.D. from 
Bowdoin, Syracuse, and Dartmouth. Though not a 
Trustee until 1898, he was largely instrumental in hav- 
ing Dr. Amen made principal in 1895. He served 
most zealously as a Trustee from 1898 until his death. 
At the laying of the cornerstone of the Davis Library 
in 1911 he made the principal address. 

William A. Bancroft, class of 1874, served as Trus- 
tee from 1902 till 191 7. He was born in Groton, Mass., 
April 26, 1855, and died in Cambridge, Mass., March 
ii ? 1922. While in Exeter he rowed on early crews, 
and later he was stroke and captain of three Harvard 
crews which won from Yale. Later he coached success- 
fully at Harvard. While practising law in Boston he be- 
came superintendent of the Cambridge Street Railway. 
Later he was Mayor of Cambridge; then he became 
roadmaster of the West End Street Railway, now the 
Elevated. Under his regime horses gave place to 
electricity. The real test of his power as a leader of 
men came in 1887, when, with 600 men on strike, he 
himself broke the strike by leading on horseback the 
first car to run. The angry yet admiring crowd gave 
way sullenly but in order, and Mr. Bancroft was 
supreme. He won his title of colonel in the Spanish- 
American War. As a Trustee he worked vigorously 
for the good of Exeter, just as he always did for any 
project in which he was interested. Besides his widow, 
Mary S. Bancroft, he left two sons, Hugh and Guy, a 
daughter, Mrs. Catherine De Haviland, wife of William 
De Haviland, of Limoges, France, and ten grand- 

Francis W. Lee, dass of 1870, from 1895 till 1922 
treasurer of the Academy, a period of twenty-seven 


years, died at his home, Chestnut Hill, Mass., on Feb- 
ruary 10, 1923. He was born in Westport, New York, 
in 1852, the son of Colonel Francis L. Lee, of Boston. 
Mr. Lee was for a number of years associated with his 
uncle, the late Henry Lee, in a private bank, 40 State 
Street, Boston, and also was an officer for the Provident 
Institution for Savings, Temple Place. Surviving mem- 
bers of Mr. Lee's family are a widow, a son, Mr. Guy H. 
Lee, and four daughters. 


THE principal of a preparatory school must have 
a diversity of interests. He must know business 
and politics, and he must be a scholar, and a lover of 
the great drama of human events. He must know 
college requirements and the tendencies of modern 
education. Besides those things he must be able to 
sift sound suggestions from visionary, both of which 
come alike from colleagues and from alumni. Old 
traditions must be preserved, for to them the alumni 
cling as something that, after all, is quite as real and 
tangible as land and buildings. Besides, there is the 
morning mail. On the principal, too, falls the re- 
sponsibility of choosing new teachers. In that respect 
the duties of the principal of Exeter is lightened by the 
policy of getting men who will grow and then making 
their places attractive to them. 

Eight months after Dr. Amends death, President 
Smith again met the Faculty in the library, and an- 
nounced that Lewis Perry, Professor of English Lit- 
erature in Williams College, had accepted the principal- 
ship of Exeter. The Faculty at once sent the new leader 
a telegram of welcome. 

It was by no means a slight break for Dr. Perry to 
leave Williams. He was engaged in congenial work 
among old friends in the college from which he had 
graduated, and where his father had long taught. Re- 
tirement, a scholarly life with time for travel, and a 



sabbatical year of leisure, all of those lie renounced 
to accept the responsibilities of a growing school, the 
problems of which are always complex and often 
baffling. In the one case his activities were ordered and 
defined; in the alternative that he chose his day's work 
is never done. 

Lewis Perry, eighth Principal of the Phillips Exeter 
Academy, was born in Williamstown, Massachusetts, 
June 3, 1877. His father was Professor Arthur Latham 
Perry, D.D., LL.D., who taught history and political 
economy in Williams College for thirty-eight years, and 
upon his retirement in 1890 became Emeritus Pro- 
fessor of Political Economy. His mother was Mary 
Brown (Smedley) Perry. 

Lewis Perry's boyhood was spent in Williamstown 
under the influence of the best New England traditions. 
Learning and scholarship were in the very atmosphere 
of the home that gave five sons, including Professor 
Bliss Perry, to the world, but there was also a love of 
outdoor sports that helped the boy to build up a strong 
constitution. Dr. Perry graduated from Lawrenceville 
School in 1894, and entered Williams that fall. 

His college days were filled with varied interests. For 
four years he was the manager of the Williams Weekly, 
and was four times college champion in tennis, besides 
winning many matches against representatives of Am- 
herst and Dartmouth. He was for four years a member 
of the Dramatic Association, and president in his senior 
year; and for three years he was captain of his class 
baseball team. He was also a member of Alpha Delta 
Phi, the Gargoyle Society, the Philomathean Society, 
the Y. M. C. A., the Classical Society, the Sound Money 
Democratic Club, Chairman of the Class Prom Com- 
mittee, the Honor System Committee, the College Con- 
ference, and was President of his Class. Also, he won a 



first Sophomore rhetorical prize, and delivered the St. 
Patrick's Night address. He carried his love of tennis 
into his later life, and in 1905, the only year in which 
he had leisure to enter the National Tennis Champion- 
ship matches, he won the rating of igth in the National 
Tennis Association. About the same time, too, with 
Professor Nettleton of Yale as a partner, he played 
many sets of doubles, in which, during an entire season, 
they were defeated but once. Mr. Perry still loves the 
game and plays it. A year or two ago someone invited 
an old gentleman of Exeter to see the Principal of 
Exeter and the Principal of Andover play tennis to- 
gether on the Plimpton Fields; but the old man declined. 
In his day, he said, the principals of the two schools 
never even visited each other, much less engaged in so 
frivolous a pastime as tennis. 

Those who dreaded the effect on Exeter of the coming 
of a new principal have been agreeably disappointed. 
Under Dr. Perry the Academy has gone forward 
steadily. During his years of service the following 
scholarships and other funds have been given: the Theo- 
dore W. Woodman Fund for New Hampshire boys; 
the Class of 1913 Fund; the Paul Wentworth Fund; 
the George L. Perkins Fund; the George Hill, '65, Fund 
for a bridge connecting the Playing Fields; the Wester- 
field History Fund; the Marshall Newell Fund; the 
Graduates 7 House, given by the Class of 1890, and a 
fund for maintaining it; the Abner L. Merrill, '38, 
Business Fund; the Class of 1914 Fund; the Class of 
1915 Fund; the lot at the corner of Front and Pine 
Streets, from Mrs. Isabel J. Gale, in memory of her 
husband, Edward F. Gale, '54; the Lee McClung, '88, 
Scholarship Fund; the William B. Thompson, '90, 
Gymnasium Fund; the Harry J. Bardwell Loan and 
Book Fund; the George Hill, '65, residuary estate; and 


the Tuck-Curley, Class of 1858, Endowment Fund. 
Principal Perry is engaged in raising a general endow- 
ment fund of $2,000,000. He also had to meet, and 
has met successfully, the delicate and trying problems 
that arose from the Great War. The growth of the 
school in numbers has been constant; in fact, there are 
many more applications for admission every year than 
can be granted. 

A large part of the executive business of the Faculty 
to-day is done by permanent committees. The most 
important of them are the Executive Committee and the 
Scholarship Committee. The former passes judgment 
on most cases of discipline and reports its findings to the 
Faculty. It has no power to dismiss boys, but it imposes 
the penalty of study hours or probation for low standing 
in studies and restrictions or probation for misdemean- 
ors. In more serious cases it recommends dismissal, but 
it is by means a star-chamber body. The Faculty 
usually votes to accept its findings, yet it never hesitates 
after hearing a report to vote adversely if the circum- 
stances seem to the members to warrant their so voting. 
In every case that involves a boy's standing, there is 
perfect freedom of discussion and action, and no boy is 
punished or dismissed without a full hearing. The 
Executive Committee saves the Faculty much time and 

The Scholarship Committee is also permanent; its 
chief duties come late in the fall term, when it has 
to consider the applications for aid through scholar- 
ships, but it also averages the term marks and computes 
the percentages earned in studies, by which the scholar- 
ships are awarded. Since considerably more than 
$15,000 is given at the end of the fall term, divided on 
the basis of the length of the various terms, the import- 
ance of this committee is obvious. Unlike the Execu- 





tive Committee, in which there are partial changes of 
personnel every year, in order to prevent stagnation 
and at the same time maintain a permanent policy, the 
Scholarship Committee has remained unchanged in 
make-up for several years. 

When any matter comes up that touches the perma- 
nent policy of the school or demands concerted action, 
the principal appoints a committee to report at a later 
meeting of the Faculty. The entire absence of cliques, 
and the homogeneity of the Faculty as a body simplify 
the task of the principal not only in appointing com- 
mittees but in all other ways. When a change in the 
schedule of studies for a boy is under discussion, a 
committee with power is appointed, made up of the 
instructors who have the boy in class, the boy's ad- 
viser, and the Secretary of the Faculty. 

In the early days of Exeter, when only a few courses 
were given, the number of instructors as compared 
with the number of boys was small; in 1866 it reached 
the inexcusably low ratio of one teacher to 48 boys; 
but with the increasing college requirements, the ratio 
has been steadily reduced. Sections have grown 
smaller and students have had more individual at- 
tention. In 1826 there was one instructor to 22 boys; 
in 1836, one to 25 boys; in 1846, one to 28 boys; in 
1856, one to 38 boys; in 1866, one to 48 boys; in 
1876, one to 38 boys; in 1886, one to 31 boys; in 1896, 
one to 18 boys; in 1906, one to 15 boys. With in- 
creased endowment the ratio will tend still more 
toward figures that will make possible the most careful 
personal oversight and care. The overworked school- 
master can never give his wards all that the world has a 
right to demand that he give. 

For many years the problem of housing the students 
has been a trying one, because the school has grown 


faster than the dormitories. Until Abbot Hall was 
built, in 1855, all of the students roomed in private 
houses. Most of them were well cared for by old 
families who took one or more boys rather to help the 
school than from any need of the income, which was 
very small, often not more than a dollar and a half to 
two dollars and a half a week for both room and board. 
Abbot Hall accommodated forty-two boys, and re- 
mained the only school dormitory until Soule Hall 
was built in 1893; Peabody Hall was built in 1896. 
The former houses fifty-two boys, and the latter forty- 
eight. Since 1900 there has been a steady increase in 
the number of students who live in the dormitories 
relative to the whole number in the school. The most 
of the gain was due to Dr. Amen, who wished the school 
as nearly as possible to house all of the students. 
Hence he was continually urging that new dormitories 
be built and houses bought, many of which were placed 
in the hands of married instructors, to furnish dwellings 
for them and their families, and additional rooms for 

In like way the matter of board was solved. A few 
places in town furnished board, sometimes at a very 
high rate; to offset that the old Abbot Hall dining club 
was established; then the hall was enlarged, as is re- 
lated elsewhere. Finally the new Alumni Hall was built. 
That accommodates two hundred and fifty boys, and 
Dunbar Hall and Webster Hall seat seventy-five each, 
so that the three together can furnish board for the 
whole school. 

The alumni associations have done a great deal for 
the school. The oldest is that of the New York alumni, 
founded in 1883; the second, that of New England, 
was founded in 1886; the Western, of Chicago, fol- 
lowed in 1893, & e Southern in 1906, the Philadelphia 


in 1907, the Maine in 1913. Still later associations 
include the Duluth, 1914, the Syracuse, 1914, the 
Seattle, 1916, the St. Louis, 1916, the Pittsburgh, 1916, 
and the St. Paul, 1916. 

An important step was taken by the Academy when 
in 1919 a summer school was opened. The plan was, 
as is stated in the summer school catalogue, under- 
taken as a contribution to the solution of the problem 
of wastage in American education. The school aids 
first, those who mean to enter the Academy in the 
fall; second, those who wish to make up some de- 
ficiency; third, those who need review in subjects al- 
ready studied so that they may offer them at the 
college entrance examinations in September; fourth, 
those of superior ability who may be able to gain a 
year by summer work. The first year found twelve 
teachers besides the principal, and sixty-five students; 
the year 1922 found seventeen teachers besides the 
principal, and ninety-seven students. In every way 
the school has proved its value; the logic of summer 
school is sound. From the founding until 1849-1850 
the Academy was in session forty-three weeks a year; 
and it was that period that gave Exeter her most 
distinguished alumni. The summer school is there- 
fore merely reverting to a past season of success. 
Professor John C. Kirtland was the chief mover in 
founding the summer school, and he is chairman of the 
summer session Faculty. 

At the opening of the fall term of 1922-1923 a rule 
requiring all students except Seniors to report at their 
rooms at eight o'clock at night went into effect. The 
successful working of the rule is sufficient reason for 
its continuance. Until about 1880 such a rule had been 
in effect, though towards the close the rule had been 
more largely broken than obeyed. The early days 


of Exeter saw a rule requiring all students to be in at 
seven o'clock. Later it was half past seven, and then 
it became eight o'clock. Although many alumni have 
looked askance at the eight o'clock rule as destroying 
valuable privileges which helped to develop self-re- 
liance, yet the immediate good results arising from the 
rule justified it. 

While Dr. Perry has been Principal four new ap- 
pointments to the Board of Trustees have been made, 
as follows: Thomas W. Lamont, class of 1888, elected 
October, 1917; Minot O. Simons, class of 1889, elected 
February, 1920; William B. Thompson, class of 1890, 
elected October, 1921; and Bernard W. Trafford, class 
of 1889, elected October, 1921. 



WHEN the fine Georgian building erected by John 
Phillips in 1794 for a recitation hall was de- 
stroyed by fire on the morning of December 18, 1870, 
an immediate appeal was made by circular to all of 
the alumni for money for a new hall. On Saturday, 
December 24, an alumni meeting was held in Boston, 
at which it was resolved to raise one hundred thousand 
dollars for the purpose. A committee of thirteen men 
was appointed, made up of John G. Palfrey, Francis 

B. Hayes, Samuel Sewell, William Boott, Reverend 
John H. Morison, Henry G. Gardner, Reverend Charles 
Lowe, Ebenezer Bacon, Christopher C. Langdell, James 

C. Davis, Henry Lunt, William E. Sparks, and Walter 
A. Baker. The widow of Jared Sparks sent the first 
of the many contributions that poured in. John B. L. 
Soule, of the class of 1834, a nephew of Principal Soule, 
hastily penned a few stanzas that helped to stimulate 
contributions. 1 

"Alas! those dear old classic halls, 

Where all the Muses sat, 
More loved than old Dardanian walls, 

Amo, amas, amat. 
How have the flames that laid them low 

New flames within us lit, 
And set our bosoms all aglow, 
Uro, uris, urit! 

1 For the rest of the verses, see appendix. 


" From high and by way, far and wide, 

Let all the builders come, 
And do good service, side by side, 

Bonus, bona, bonum. 
With rapid strokes build strong and high 

The everlasting stone, 


The dedication, which was held on June 19, 1872, 
was made an occasion for bringing the older alumni 
together and paying tribute to the former Principal, 
Gideon L. Soule, who had then completed a period of 
service that covered fifty years, as assistant to Dr. 
Abbot, and later as principal. The exercises were 
opened with prayer by the Reverend John H. Morison; 
Dr. Andrew P. Peabody, President of the Trustees, 
made the address. The ode was written by Charles H. 
B. Snow. At the dinner which followed in the town 
hall, John G. Palfrey presided. Among the speakers 
were John Swasey, class of 1801, the oldest graduate 
present; Wendell Phillips, the Honorable Amos Tuck, 
the Honorable George S. Hale, Francis Bowen, Judge 
Jeremiah Smith, Dr. Roswell D. Hitchcock, and Prin- 
cipal Tilton, of Phillips Academy, Andover. Also at 
that dinner John L. Sibley was revealed as the donor 
of the Sibley Charity Fund, a disclosure interesting in 
itself and with much of personal character and self- 
effacing devotion behind it. 

The architects of the new building had been in- 
structed to reproduce the lines of the old building as 
nearly as seemed advisable; but those were evil days in 
architecture, the blackest, indeed, in architectural his- 
tory. The result was a Victorian building of a very com- 
mon-place type one of those pathetic efforts of the 
men of the seventies to express themselves after a me- 


diaeval fashion. As a piece of architecture it was a ca- 
tastrophe. It did, indeed, resemble the old Georgian 
building in that it had a main section and two wings; 
but the effect was pretentious and unsatisfactory. 
The high sloping roof and the useless attempts at 
ornament were the very antithesis of the noble sim- 
plicity of the old hall that John Phillips built. Dormer 
and gable windows added the last touch to a building 
that belonged with the black walnut furniture, the 
" what-nots " covered with bric-a-brac, and the other 
atrocities of the period. 

The building, which was of pressed brick, with sand- 
stone trimmings, had a frontage of 72 feet and a depth 
of 55 feet; the wings had a frontage of 32 feet and a 
depth of 72 feet. On the first floor were six recitation 
rooms, two coat rooms, and central and traverse hall- 
ways. On the upper floor was the chapel; the second 
story of the wings furnished two rooms each, which 
housed the small school library and were used by the 
literary societies and the Christian Fraternity. In the 
summer of 1911 the building was enlarged by an ad- 
dition at the rear 36 feet by 52 feet, which gave needed 
room to the chapel and furnished five new recitation 
rooms. Also, a system of ventilation by forced draft 
was installed. Previously the ventilation, especially 
in the chapel, was unspeakably bad. 

For over forty years this building was the center 
of the life of the school. In it were held the daily 
chapel exercises, the class graduations, school lectures, 
and the mass meetings before athletic contests with 
Andover, and in it also thousands of students " spoke 
their pieces." There, too, presided four of the prin- 
cipals who had governed the school Perkins, Scott, 
Fish, and Amen. It had seen the steady decline of the 
school to its lowest ebb in 1894, and it saw the steady, 


healthy growth under Dr. Amen. From it, finally, 
were held the funerals of two men great in the history 
of Exeter, Professor Bradbury L. Cilley, and Principal 
Harlan P. Amen. 

But on the morning of July 3, 1914, the old hall met 
the fate that seems to await every American building: 
it burned to the ground. The cause of the fire is not 
known. Summer cleaning and renovation had begun; 
but those who were doing the work had been careful, 
and had had no fire, except that in a gas stove, which 
they had extinguished at four o'clock in the afternoon. 
An alarm was sounded at 12.35 A - M -> but in spite of 
the efforts of the firemen, it was soon apparent that the 
building was doomed, and so rapidly did the fire spread 
that those who responded to the caU could save nothing 
but the desk and some of the works of art from the 
rooms of Professor Tufts and Mr. Chadwick. 

The exact loss cannot be estimated. The insurance 
amounted to $60,750 $50,000 on the building, 
$8,250 on the art collection, $2,000 on furniture and 
fixtures, and $500 on the tower clock, which was the 
gift of Mr. Jesse Seligman, of New York, whose family 
also gave the tower clock on the present building. 

Although the fall of 1914 was a time of great de- 
pression and uncertainty, owing to the war, the alumni 
showed their faith in Exeter by pledging money month 
by month for the erection of a new building. In a 
few months the contracts had been let, and the founda- 
tions were under way. 

The cornerstone was laid November 5, 1914. After 
the school chorus had sung, Principal Perry introduced 
the chief speaker, George F. Canfield, '71, President 
of the New York Alumni Association, who spoke of the 
buildings of the Academy, early and late, and of the 
duties of the Exeter men who had been trained in them. 


Then the cornerstone was laid by the oldest living 
alumnus, Dr. Nicholas E. Soule, '35, son of the third 
principal. The Reverend Edward Green of Exeter 
made the dedicatory prayer, and the school sang " O 
God, Our Help in Ages Past.' 5 

The new hall, which is a building of great simplicity 
and beauty, was designed by Cram and Ferguson, 
who also designed several of the other late buildings. 
It is Colonial in style, modified by late Georgian. The 
length is 186 feet 6 inches, and the depth 96 feet 6 
inches. The chief material is red, water-struck Exeter 
brick. A beautiful copper-covered cupola, or lantern, 
painted white, surmounts the roof. High above the 
tower rides the good ship " Sidney S.". The pillars of 
the hall are of marble, of the Ionic order. In the frieze 
over the door and cast in the bell is the motto written 
by Principal Soule Hue Venite Pueri, Ut Viri Sitis. 
The main corridors are of exquisite Vermont marble. 
There are ten class rooms below, three above, and 
several conference rooms. 

The chapel is decorated with plaster reliefs, among 
them shields of the United States, the State of New 
Hampshire, the arms of Exeter, England, and the 
Phillips seal. Eventually the walls will be covered 
with oil paintings of men who have been connected 
with Exeter. On one wall is a bronze tablet to Prin- 
cipal Amen. The inscription, except the last three 
lines, which are from a sonnet by Mr. James P. Web- 
ber, is by DeW. Hyde, '75: 







Especially noteworthy is the lecture hall, used for 
small and informal gatherings. The marble mantel 
over the fireplace was formerly in Daniel Webster's 
law office in Boston. On the opposite side of the 
chapel is the very fine Faculty room, in wood paneling 
of Georgian design. The chapel bell has in its com- 
position a part of the metal of the bell that was de- 
stroyed in the fire of 1914. Is it too great a flight of 
fancy to believe that as its voice echoes and reechoes 
through the corridors and the classrooms, it falls upon 
the sensitive ears of shades that linger there to assure 
themselves that the old traditions still live and the same 
earnest work is still going on the shades of Abbot 
and Hoyt and Soule and Wentworth and Cilley and 

With the growth of the Academy and the increase 
in its equipment and facilities, there has naturally and 
unavoidably been a corresponding increase in the cost 
to students of the education that it furnishes, especially 
in the item of tuition and board. 

John Phillips planned to make the Academy free of 


tuition; but the need of an income to meet expenses 
at first unlocked for was early recognized. Therefore 
the Trustees voted on October 10, 1787, "That all 
quarterly charges necessarily arising from wood, 
candles, &c., shall be defrayed by a tax, equally pro- 
portioned among the students." That was the first levy 
of tuition; but it was not the last, for the cost of tuition 
has steadily risen, as have all other expenses of edu- 

In the tax first levied foundationers were to be ex- 
empt; and accordingly with every increase in the price 
of tuition the Phillips scholarships have been raised, 
so that the cost to scholarship men has not advanced. 
By 1809 the tuition was increased to $2 a year. In 
1812 it was raised to $12 a year. The next increase 
came in 1849, when the fee was advanced to $14; 
and in 1855 it was again advanced, this time to $24 a 
year. In 1870 tuition was raised to $15 a term, or 
$45 a year, and in 1872 to $60 a year. Again in 1890 
a change was made. This time the charge was $30 
for the fall term, $25 for the winter, and $20 for the 
spring term. On coming to the principalship Mr. Amen 
stipulated that in 1896 the tuition should be advanced 
to $100 a year. Again, in 1899, he asked for still 
another increase, and the new rate was set at $150 a 
year. An increase to $200 a year was made by the 
Trustees for the fall of 1918 and following, at the sug- 
gestion of Principal Perry, who felt that unusual ex- 
penses owing to the war could in part be met in that 
way. Beginning with the school year 1920-1921 the 
tuition fee was raised to $250. 

Steady as has been the increase in the cost of tuition, 
it has no more than kept pace with other costs, both 
to the school and to the student. For many years the 
cost of board to students was not much over a dollar 


a week; and both room and board could be had in 
private families for less than two dollars a week, often 
including washing and mending. In 1855 the cost of 
table board was from $1.30 to $1.50 a week in the 
boarding houses under the direction of the Academy, 
and from $2.25 upwards in private families. As is 
related elsewhere, many students kept their expenses 
down by clubbing together for board, under charge 
of the Academy. In 1900 the cost of the plainest 
board, that provided in the Abbot Hall dining room, 
was $3 a week, and board in private houses from 
$5.50 to $7. When Alumni Hall was built, with its far 
better service, the cost increased to $5 a week, and 
later to $5.50. By the fall of 1918 it had reached $6 
a week. The cost of board in private boarding houses 
had also been steadily raised, always a little in ad- 
vance of the school halls, until in 1918-1919 it was 
$8 a week. And even at those higher rates there is 
a smaller percentage of profit than years ago when 
prices were lower. 




Among the most interesting of the intellectual activities of Exeter 
students, aside from the curriculum, are the Academy periodicals. 

IT WOULD be difficult to exaggerate the importance 
of the Exonian? the Peon, and the Monthly. 
The first attempt at journalism among the under- 
graduates dates from 1871, when John B. Olmstead, 
Benjamin C. Starr, and William W. Sleeper, under the 
heading of " Exetonia," edited the columns of a small 
weekly paper published at Patten and Sherman's Mills, 
Maine. The enterprise soon failed, however, and it 
was not until 1878 that the Exonian, the first news- 
paper published by undergraduates in an American 
secondary school, was established. It was founded by 
Ernest H. Mariett, Ernest B. Balch, and William N. 
Needles, Jr. They had had no experience in editing a 
newspaper, but what they lacked in technical knowl- 
edge they made up in enthusiasm. The first issue, 
in giving a reason for its existence, said in part: " Feel- 
ing that we are inclined, both on account of the animus 
of the discipline of the Academy and our purpose in 
coming to this institution, to exalt unduly the import- 
ance of mental labor and disparage physical culture, 
we have projected this paper." The early issues con- 
tained a series of humorous thrusts at the slowness 

1 Cunningham, p. 279. 


of Academy workmen in repainting Abbot Hall; and 
sonnets and long efforts in verse abounded. But slowly 
the paper settled down to its proper work of printing 
Academy news and furnishing a medium for the dis- 
cussion of school problems. 

The price was at first fifty cents a term, but in 
June, 1878, it was advanced to seventy-five cents a term, 
or two dollars a year. Since the fall of 1899 the price 
has been one dollar a term, or two dollars and a half 
a year- 

For ten years the Exonian appeared every Saturday 
during term time; but beginning with the issue of 
September 19, 1888, and continuing the practice ever 
since, it has appeared, except for a short time during 
the Great War, on Wednesdays and Saturdays of the 
school year. 

When the Exonian was founded, the Faculty, re- 
membering the earlier attempt at journalism, was de- 
cidedly conservative, and it was with difficulty that 
the ambitious editors obtained consent to publish the 
paper. Some of the early editorials were unduly free 
in criticizing the way in which the Academy was gov- 
erned; but Principal Perkins wisely pointed out how 
such matters should be discussed, and the Exonian 
continued to appear. 

When it was six months old, the Exonian (on October 
12, 1878) remarked with smug complacency: " Andover 
has envied for some time The Exonian of Exeter. And 
it is strange that a school paper has not been started 
there. Steps have at last been taken to have a school 
paper which shall be published bi-monthly. . . ." 
This is the first reference to the Phillipian, which 
performs for Phillips Academy, Andover, what the Ex- 
onian does for Phillips Exeter. 


The Exonian from time to time prints cuts of the 
athletic teams, new buildings, members of the Faculty, 
and alumni; it reflects as does nothing else the 
growth of the school. Best of all it gives the under- 
graduates a medium for expressing their views on school 

The second publication by undergraduates that has 
become permanent at Exeter is the Pean. The first 
number, which appeared in June, 1880, is a pamphlet 
containing accounts of the doings of the classes, and 
some rather crude drawings. It attained an immediate 
popularity with the students, but not with the Faculty, 
to which that and some of the later numbers dealt 
vigorous blows. As a result the Pean was published 
secretly and anonymously until an acceptable method 
of editing it was adopted. On the first page of the first 
issue appears this quotation from Xenophon, Hel- 

lenica, II I edpfa> fjicv ovv yo>, fyi-yC a,v xatpos ?, irauoiva. 

The first editorial says: "Our Alma Mater, first in 
football, first in baseball, and first in the hearts of 
her cherished children, has long felt the need of a 
catalogue free from the prejudiced F-c-lty; of an in- 
dex to the growth and prosperity of her institutions; 
and a faithful reflector of the literary, athletic, and 
social relations of her students. . . . The Pean is a 
song of triumph, not a wail of despair." 

The first board of editors was not named; but it 
consisted of Charles A. Strong, D. Hunter McAlpin, 
and Lawrence E. Sexton. It is said that Emlyn M. 
Gill made some of the drawings. 

The Pean met so much opposition from the Faculty 
that publication was omitted in some years; in others 
it appeared surreptitiously. No number appeared in 
1882, 1883, 1889, 1890, or 1896. The issue of 1891 
was of unusual merit; the photographic illustrations 


were the best that have ever appeared in the publica- 
tion. The issue for 1897 reverted to ridicule of the 
Faculty of so objectionable a character that a Faculty 
censor has since passed upon all the copy for the Pean 
before the editors are allowed to put it into type. 

Until 1886 voluntary effort in English composition 
in the Academy was confined chiefly to the literary 
societies, but in May of that year appeared the first 
number of the Phillips Exeter Literary Monthly. 
The managing editor was John L. McMurray, and the 
associate editors were Albert Lee, Carl B, Hurst, 
William B. Hinckley, Campbell McMichael, and 
Jeremiah Smith, Jr. Charles L. Withrow was the 
business manager. The purpose was to promote pure 
literature. Fiction, book reviews, and verse made 
up the numbers. The Monthly went on, though rather 
precariously, until 1899, when publication was dis- 
continued until 1907. Then, under the stimulus of Pro- 
fessor Cushwa, it was revived. The new managing 
editor was David W. Houston, Jr., and the other editors 
were Robert C. Benchley, George L. Buck, Mark W. 
Burlingame, George S. Phenix, Nelson C. Hyde, and 
Paul H. Kruschwitz. The business manager was Harry 
S. Goldey. The paper encourages work in English, 
and many of its editors " make " college papers. In 
spite of studies, tennis, and the " movies," the Monthly 
still claims a fair share of interest. 

The Academy Bulletin, founded in 1905, provides 
an excellent means of communication between the 
school and the alumni. It was begun through the ef- 
forts of Professor Kirtland, who in its first years, gave 
it his painstaking care. In December, 1907, the 
editorship fell to Mr. Ford of the Faculty; and since 
1908 the editors have been Professor Cushwa and Mr. 
Charles E. Atwood, '77. 


Like the Exonian, the Bulletin was a pioneer in its 
field; and has since been imitated in other prepara- 
tory schools and in colleges. The Academy never ad- 
vertises in magazines or papers, and it will never need 
to so long as the Bulletin reaches the ever-growing 
body of alumni, to whom it goes four times a year, one 
issue being the annual catalogue. 

The issue of October, 1917, is typical. Besides the 
editorial notes, it contains a table of representation 
by states of the students for the year, an account of the 
Tuck-Curley gift, a sketch of the newest Trustee, 
Thomas W. Lamont, and articles on the opening year, 
Exeter men in the war, the new gymnasium, the restora- 
tion of the first recitation building as a Faculty club 
house, the River Path, the centenary celebration of the 
Golden Branch, the Merrill lecture course, the Pacific 
Northwest Alumni dinner, and other news of the school 
and the alumni. 

The problem of secret societies in the school has 
always been troublesome, and the question whether 
they should be permitted has been argued at length. 
The effect of the discussion has been to permit them to 
exist, but to limit the number of them and to keep them 
in check. 

The Golden Branch Literary Society, which was 
founded in 1818, was at first a secret society in its meet- 
ings and initiations. Since the school numbered only 
between sixty and seventy, and membership in the 
Golden Branch was limited to fifteen, a great deal of 
jealousy and heartburning resulted among those who 
failed to be elected. The non-members accused the 
society of setting up false standards and of being arro- 
gant and snobbish, and there was a bitterness of feeling 
that will be referred to again presently. 

The first fraternities in Exeter were organized in the 


late seventies. The earliest one mentioned was the Pi 
Kappa Delta; another, the Sigma Pi Alpha, is first 
named in the Pean of 1884, and two others, the Phi 
Epsilon Kappa and the Phi Sigma Phi, were organized 
soon after that. All of them were objectionable in that 
they openly opposed Faculty authority. They held in- 
itiations at unreasonable hours of the night, and often 
maltreated the neophytes. Visits to an old burial 
vault, lighted by a few candles that threw fantastic 
shadows on the coffins ranged about, were supposed 
to test the nerves of the initiates. The result was that 
in 1891, Principal Fish abolished the secret societies, 
one and all. Some of the Faculty tried to save the sit- 
uation by having certain of tjie objectionable features 
changed, but their efforts were nullified by one of the 
fraternity leaders who declared that he would rather 
see the societies- disbanded than to change any of 
their ancient traditions and practices. 

The early societies elected one or two Faculty mem- 
bers but gave them no opportunity 'to change the 
worst features. Mr. Fish, therefore, besides disbanding 
the societies, required the students to promise that 
they would neither join nor maintain any other secret 
fraternity. But some acute student discovered that 
an oath made under duress is not valid; he and a few 
others therefore organized, in 1891, a new fraternity, 
which maintained a clandestine existence until 1896, 
when Dr. Amen decided that fraternities might again 
be formed. 

The lifting of the ban resulted in the founding 
of Phi Epsilon Sigma, in January, 1896; of Kappa 
Epsilon Pi, in February, 1896; of Kappa Delta Pi, 
in April, 1897; of Kappa Beta Nu, in November, 1901 ; 
of Alpha Nu, in January, 1903; and of Phi Theta 
Psi, in May, 1914. 


The societies are now under the direct supervision 
of members of the Faculty, who are not mere honorary 
members. The result is that the evils have been 
limited, though not entirely eliminated. Kappa Beta 
Nu was abolished by the Faculty in the fall of 1908. 

For a number of years after the readmission of the 
fraternities in 1896 some of their doings were objec- 
tionable. At public initiations, the neophytes appeared 
at class and on the streets in fantastic garb, sold pea- 
nuts, and did other silly things. One society ended 
its initiation ritual by branding the neophyte slightly 
with a glowing cigar. Members of societies may not 
now be distinguished by any peculiar mark or dress, 
and other of the more glaring evils have been abol- 
ished. 1 

The best-loved Exonian of his decade, the late James 
J. Hogan, ? oi, refused all bids to join a fraternity, 
becaused he believed that joining might keep him 
from mingling freely with non-fraternity men. He well 
knew, however, the power of those old associations 
of the societies that bind alumni to the school, so he 
accepted an invitation and was initiated the night be- 
fore he graduated. 

The literary societies at Exeter hold a place that is at 
once unique in their services to the members, and in 
their sacredness to " old boys " in associations and mem- 
ories. In them many a boy at first shy and self-distrust- 
ful stammers his first real public speech; but at the end 
of a few months he is transformed. No longer shy and 
self-concious, he thinks quickly and accurately, and 
springs confidently to his feet to debate for or against 
some theory of life or politics. He learns to give and 
take, to recognize true logic from false, and to stand 
on his own merits. Many an Exeter graduate treasures 

1 For a full discussion of fraternities, see Bulletin, March, 1913. 


this training, and the intimate friendships that he 
formed under the loyal oath to abide by the constitu- 
tion and by-laws. It is not uncommon to hear a grad- 
uate remark that as a student he gained more from one 
of the societies than from any study which he pursued 
in the Academy. 

The earliest literary society in the Academy of which 
any record remains was reorganized in 1812 under the 
title of " The Rhetorical Society." It was probably 
the first of the kind in any American secondary school. 
It existed till July 15,., 1820. The Golden Branch 
had already been organized, and it seems likely that 
the older and feebler society ceased to exist merely to 
permit its members to join the new one. 

The Golden Branch was founded July 16, 1818, 
largely through the efforts of Charles Soule, who en- 
tered the Academy in 1815, and Professor Hosea 
Hildreth, who wrote the constitution and by-laws. The 
ten original members were John G. Merrill, David R. 
Straw, George W. Gordon, Jonathan Ward, Jr., John 
Kelley, William A. Whitwell, Elijah Colburn, Thomas 
W. Dorr, John P. Robinson, and Charles Soule. Mr. 
Soule was the first president. The name for the new 
venture was taken from Virgil's Aeneid, VI, i36ff: 

" Latet arbore opaca 
Aureus et foliis et lento vimine ramus, 
Junoni infernae dictus sacer." 

At the first meeting this question was vigorously de- 
bated: " To which should we submit with less reluc- 
tance, the privation of sight or hearing? " In other 
words, " Which should you rather be: blind or deaf? " 

The early presidents exhorted the "brothers" to 
stand together against outsiders. Their attitude, com- 
bined with the secret oath and the mystic symbol of 



Phillips Church 
Davis Laboratory 

Dunbar Hall 

Academy Building 

Thompson Gymnasium 

Webster Hall 
The Yard 


the society, " F. S. T.," aroused bitterness among those 
who were not members. For years the number who 
were admitted was only fifteen, and since the school 
contained from sixty to seventy boys, hardly one boy 
in five was a member. The insolence and condescen- 
sion of the members sometimes led to open warfare 
between the two factions, and there was always 
smoldering hatred. The controversy came to a head 
on April 19, 1841, when those who were opposed to the 
Golden Branch met and adopted vigorous resolutions 
against the society. They styled the attitude of its 
members as that of " Noris nos; docti sumtts" To 
give further weight to their protests, the malcontents 
founded a new society, the Phillips Debating Club, but 
Principal Soule summarily expelled the five ringleaders 
on the ground that they had founded a society with- 
out his permission. Those who were thus expelled 
published a long and able defense of their action. 
They argued that they had been expelled without hear- 
ing, as if they had been idle and vicious. Some of them 
were readmitted after a proper apology, but others re- 
fused to apologize and never returned. 

The result of the upheaval was that on August 19, 
1841, the Trustees voted "That the Constitution and 
Laws of the Golden Branch Society be so altered and 
modified that the society shall be merely a private one 
with no secret or secrecy in their exercises or proceed- 
ings." They also voted that the Trustees in Exeter 
be authorized to superintend all affairs of the society. 
The mysterious " F. S. T." was found to be merely a 
schoolboy's motto, standing for " Friendship's sacred 
tie." Even the end of the secrecy, however, has not 
dimmed the sacredness of that motto to many an 
Exeter man. 

For many years the Golden Branch had a collection 


of minerals and curios, to which boys from all over 
the country contributed. The list of contributors still 
survives, but in the late eighties the society sold the 
collection, much to the chagrin of the Faculty and the 
alumni. The library of the society is large and useful, 
comprising several hundred volumes, among which are 
some rare and valuable first editions. The roll of 
membership includes some of the best known of the 
alumni of the academy. 

In 1824 the custom was instituted of having the 
president deliver an inaugural address. Of late years 
the addresses have become more or less perfunctory; 
but in the early days they were semi-florid, perfervid 
speeches in which the speaker led or dragged his hearers 
from the days of Greece and Rpme down through the 
ages. The deviousness of the trail was limited only 
by the knowledge of the speaker in the curious and in- 
tricate by-paths of history. The address on the death 
of Principal Abbot in 1849, however, was one of great 
sympathy, insight, pathos, and depth, and does the 
writer much credit. 

The Golden Branch early adopted the plan of elect- 
ing to honorary membership men of prominence who 
loved and served the school. In the long list of men 
who were glad to accept honorary membership are the 
names of Lewis Cass, Daniel Webster, Charles Sumner, 
John G. Palfrey, Theodore Parker, Jared Sparks, James 
T. Fields, Ralph Waldo Emerson, John G. Whittier, 
and Phillips Brooks. On June 12, 1878, Emerson de- 
livered an address on " Education " in the chapel under 
the auspices of the society. The honorary member of 
whom the Golden Branch is most proud was Daniel 
Webster, whose letter to the society appears on an 
earlier page. 
The Golden Branch still offers excellent training in 


speaking, essay writing, and debate, both formal and 
extemporaneous; and best of all it still binds together 
in firm, lifelong friendship its members under those still 
potent letters, "K S. T." 

By a strange turn of the whirligig of time, the new 
literary society that was founded in 1881, took the 
name of Gideon L. Soule, the man who so vigorously 
put down the first rival of the Golden Branch and ex- 
pelled the founders. The school had grown from sixty- 
five to over two hundred, and needed a larger opportu- 
nity for speaking and debate. Among the charter 
members of the new society were George P. F. Hobson, - 
John M. Merriam, Frank EL Cunningham, who wrote 
the first history of the Academy, and Thomas Hunt, 
all of the class of 1882. The society adopted as its 
motto, " Fortiter, fideliter, f elicited" For the most 
part it has had plain sailing, and has been a useful 
supplement to its older brother. But in 1893 it was 
discontinued owing to lack of interest. In February, 
1894, however, at the urgent request of the Exonian 
it was reorganized. 

Yearly debates between the rival societies are held, 
and arouse much interest and enthusiasm. Occasion- 
ally a set of books is given as a prize to the society 
that wins a series of debates extending over several 
years, and once the annual debate was enlivened by 
the award of a portrait and autograph letter from Pres- 
ident Taft. No more valuable training than these two 
societies afford can be found in the Academy. When 
debates with the Harvard Freshmen and with Andover 
were held, the Exeter team was chosen at trials open to 
the whole school, but the men who were picked were 
almost always those from the two debating societies. 
Occasionally, however, some debater of ability was 
found outside of the societies. It is a matter of pride 


that in spite of the many interests of schoolboys of 
today, the two societies still flourish. 

For several years beginning in 1899, the Exeter team 
debated with Freshman or Sophomore teams from Har- 
vard 3 and was almost always successful. In 1906 the 
first joint debate with Andover was held, and resulted 
in a victory for Exeter. Andover won in 1907; then 
for seven successive years Exeter was victorious. In 
1915 Andover again won in a spirited contest; but 
owing to decreasing interest in debating, voted in 1916 
to discontinue the debates with Exeter. The inter- 
school debates never failed to stimulate interest among 
both students and townspeople, so that a large audience 
always assembled. Most of the debating teams at 
Exeter have been coached by Professor James A. Tufts, 
to whose care must be assigned no small credit for 
their success. 

But the literary societies do not depend entirely 
on debates for their programs. There is usually a se- 
lected reading, an original essay, and an extempo- 
raneous debate, besides the formal or prepared debate. 
At the dose of the meeting a critic makes a report on 
everything that seems to him open to criticism, such as 
mispronounced words, faulty gestures and weak argu- 
ments. Altogether those who attend the meetings de- 
rive a great deal of good from them. The societies 
hold annual dinners which furnish a pleasant meeting 
for the members and a few of the alumni. 

No Academy organization is more typical of Exeter 
than the Christian Fraternity. It was founded April 
13, 1856, by eight students, for the purpose of holding 
prayer meetings. The secretary of the day recorded: 
" A few young men of P. E. Academy met this evening 
for the first time to hold a prayer meeting. ... It 


was proposed that we should all kneel and ask God in 
prayer for divine guidance and direction.' 7 

The original eight were George W. Barber, George 
W. Atherton, Timothy S. Dodge, Daniel B. Fitts. Albert 
L. Norris, Samuel C. Richardson, Hiram M. Sanborn, 
and Algernon S. Symmes. A constitution was drawn 
and signed, and the approval of the Faculty was ob- 
tained. At first the prayer meetings were held on Wed- 
nesday and Saturday afternoons; but the midweek 
gatherings were soon abandoned for Sunday evening 
at seven o'clock. 1 

The semi-centennial of the Christian Fraternity was 
celebrated June 17, 1906. Two of the five surviving 
charter members were present, the Reverend Mr. Bar- 
ber, of Bridgton, Maine, who delivered the address, 
and Dr. Norris, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. The 
others who were living at the time were Messrs. 
Atherton, Dodge, and Fitts. Mr. Atherton died in July 
of the same year. 

The meetings of the Christian Fraternity are in the 
hands of the boys themselves, though members of the 
Faculty are often present. Of late years the philan- 
thropic work of the Academy has been done through 
the Fraternity, under the direction of a member of 
the Faculty. The annual budget amounts to about 
$3,000. The money is raised among the students by 
popular appeal, and is used for the Jacob Riis Settle- 
ment, for relief work, and for similar causes. In the 
fall of 1917 the Academy stood second among institu- 
tions in the state that raised money for the Y. M. C, A. 
war fund. Its total was $4,650. 

The only break in the history of the Fraternity came 
in 1899, when an attempt was made to convert it into 

1 An account of the anniversary appeared in the Bulletin, 
September, 1906. 


a branch of the Y. M. C A. For a time delegates from 
that association dictated the policy of the Fraternity 
and in other ways interfered with its work. Thereupon 
the members rebelled and returned to the old organiza- 
tion. Since then the individuality of the society has 
been preserved. 

Another kind of club that has always been numerous 
at Exeter is that in which the names are drawn together 
by a common interest. A number of students suddenly 
discover that they have a common hobby, and celebrate 
the discovery by forming a club. Among such organiza- 
tions are the Dramatic Club, the Whist, the Bicycle, 
the Mask and Wig, the Snow Shoe, the Toboggan, the 
Gun, the Chess, the Camera, and many others. 

There are also sectional clubs, such as the Southern, 
the Western, and the Empire State. 

The first orchestra at Phillips Exeter was probably 
founded in 1875-1876, by Edward H. Hastings, Ethan 
A. Reynolds, Albert A. Howard, Oscar E. Shrader, 
and William D. Baker. Later they were joined by 
Charles E. Hamlin, Ernest B. Balch, and Charles E. L, 
Wingate, and the orchestra was launched under the 
title of " The Musical Sodality." At present it is a 
regular part of the musical dubs. The glee club was 
organized soon afterward. It led the chapel choir, and 
on pleasant evenings sang under the trees. 

Musical life in the Academy is fostered in every way. 
Each department receives careful drill, and several 
concerts are given every year one in Jordan Hall, 
Boston, and others in Amesbury and Haverhill. But 
best of all is the annual joint concert with Andover. 
The visit to the rival school on alternate years is a 
source of inspiration and pleasure to both schools. 

As early as 1887 a dramatic club was formed; it 
flourished and languished; resolved itself into the Mask 


and Wig club, and occasionally gave " barn-storming " 
plays. Under the Modern Language department in 
1896 Labiche and Jolly's " La Grammaire " was given; 
and in 1897 the German play, " Die Hochzeitsreise." 
In 1898 two one-act comedies, "The Violin Maker of 
Cremona," and " My Uncle's Will " were successfully 
presented, and in the spring term of that year, under 
a skilled director, " The School for Scandal," was given 
with a great deal of credit. Then for a time the club 
was given up. English plays, except those mentioned, 
brought but little profit for the time and effort ex- 
pended. Most of the actors were inhospitable to 
coaching and rendered or rended their parts as they 
chose; but when Mr. James P. Webber was appointed 
Instructor in English, he revived the dramatics and for 
more than a dozen years he has presented plays with 
unvarying success. His intimate knowledge of the 
stage and of speaking makes his drilling of the cast a 
matter of great value. Among the plays that have been 
given are " The Rivals," " The Bells," " King Henry 
V," "Treasure Island," "Sherlock Holmes," and 


all sports are fostered at Exeter, foot- 
ball reigns supreme. The first few days of the 
fall term see nearly every man in school out for foot- 
ball. Gradually the squad is thinned, and the unfor- 
tunates reluctantly go to the class teams or to some 
other sport; but their eyes are always on the first squad, 
and any hint from the coach will send them proudly 
scurrying from class and hall teams to the school squad. 
Many a good first team man, incidentally, has had 
his training on the minor teams. Nor is the worship 
of football confined to the undergraduates. Baseball 
and track call back alumni by scores for an Andover 
contest; sometimes even hundreds will return from 
New York and Boston; but football calls them back 
from half across the continent. Occasionally an old 
graduate will journey clear from Seattle or Tacoma 
to watch the battle royal of an hour on the gray 
November gridiron; and if the school happens to win 
he never counts the cost. It brings him to his feet to 
see a Hart, a " Tad " Jones, a Brickley, or an Eddie 
Casey spurn tacklers and make a touchdown. 

Just when football was first played at Exeter is 
shrouded in the mists of antiquity. Alpheus S. Pack- 
ard, who entered in 1811 says 1 that the game was the 
popular fall sport, and it had long been played here at 

1 Cunningham, p. 232. 


that time. The early games were pretty loose affairs, 
no account being taken of the numbers on a side. Those 
who sat on the north of the main aisle of the Latin 
room opposed those who sat on the south, and every 
agile and rugged boy was expected to take part. The 
game was purely a kicking contest; no carrying of the 
ball was allowed. 

Perhaps Exeter has inherited a fondness for foot- 
ball that goes back to the early days of John Wheel- 
wright, the founder of the town. He and Oliver 
Cromwell were college mates at Sidney College, Cam- 
bridge, England. Of him Cromwell remarked a " that 
he was more afraid of meeting Wheelwright at football 
than he had been since of meeting an army in the field, 
for he was infallibly sure of being tripped up by him." 

Edward H. Daveis, 1832, says: 

" Football was our great game, and was keenly exciting to the 
boys. The side with the first kick opened the game by f warn- 
ing ' the ball, the compliment of warning being generally given 
to the best player. A good deal depended on that first kick. 
After the warning was given the opposite side rushed on. It 
was held dishonorable for the players to use their hands, but 
we could butt with our shoulders. I was a pretty good football 
player for a light weight, and could run very fast, fleetness be- 
ing an advantage in a game which was one continued race. I 
remember I used to count the black and blue spots inflicted on 
my shins during the games with great pride." 

For many years the game remained practically un- 

George T. Tilden, 1863, says: 2 

" We had just paired off, the Juniors and Middlers against the 
Seniors and Advance, for a game of football, and Hunnewell 
was to give the < warning kick.' ... -I was far from being one 
of the big boys, and seldom found it worth while to get into 
the ' rush/ " 

1 Bell, History of Exeter, p. 5. 2 Cunningham, p. 54. 


A famous interclass game was played in the fall of 
1874 between 1875 on one side and the combined 
classes of 1876 and 1877 on the other. " Tom " Ash- 
brook was captain of '75, and gallantly led his smaller 
band of thirty or forty men against pretty nearly a hun- 
dred of the foe. One of his chief helpers in the fierce 
onslaughts was " Hal " McCord; and towards the end 
of the fray Harlan P. Amen, the late principal of the 
Academy, did yeoman service. Towering above his 
classmates on the side of '75 was Judge " Plupy " 
Shute. Association football was always a prime fa- 
vorite for settling personal grudges; and in this game, 
the ball having got stuck in a fence corner, the greater 
numbers of the lower classes gave them a chance to 
kick freely the shins of '75. The end of the game was 
approaching, and there had been no score. In a last 
frantic appeal Captain Ashbrook shouted to his follow- 
ers, " Oyster stew for the crowd at Hervey's if we 
win! " That inducement gave the needed fire to the 
cohorts of '75, who went in and won. As prizes, each 
man of '75 received a little rubber medal, and a minia- 
ture rubber football. 

Until 1877 only association football was known at 
Exeter, played with the well-known round ball. In the 
fall of that year the first oval Rugby footballs appeared. 
They were bought merely as a curiosity. The modern 
game had not yet come in. That fall, however, there 
came a challenge from Andover for a match at Rugby, 
which Exeter was obliged to decline, since it had no 
Rugby team. 

In the fall of 1878, Exeter accepted a challenge from 
Andover, and on November 2 journeyed about eighty 
strong to the school on the hill for the first football 
game. Exeter was easily defeated 22-0, according to 
the modern way of scoring. One reason for the defeat 


was that previously the Exeter men had played only 
informally among themselves; they had played no other 
match that season. Nevertheless, Exeter played a 
spirited game and thoroughly enjoyed the hospitality 
of their hosts. The playing of Shattuck of Exeter was 
especially commended; and Rogers and Corwith were 
the star players for Andover. Full of enthusiasm, the 
Exeter men returned from the fray, and sought a re- 
turn match that same fall, but Andover declined. The 
primitive style of the game can be seen from the terms 
used. The periods of play were " innings "; the backs 
were styled " tends " and " half tends." Twice, the 
Exonian records, play was delayed by cane rushes be- 
tween Andover classes, " in which the Andovers seemed 
to find a great deal of pleasure." Imagine a modern 
game interrupted by a class rush! After the game the 
Andover men gave a supper to the eleven and some of 
its supporters, a courtesy that the Exonians appre- 

The next year found Exeter strong for the modern 
game of football. The first game of the season, that 
with Adams Academy, resulted in a tie; later Exeter 
defeated the Harvard Freshmen by one goal and three 
touchdowns to nothing. The game with Andover re- 
sulted in a victory for Exeter by the score of 18-0. 
The running of Captain Hooker, and of Bean, an 
Exeter " rusher," or line man, was noteworthy, and J. 
Byron and Towle also laid solid foundations for Exeter 
football traditions by their running and punting. 

The score in 1880 was a tie, 8-8; but by building up 
fine backfields Andover won the next four contests, 
6-0, 12 o, 15-6, and n-8. The last defeat named, 
that of 1884, came as a bitter dose to Exeter. It was 
won by Andover's superb fighting spirit, and lost by 
gross overconfidence on the part of Exeter. Before the 


game the Exonian openly accused the school and the 
eleven of overconfidence. There was some reason for 
confidence, since Exeter had scored 154 points to her 
opponents 7 10, as follows: Boston High and Latin, 
52-0; Tufts, 34-0; Gentlemen of Boston, 22-6; 
Chauncy Hall, 46-2. The punting of Wurtenberg, and 
the all-round playing of Cranston, later of Harvard, 
and that of Harding and Bass of the Exeter team had 
been superb throughout the season. But over con- 
fidence on the part of Exeter must not detract from 
the determination of the Andover team to win, which 
brought a well-earned triumph. Andover proved again 
the truth of the common assertion that when Exeter 
and Andover meet, the under dog usually wins. 

In 1883 the modern method of scoring was first used; 
until then the scores had been counted by touchdowns, 
goals and safeties. 

In 1885 Exeter had a veteran team, and beat 
Andover 33-11. The score was first given as 29-11, 
but the Exonian of November 21, 1885, contains a letter 
from the referee, Mr. Walter B. Phillips, to the effect 
that the score should have been 33-11, not 29-11, since 
he had forgotten one touchdown made by Exeter! The 
large score was due to the work of Captain Wurten- 
berg, Bass, Cranston, Harding, and Tracy. Bass is 
now a well-known newspaper man, and during the 
Great War was a correspondent with the Allied Annies 
at the front, having served his apprenticeship in the 
Russo-Japanese War and the Balkan Wars. 

The fall of 1886 saw Exeter at work with a veteran 
eleven. Cranston, Harding, and Morison were playing 
their third season for Exeter, and Edward H, Fallows, 
director of the new gymnasium, was coaching the 
team. Captain E. W. MacPherran inspired his men to 
splendid efforts; yet the early season was disappoint- 


ing. The team tied the Gentlemen of Boston 4-4, 
beat Tufts 18-8, lost to M. I. T. 18-6, won from Har- 
vard Freshmen 30-5, and entered the Andover game a 
puzzle to its friends. But once the game was on, there 
was no doubt of the outcome. MacPherran's dashes 
down the muddy field, and the battering-ram charges 
of the great and to-be-greater " Lee " McClung swept 
Andover back irresistibly. Both of those players 
worked themselves into a sort of berserk frenzy that 
inspired their followers with zeal and their opponents 
with awe. The final score was 26-0 in favor of Exeter. 

John S. Cranston, captain of the 1887 team, had felt 
the sting of defeat by Andover once, and had twice 
tasted the sweets of victory. He now led his troops by 
forced marches into the realms of grim play. He him- 
self played in the line. Behind him were the veterans 
Harding, McClung, and Morison, as halfbacks, and 
Farquhar, as fullback. They swept the field, and set 
a score of 44-4 that stood as a record for Exeter-An- 
dover football until in the fall of 1914 " Eddie" 
Casey's eleven scored 78-7. Cranston's eleven was 
coached by the new director of the gymnasium, Alber- 
tus T. Dudley. As yet no regular coach had been 

Andover won the game of 1888 by a clever criss- 
cross play. The following year there was no contest. 
In 1890 and 1891 Andover also won, by the scores of 
1 6-0 and 26-0; but in 1891 Exeter held Harvard to a 
score of 17-0, the best showing ever made against the 
University at Cambridge; and in 1892, under the 
leadership of T. Turner Thomas, a iso-pound halfback, 
Exeter won from Andover impressively by the score 
of 28-18. For that contest Exeter had adopted the 
" V " or flying wedge. The next year Exeter again 


won, this time 26-10. There were no games with 
Andover in 1894 and 1895. 

The fall of 1896 found Andover with a strong eleven. 
Shirley Ellis, perhaps the best hurdling back who ever 
played for Harvard, was a guard; and with such backs 
as Burdick, White, and Elliott, Andover was unbeat- 
able, and won, 28-0. Exeter had some good men, such 
as Zimmerman, who afterwards played at Pennsylva- 
nia, and Kasson and Greene, the latter of whom played 
center on "Dave 7 ' Campbell's eleven at Harvard. 
Exeter had Maurice Connor that year as a temporary 
coach, and " Ma " Newell of Harvard as his assistant. 

In 1898 Captain " Bill " Higley led a strong eleven 
against Andover on the Exeter campus. Of the mem- 
bers of this team Greene and Baldwin made the Har- 
vard team, and Jones was kept out of the Yale game 
only by an injury. Hogan, whom Yale men 
loved and Harvard men feared, played tackle, 
and the backs, Miller and Lynde, were full of power. 
The day was foul, for rain and snow fell till noon, 
but classes were dismissed after chapel, and the stu- 
dents cleaned the gridiron with shovels and brooms. 
Even then the lower end of the field was a quagmire, 
and in five minutes after the first whistle friend and 
foe were a steaming, indistinguishable body of mud- 
covered warriors. The battle was desperate; it was 
hard to keep a footing, and often the runner slid after 
he was downed. In the first half Exeter made two 
touchdowns and kicked both goals, and early in the 
second half made another touchdown and a goal a 
total of 1 8 points. Then Andover, which had seemed 
powerless, made two points on a safety. That gave a 
new life to the game, and in the next few minutes, aided 
by a blocked punt and a penalty which gave Andover 
the ball on Exeter's ten yard line, Andover made two 


touchdowns and kicked the goals, which made the score 
18-14. Exeter was obviously weakening, but held 
grimly. Those who were sure that Andover was on 
the road to another score and victory were not aware 
that when the whistle blew that ended the game Exeter 
had just taken the ball on downs on the Exeter 30 yard 
line and was preparing to kick out of danger. Never- 
theless every credit is due to Andover for making a 
magnificent rally that all but won. It may be remarked 
in passing that in the history of Exeter-Andover con- 
tests the team that has scored first has always won the 
game, except in 1880 when the score was a tie, 8-8, 
and again in 1922 when Exeter came from behind and 
won. A large share of the credit for the victory of 1897 
is due to Coach Walter McCornack, the former Dart- 
mouth quarterback, who coached Exeter in 1897, 1898, 
1899, and 1900. During this time Exeter won twice, 
lost once, and tied once. He was the first regular 
Exeter coach. 

A o-o tie score ended the season of 1898 unsatisfac- 
torily. The next fall Andover's superb team, on which 
were such players as Ralph Davis, Kinney, Bloomer, 
Rafferty, and Matthews, won a 17-0 decision. The 
terrific drives of the Andover backs were as fine as were 
ever seen on a football field. Captain Hogan of Exeter 
refused to accept an " E " sweater, but gave it to a 
substitute. The next year, however, Exeter had a 
strong team. It lost to Dartmouth 10-0, tied New 
Hampshire College o-o, and tied M. I. T. 6-6, but won 
from Andover 10-0. A feature of the Andover game 
was the extraordinary punting of Brill; against the high 
wind he punted fully as far as his opponent did with 
the wind. The following year also Exeter won, this 
time by 5-0. Brill was captain, and Perry Hale of 
Yale was coach. Exeter had a team that should have 


won by a large score, but it muffed almost every punt 
during the game. 

From 1898 to 1902 Exeter furnished the first foot- 
ball training for many subsequent college stars. The 
greatest teams ever turned out at Dartmouth were com- 
posed largely of Exeter men. The Dartmouth team 
of 1903 which played the first game in the Stadium and 
defeated Harvard u-o, was captained by Myron 
Witham; the other Exeter men on the team were 
" Heinie " Hooper, " Joe " Gilman, " Mary " Dillon, 
and " Bill " Knibbs. 

In 1902, when C. D. Swain was the coach, Exeter 
lost a loosely played Andover game, 29-17. Neither 
team was strong in defense; therefore the team that had 
the ball most of the time scored the most points. 

In 1903 Exeter turned the tables and won, 14-11. 
That year the coach was E. N. Robinson, of Brown, 
who also coached the baseball team with success. Of 
the 1903 team Hart, McCormick, and MacFadyen 
later played at Princeton, Vaughn at Yale, Greene at 
the University of Pennsylvania, and Bankhart at Dart- 

In 1904 Exeter was also represented by an all-star 
squad, including " Tad " and Howard Jones. The 
score of 35-10 shows about the relative merit of the 
Exeter-Andover teams. Andover scored a field goal, 
and later made a touchdown and kicked the goal when 
it had grown so dark that friend and foe looked alike. 
As one of the players remarked, " You had to tackle 
every man to be sure of stopping the man with the 
ball." That year the coach was Fred W. Murphy, of 
Brown. Exeter won from all opponents, the score be- 
ing Exeter, 172; opponents, 12. She defeated New 
Hampshire College, Bowdoin, Bates, Dean Academy, 
Harvard Freshman, Harvard Second, and St. Alphon- 


sus A. A., which scored a safety of two points. It was 
well that Exeter had a good record that year; for eight 
lean years were to follow, in which Andover won every 
football contest. 

During those lean years the games were always well 
fought, generally close, and furnished excellent sport. 
The coaches for that period were Jim Hogan of Yale 
in 1905, 1906, 1907; John Glaze, Dartmouth, in 1908 
and 1909; Fred Murphy in 1910, and Gus Zeigler, 
University of Pennsylvania, in 1911 and 1912. Both 
schools produced some great players. Among the best 
at Exeter were Sam White, who won a Princeton cham- 
pionship; Macgregor of Princeton; Tom Wilson, also 
of Princeton; Mitchell of Brown; Cooney and " Pie " 
Way, of Yale; Dickerman of Princeton; and Brickley 
of Harvard. But in spite of those stars Exeter scored 
only ii points to Andover 5 s 109. 

It is a long lane that has no turning. In the fall 
of 1913 "Tad 33 Jones returned to coach Exeter. Dr. 
Amen was especially eager to see a victory, and on the 
morning of that memorable day sat up till two o 3 clock 
to write a speech to make in chapel. A few hours later 
he was stricken. It was decided, however, to play the 
game in spite of Dr. Amen 3 s illness. So at two o 3 clock 
" Pat " Kelly led his team on the field. When the last 
whistle had blown, Exeter had scored 59 points to An- 
dover's o. Few of the students knew of Dr. Amen 3 s 
illness; and when it was announced after the game, all 
thoughts of the long-awaited celebration were aban- 
doned. It is hard to say who were most responsible 
for the great victory. Quarterback " Fido " Kempton 
had caught " Tad 33 Jones's berserk frenzy, and flung 
his backs or himself at the foe with the cry of " Havoc! " 
Such men as " Cupe " Black, Comerford, Bingham, and 
McGrath of Yale, and Kelly of West Point were a few 


of the heroes. For Exeter there were no substitutions, 
but Andover used twenty men in an attempt to stem the 
tide. During the early season Exeter had won every 
game. The results for the season were Exeter, 172; 
opponents, 29. 

In 1914, under the captaincy of " Eddie " Casey, 
Exeter made eleven touchdowns against Andover 
from which Wehner kicked ten goals and also scored 
two points on a safety. By a superb forward pass An- 
dover made a touchdown, and kicked the goal. The 
final score of 78-7 fairly indicates the relative power 
of the two teams. The Exeter backs broke through 
almost at will, and scored sometimes from long runs 
through the entire opposing team. That year five sub- 
stitutes were sent in, largely to give them the chance to 
win the coveted " E." That the team had great scoring 
power is seen from the season's total score. Exeter 
made 230 to her opponents' 13, and won every contest, 
defeating Gushing Academy, and freshman teams from 
Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Dartmouth, and Pennsylva- 
nia by double figures to zero; and also defeated Wor- 
cester Academy 15-6. 

In 1915, " Fido " Kempton's last year at Exeter, he 
was captain, and had the honor of winning every game. 
The total points were Exeter, 223 ; opponents, 17. The 
Harvard Freshmen made ten points and Andover seven. 
The road to scores in the Andover game was a rocky 
one, compared with the previous year. The final score 
was Exeter, 37; Andover, 7. 

The next year, 1916, Coach Jones was called to Yale, 
and Harry Vaughn, class of 1907, took his place. The 
annual game was played at Andover on a muddy field; 
but it was exceedingly hard fought. The most superb 
defensive game ever played by an Exeter team alone 
prevented defeat. Three times Andover had the ball 


on Exeter's three yard line for a first down; but the 
final three were lacking, and each time Exeter held for 
downs or recovered on a fumble. Then Lourie, the 
Exeter quarterback, skirted the Andover left end for 
33 yards and a touchdown, from which he failed to 
kick a goal. That ended the scoring for the day. 
After the game, Russell, the Andover captain, feeling 
that he and his men had fought a losing game well, and 
that there was no reproach in such a defeat, ran from 
the muddy field with his head in the air, instead of 
weeping bitterly over defeat as many an Exeter and 
many an Andover man had done. 

The following year Lourie, as captain, again won the 
Andover game by making the only points scored, on a 
drop kick from the 27-yard line. 

In 1918 Exeter had a successful preliminary season 
against certain S.A.T.C. camps. Games with colleges 
and other academies were almost impossible to arrange. 
The early season saw Exeter the winner in all games; 
the total score was Exeter, 129; opponents, 6. By all 
tokens Andover should have won the annual game 
handily. The Boston papers predicted an overwhelm- 
ing defeat for Exeter. But again the " dope " was 
wrong, largely because Exeter refused to accept the con- 
clusions of the wise ones. Exeter ran the kick-off back 
thirty-five yards, and in ten plays scored a touchdown. 
Both teams were light, and missed the weight of earlier 
years; but the playing spirit of both were superb. The 
line plunging of Kennedy and Gilroy were large ele- 
ments in the Exeter victory. 

'In 1919 conditions were reversed; Exeter, the 
favorite, was grossly overconfident, and Andover won, 
19-0. One reason for the Exeter defeat was the injury 
which kept Captain Luman out of the game. But An- 
dover played the better football, and deserved her vie- 


tory. Her captain, Adams, in particular, played a su- 
perb game. 

As a matter of fact, those who have the welfare of 
athletics between Exeter and Andover most at heart are 
averse to a long series of victories for either school. 
Continued winning makes for a certain contempt for 
the game, and is wholly bad for the winners; and it is 
equally bad for the losers to be plunged so deeply for 
so long into the depths of despair such as a series of 
bitter defeats is sure to bring. If at the end of fifty 
years each school had scored an equal number of vic- 
tories, the interest of both would be best served. At 
the time of this writing Andover has won 21 games, 
Exeter has won 19, and two have been ties. The total 
points scored have been Exeter, 575; Andover, 441. 

A typical football game with the ancient rival, An- 
dover, is a miniature Harvard- Yale game, with all of 
the details, and in addition a sort of blind, unreasoning 
devotion to school and team that is not equalled in any 
other school or college. There is a fervor and a spirit, 
a cruel depth of despair in defeat and a corresponding 
ecstatic elation in victory, that no other sports and no 
other days bring; no Exeter or Andover man has ever 
any hope to see those feelings duplicated when he goes 
as a member of a college to see his team play; or, as so 
often happens, to play himself. 

The members of the visiting school take a special 
train for the enemy camp. Then the students form in 
a long double line, with the cheer leaders at the head. 
Those leaders, chosen for the " pep " which they can 
infuse into their followers, do the whirling dervishes 
when, in the agony of possible defeat or in the exhilara- 
tion of certain victory they call for three long cheers, 
or an individual cheer for a plucky player, or for a roar 
of defiance to the host across the gridiron. 


Once formed at the station the dan marches to 
the grandstands, the march punctuated at every 
step by spelling the name of the school " E-X-E- 
T-E-R P.-E.-A. Rah-Rah-Rah! " And on re- 
turn games " A^N-D-0-V-E-R Rah-Rah-Rah! " 
echoes hoarsely through the streets of Exeter. Heard 
from a distance, that heavy, defiant cheer, as suggestive 
of power as the surf at Hampton Beach, is a note of 
warning and an assurance of support. 

Once on the field the clan marches in pretty good 
order until the stands are reached, where sections in the 
middle of the field are reserved. Then a wild scram- 
ble ensues; no one ever pretends to get the seat that his 
ticket calls for, but each one makes a wild rush for the 
best seats on the top, middle rows. Once there the 
cheering begins again. First comes a long rolling cheer 
for the rival school, which is repeated at intervals dur- 
ing the game. The rivals at once return the courtesy. 
During the game, too, there are frequent cheers for 
good plays by opponents, even though the play may 
spell defeat. 

When one team nears a touchdown, the opposing 
hosts call beseechingly to their team to " Hold, hold, 
hold." Every touchdown or other score means sinking 
of hearts and silent groans on one side of the field, but 
on the other side up go hats, megaphones, and anything 
else that can be tossed aloft. As the end of the contest 
draws near, the boys on the winning side prepare to 
spring out on to the field and bear away the victors on 
their shoulders. There is no more refined torture for 
a loser than to await the inexorable final whistle that 
spells defeat, and to see the foe crouched ready to bear 
the victors from the field. The carrying on the shoulders 
is more popular with the masses than with the players, 


who are generally too much bruised and exhausted to 
enjoy it. 

After the team has escaped, the sinuous, writhing 
snake dance follows. Round the field go the devotees, 
throwing hats and caps and megaphones over the cross- 
bar of the goal posts. By time-honored custom the 
defeated school sticks grimly at its post, watching the 
antics of the rivals. Finally the winners stop in front 
of the grandstand and cheer the opposing school; the 
cheer is returned, and the losers depart. To withdraw 
before that ceremony is thought to be quitting; to go 
wearily through it is " standing by the team." A game 
so bitterly fought and so eagerly won holds only the 
best in sport. There is never a hint of unfairness, and 
the cordial good will and rivalry are worthy of emula- 
tion in any college. No attempt is made to " rattle " 
the opposing players or to drown the signals of the op- 
posing quarterback; each school observes the amenities 
with the nicest care. 

Exeter's most famous battle hymn is the " March 
Song "; Andover's is sung to the tune of " Die Wacht 
am Rhein." Incidentally, the cheer leaders of each 
school solemnly tell their supporters that the rival 
school is outsinging and outcheering them, all because 
the cheering and tumult sound more impressive at a 
little distance than too close at hand. 


NEXT to football, baseball has always been the 
most popular sport at Exeter. Alpheus S. Pack- 
ard, who entered in 1811, mentions "bat-ball" as 
played in his day; and later the games of " one old cat," 
" two old cat " and " rounders " were popular. 

Baseball was played at Exeter in a desultory fashion 
for a good many years before it was finally organized 
into the modern game. On October 19, 1859, Professor 
Cilley wrote in his diary: " Match game of Base-Ball 
between the Phillips Club and 17 chosen from the 
school at large commenced P.M. I was Referee. Two 
players were disabled and the game adjourned." 
Putting a man out by striking him with the ball when 
he was running bases often led to injury. 

The present game was introduced at the Academy 
by George A. Flagg, '62, Thomas H. Gray, '63, William 
F. Davis, '63, Arthur Hunnewell, '63, and Frank 
Wright, '62. Most enthusiastic of these early players 
was Mr. Flagg, who abandoned the Massachusetts style 
of baseball for the New York style. The ball then used 
was a small bag of shot wound with yarn, and could be 
batted much farther than the present baseball. The 
men just named played among themselves and with 
town teams. Mr. Wright, of Auburn, New York, was 
perhaps more responsible than any one else for bringing 
the new game to New England. 



Mr. Flagg and Mr. Wright carried baseball to Har- 
vard. In the fall of 1862, remembering their good 
times at the game in Exeter, they took with them their 
bats and balls and played on the Cambridge Common. 
That same fall, in Stoughton 19, Mr. Flagg called a 
meeting of those interested in baseball a meeting 
that was destined to be historic, for there and then Har- 
vard baseball was born. As a result of his enthusiasm 
and qualities of leadership, Mr. Flagg was elected the 
first captain of a Harvard nine, and was reelected four 

An Exeter man who became captain of the baseball 
team at Harvard, Frederic W. Thayer, '72, invented the 
baseball mask. 1 

Although no baseball game was played with Andover 
until the spring of 1878, such a meeting had long been 
planned. As early as 1865 the students asked Principal 
Soule for permission to play Andover; but the permis- 
sion was refused. Accordingly, with dirges the students 
carried their bats and ball in a rude coffin to a vacant 
lot on Grove Street and buried them. Then to muffled 
music they marched to the home of their firm friend, 
Commodore Long, on Court Street. The Commodore 
condoled with the mourners and closed the incident by 
serving refreshments. 

For several years the boys played baseball on the 
lot where the Gale shoeshop now stands. Finally a 
determined effort was made to buy a permanent field. 
That athletics was not always encouraged may be 
seen from the following letter of the Reverend Andrew 
P. Peabody, President of the Trustees, dated August 
22, 1871: 

1 For an account of the invention, see " America's National Game," 
p. 478, by A. G. Spaulding. 






" As for a ball ground, it is the last thing that I would provide 
for the students. At Cambridge, baseball tolerable at first 
has grown into a nuisance. Many hands have been fearfully muti- 
lated; eyes extinguished or dimmed for life; boys crippled or 
disabled for weeks & months, besides what is still worse 
the bringing of our students into association with rowdy clubs 
all over the country. I should regard the use of our funds for 
such a purpose as an atrocious breach of trust; & while I would 
gladly procure a playground for our boys, I should want to wait 
till the baseball fever has subsided. But admitting that the 
game is to be encouraged is there anything inappropriate in 
our letting the boys hire their own place? If we are to find 
them a ball-ground, from our educational funds, why not buy 
their bats & balls, & their ball-dresses? " 

In spite of the objection, the Trustees took early ac- 
tion, and that same month bought of Eliphalet Kimball, 
on Forest Street, now Linden Street, for $3,500 a tract 
of about nine acres. That field was the scene of the 
athletic life of the Academy for a good many years. 
Near the center of it once stood the story-and-a-half 
house of " Candy " Marsh, a lame man known to 
generations of Academy boys for his home-made mo- 
lasses candy, and his rootbeer, which he made from 
pungent simples that he gathered himself. He trundled 
a wheelbarrow with a closed body from which he sold 
his wares; but best of all was it to drink the cooling 
nectar from the damp, arctic depths of his cellar, before 
the outer air had touched it. He died sometime in the 
early fifties, mourned by the students of the middle 

Exeter and Andover met for the first time on the 
diamond, May 22, 1878. Incidentally that was the 
first athletic contest between two schools that by 
foundation and history are natural rivals. Andover 
brought to Exeter a team well coached, and dressed in 
white flannels trimmed with blue. The Exeter men 


wore white flannels trimmed with crimson. Exeter won 
the game largely through the pitching of Amos B. Shat- 
tuck, '79, who later, as a Harvard player, is credited 
with the longest hit in the history of baseball. Charles 
E. Byington, '77, caught barehanded the heavy pitch- 
ing of Shattuck; but since according to the rules the 
pitching was underhand, it was not so difficult to hold 
as modern pitching. The return contest at Andover on 
June first resulted in a victory for the blue-trimmed 
players. Of that contest the Exonian said: 

" The best of good feeling prevailed, although our men natu- 
rally felt a little irritated over their defeat; but the victors strove 
to show as little exultation as possible. Such contests as these 
can certainly be productive of nothing but good, and we hope 
they will be kept up." 

The baseball team of 1886 had many things to con- 
tend with, yet it won a victory never to be forgotten 
by the followers of Exeter. 

In 1889 Exeter, after having been defeated 22-6 in 
1887, and 6-4 in 1888, came back strong and won a 
fine contest 3-2. On the Exeter team were such players 
as Trafford, White, Soule, and Heffelfinger. The An- 
dover pitcher was " Al " Stearns, who in 1887 played 
center field for Andover, and in 1888 pitched Andover 
to victory over Exeter. 

There was no game between the rivals in 1890. In 
1891 Andover won 7-1, and repeated the victory in 
1892, 10-5. During the next four years there were no 
contests between the two schools. When the games 
were resumed in 1897, Exeter won 12-6, on the Exeter 
campus, with 12 hits and 2 errors, to Andover 's 6 hits 
and 7 errors. Then for four years Andover won. In 
the last of that series, in 1901, there were three games, 
but that plan was then abandoned, since it prolonged 
the excitement to an unwholesome degree. 





After her four years of defeat Exeter well earned the 
decision against Andover on June n, 1902. The score 
of 5-3 indicates the closeness of the game. 

It was the first inning that won and lost the game. 
Andover went out, one, two, three. For Exeter, 
McGraw hit for two bases, and Peters sacrificed him 
to third. Captain Cooney took first on four balls, and 
stole second. Jackson flied out, and Spencer got his 
base on balls. The stage was set for great things, with 
the bases full and two out. At that moment " Wade " 
Merrow, the Exeter left fielder, hit a home run a foot 
inside first base, and Exeter cheered the certain victors. 

On the Exeter campus, June 10, 1903, Andover won 
an unusually exciting game of ball. Exeter made two 
base hits, Andover six, and each made two errors. After 
many hair-raising chances to score, in the eight inning 
Schildmiller of Andover reached first on a dead ball, 
and scored on a three base hit by Clough. In Exeter's 
turn in the ninth, with two out, Cooney of Exeter 
reached first on a grounder which Kinney muffed. 
" Eddie " Heim then made a hit over the center fielder's 
head that seemed a sure home run. But Hodge, the 
Andover center fielder, at the crack of the bat saw the 
course of the ball, turned his back on it and fled. 
Judging the time to the fraction of a second he again 
turned, leaped in the air, and brought down the ball 
with one hand, the most magnificent catch ever seen 
in an Andover-Exeter contest. The name of Hodge is 
one to conjure with on Andover Hill. But Exeter could 
not feel very badly over losing such a marvelous game. 
It was superb throughout, and might well have been won 
by either side. After the game, one of the Exeter squad 
remarked, " You really can't feel badly to be beaten 
by such a play at the end of so grand a game of base- 
ball. Let 'em enjoy their victory; they earned it." 


The season of 1915 tinder Captain James W. Peters 
will always be remembered as one of the best in the 
annals of Red and Gray baseball. Out of twelve games, 
Exeter won eleven, having lost to Worcester Academy 
4-0. The total points were Exeter, 118; opponents, 25. 
Exeter defeated the University of Maine, Manchester 
High School, Lowell Textile School, Dean Academy, 
Gushing Academy, and Dartmouth College, New 
Hampshire State, freshman teams from Harvard and 
Holy Cross, and finally, Andover. A feature of the 
last game was the hitting of " Tom " McNamara, who 
made two home runs, each with Peters and Lowe on the 
bases before him. " Red " Martin also broke into the 
hall of fame by getting a home run after Comerford 
had scored Atha and Fitzgibbon by a three base hit. 
The whole team was one of heavy hitters. The next 
year Exeter repeated the victory by winning a dose 
game 2-1. That year the batting and fielding averages 
of the team were phenomenal. Five of the regular play- 
ers had fielding averages of 1,000, one of .974, one of 
.875, and one of .874. In batting one had an average of 
.500, one of 463, one of .382, several others above .350, 
and most of the rest .250 or better. 

Owing to the war there was no baseball game with 
Andover in 1917. 

For the past dozen years it has been increasingly 
difficult to get a sufficiently hard schedule for a prelim- 
inary season. Formerly most of the larger eastern col- 
leges were glad to play Exeter; but as the Exeter teams 
became stronger, and won most, or at least a great share, 
of the games, the colleges came to feel that it was no 
credit to beat Exeter, but that it was a good deal of dis- 
credit to be beaten by a preparatory school. Hence 
Exeter has had to play more high schools than formerly. 
The same condition arose in football, and has proved a 



serious handicap in developing the teams to their fullest 

Of the thirty-eight baseball games played between 
Andover and Exeter, Andover has won twenty-three, 
and Exeter eighteen. In them Andover has scored 256 
runs to Exeter's 203. Though the record seems rather 
uneven, it is never safe to predict the outcome of one 
of those classic contests of the diamond. The strain 
is so terrific that in the midst of the wild cheering and 
shouting some trusted player may for a moment 
" crack " and start his team on a career of loose play- 
ing that, even if it lasts for but half an inning, may give 
the evening's bonfire to the rival school. No one can 
witness one of those games without feeling the tense- 
ness of the situation; and if he is half a man he will 
wish that he, too, were a member of one of the great 
schools where the athletic life is lived so deeply, so 
earnestly, and with such loyal abandon. 



^T^O ONE who is not an Exeter man the word ath- 
JL letics in the Academy is likely to call to mind a 
trip to the Plimpton Playing Fields to watch a baseball 
or a football game, when spirit and excitement are rife. 
Crowds on foot and in automobiles, urged by small 
boys to buy the winning colors, surge all one way. 
Several thousand people turn out to see these Exeter- 
Andover contests; but the person who wishes to get a 
true picture of athletics at Exeter should stroll across 
the campus during one of the fine days of spring or fall. 
Then he will see the young Exonian at his best, free 
from the unnatural excitement of the great annual con- 
tests. On such a day, when no visiting team claims the 
attention, every well boy in the Academy takes part 
in some form of organized athletics. 

On entering the grounds the visitor would first see 
twenty tennis courts crowded with players. Next he 
would see scrub or class teams practising at the upper 
end of the field baseball in the spring, and football 
in the fall. Most games are well organized but in- 
formal, and afford more real exercise and joy than the 
more strenuous games of the school teams. A vast deal 
of chaffing and joking goes on. The coaches are instruc- 
tors, who are trying to make a championship class team 
out of those who are not good enough for the first teams. 
On the right the visitor then sees the school team, driven 





by the overshadowing necessity of beating Andover. 
A further stroll over the Hill bridge brings the visitor 
to fields for scrub football. Other class teams are at 
work near by, and the four oared crews pass under the 
bridge on their way up and down the river. On half 
holidays the sports are even more varied. Many stu- 
dents go canoeing as far as the falls; and many others 
tramp through the woods and fields. In the winter, 
hockey, snowshoeing and skiing are prime favorites. 
Golf is played by students on the town links, Jady Hill. 
The athletic life, in a word, is full of stimulating diver- 
sion, and every boy is obliged to take some share in it, 
no matter how small. 

It was in the sixties that organized out-door sports 
got their first great impetus. Boxing had some vogue 
in the fifties and was revived spasmodically from time 
to time after that, but it got no real hold in athletics. 
In the seventies a gymnasium was improvised in the 
famous Hervey restaurant on Water Street. A few 
rings and bars constituted the only equipment, and 
presently even that rude make-shift was removed to 
make a place for a pool room. 

That the needs of a gymnasium were firm in the 
minds of the undergraduates is seen from the first issue 
of the Exonian, which appeared April 6, 1878. It re- 

" Gymnastic exercises ought to be provided in such a way 
that all students may reap the advantages of it. ... We hope 
that our suggestion will in a short time bear fruit in the shape 
of a commodious building, in which the muscular Christianity of 
P. E. A. will find every appliance dear to the true born athlete. 5 '' 

The Exonian thus aroused enough interest so that a 
number of the students pledged themselves to raise 
five dollars or more apiece during the summer vacation 


by appealing to alumni and friends of the school 
for the start of a new gymnasium. That fall they 
turned over to Treasurer S. Clarke Buzell between 
$250 and $300 as a nucleus, but that, of course, was of 
little account. Nevertheless, the minds of the under- 
graduates were not to be diverted from the proposed 
gymnasium by any camouflage of new courses. When 
the Odlin Professorship of English was founded, the 
Exonian of January 31, 1880, observed rather bitterly: 

"The noble generosity which prompted the donor of the 
English department endowment cannot but be appreciated, but 
we think that if some of the money had been invested in a 
gymnasium it would have been disposed of to an infinitely better 

As a temporary shift a running track was built under 
the main recitation building in the winter of 1880. 
Some few pieces of apparatus were also installed; but 
the place was too dark, and the furnace made it too 
warm to be of much real use. Nearly every issue of 
the Exonian urged the need of a place for exercise dur- 
ing the winter months, but it was not till 1884 that 
funds were raised for the much-heralded gymnasium. 
At that time the Reverend Francis P. Kurd, class of 
1830, left $50,000 as an unrestricted gift to Exeter. 
The Exonian all but demanded that the Trustees use 
some of the money for a new gymnasium. In June, 
1885, Principal Scott, Governor Charles H. Bell, Mr. 
John Perry, and Professor Wentworth were appointed 
a committee on building. The sum of $10,000 was ap- 
propriated, and $1,500 was to be spent for apparatus. 
The builders were Rotch and Tilden, and Dr. Sargent 
of Harvard gave advice. The final cost was about 
$15,000. Ground was broken August 12, 1885, and the 
building was opened in the spring of 1886. The June 


ball was held there that year. The class day historian 
gave the Exonian full credit for the new building. 
Until 1918 the gymnasium was the center of the ath- 
letic life of the school. Directors of the gymnasium 
have been: 1885-1887, Edward H. Fallows; 1887- 
1895, Albertus T. Dudley; 1895 to date, Howard A. 
Ross. The work has so much increased that three assist- 
ants are employed, George S. Connors, who also coaches 
the track team, Oscar W. Pearson, and Waldo W. 
Holm who has charge of swimming. 

The old gymnasium presently became too small for 
the growing school. Hence when in chapel on Founder's 
Day, October 9, 1915, Thomas W. Lamont, of New 
York, announced that William B. Thompson, class 
of 1890, had given funds for a new gymnasium, a 
Greek shout of triumph went up. No more would the 
students find " The need of a new gymnasium " a 
heroic subject for themes! On Washington's Birth- 
day, 1918, the huge new hall was dedicated with fitting 
ceremonies. The old gymnasium was 60 x 100 feet; the 
new one is 84 x 225, and contains a swimming pool 26 x 
75 feet, besides 600 lockers and space for more, 27 
showers, and every modern appliance and improvement 
in heating, lighting, and equipment. But the men 
who enjoy this superb new hall must indeed do wonders 
on gridiron, diamond and cinder path if they are to 
match the deeds of those who had only the primitive 
equipment of the older hall. 

Although not so popular as football and baseball, 
track athletics at Exeter have always had great success. 
In the inter-scholastic meets Exeter generally wins 
over all competitors; and several Exeter men have 
been winners in the Olympic games. Others have set 
world's records in track events. 

In the seventies and the eighties hare and hounds 


was a popular fall and spring sport at Exeter. Runs 
on half holidays were made through the woods and 
meadows towards Kensington and Newfields. Those 
paper chases helped the " wind " of many a man who 
later became known for his powers of endurance, both 
mental and physical. But of late the paper chase has 
somewhat gone out of fashion. 

Track meets were held regularly in the seventies. 
One on October 22, 1879, included the three-legged 
race, the standing jumps, etc. The records made at the 
early meets were not very good. The mile was run in 
six minutes twelve seconds, and the hundred yards in 
twelve seconds. The distance made in the " long " 
jump was fourteen feet five inches. Kicking the foot- 
ball, throwing the baseball, the beanpot race, the ob- 
stacle race, and others now given up, were much 

The need of a new cinder running track on the cam- 
pus was long urged; and in the spring of 1888 one was 
built through the efforts of the students. Until that 
time the long races were held on the rough turf round 
the lower campus, and the shorter races were run in 
the dust of Linden Street. By 1887 some skill in run- 
ning had been acquired. That year Edgar W. Mac- 
Pherran, '87, ran the hundred in 10^- seconds, and 
the 220 dash in 22^ seconds, truly excellent time for 
the track or rather the lack of track. The first in- 
door track meet was held in the gymnasium March 10, 

On June 12, 1889, Andover won the first dual track 
meet by six first places to three. The records were 
not good; but the meet furnished much enjoyment to 
both schools. There was no meet in 1890. In 1891 
Andover won under the new system of point scoring, 
46-44, and again in 1892. Exeter won her first dual 


meet in the spring of 1898, when " Jere " Delaney 
coached for the Crimson and Gray. Incidentally, he 
was the first regular track coach ever employed by 
Exeter. One feature of the meet of 1898 was the 
mile run. Woodbine of Andover led almost half a lap 
at the beginning of the third quarter. As Farnham, 
the best Exeter entry, passed the grand stand, the coach 
shouted, " Run, Farnham, run." In the last twenty 
yards Farnham passed Woodbine, and won the race. 

Coming as they do late in May or early in June, the 
dual meets between Exeter and Andover usually have 
fine weather; and a crowd, though not so large as the 
crowds at the football and baseball games, is always 
rewarded by fine finishes, and by races in which 
the records are hardly below those of intercollegiate 
contests. No one who has seen the sprinting of " Billy " 
Schick, the best sprinter that Andover ever produced, 
or the heart-breaking flash at the end of a half mile 
by " Bill " Bingham of Exeter, can expect much in the 
way of thrills at any other track meet. 

The meet of May 30, 1907, will always be memor- 
able for an incident of the 120 yards hurdle race. Two 
great rivals, Oliver M. Chadwick of Exeter and John 
R. Kilpatrick of Andover led the race. Over the last 
hurdle Chadwick was slightly in the lead, but in the 
sprint to the tape Kilpatrick drew up rapidly, and the 
judges declared the race a dead heat. In all of their 
previous races, Kilpatrick had won; but this time both 
he and Chadwick were sure that Chadwick had won. 
Kilpatrick protested the decision of the judges, but 
their word was final. " Well," declared Kilpatrick, " I 
can't prevent the judges from giving Andover the points, 
but I refuse to toss for the first prize." So the medal 
went to his rival. The records of generous sport hold 
no finer example of chivalry than that. Both of those 


young Americans were in training for a greater game. 
Chadwick was killed as pilot of the aerodome at Pau, 
France, August 14, 1917, while flying over the enemy 
lines; and Kilpatrick rose to the rank of Lieutenant 
Colonel in the 304th Stevedore Regiment, National 
Army. Both carried from the track at Andover the 
best traditions of a rivalry in which no unfairness to- 
wards the adversary ever entered. 

No small share of the credit for the skill of Exeter 
men in track athletics is owing to the trainer, Mr. 
George S. Connors, formerly an English long-distance 
runner. He has trained the Exeter track men since 
February 8, 1901. Besides that, he acts as trainer for 
all the teams and assists in the gymnasium. Under 
his care the teams soon began to show their ability as 
contestants in the various meets in which they were 
entered. At the B. A. A. games in Boston, Exeter won 
first place in 1904, 1906, 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 
1913, 1914, 1916, 1917; and in the Harvard Inter- 
scholastics was victorious in 1900, 1901, 1904, 1905, 
1910, 1912, 1913, 1916, There were no games in 
1917, owing to the war. In the Yale Interscholastics 
at New Haven, Exeter won second place in 1909, and 
first place in 1910, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914, 1915? 
1916. The Harvard Freshman meet usually results in 
a victory for Exeter, and the Crimson and Gray has 
also frequently won the University of Pennsylvania 
relay races for schools. 

It has been remarked by college trainers that the 
men from Exeter are never "burned out" in their 
races before they enter college. Coach Connors has 
lost many races that his men might have won had he 
cared to push them beyond their proper limits. The 
vision of the whole Exeter system, however, looks to 


long years of useful service, and therefore refuses to 
press for a mere temporary advantage. 

Rowing at Exeter is a proof that contests with An- 
dover are not necessary for the life of a pastime. 
Ever since the revival of rowing in the fall of 1912 it 
has grown in popularity, until now its position as a 
major sport is established. 

The history of boating at Exeter goes back to the 
early sixties. Charles H. Warren, ? 6o, William R. 
Robeson, 7 6o, and LeRoy S. Gove, '60, bought a heavy 
fisherman's dory in Portsmouth and launched it on 
the fresh river above the dam. They enjoyed rowing 
a great deal, and their enthusiasm led others to take 
interest in the sport. The river is admirably adapted 
to all forms of water sports. Above the dam and the 
falls the water is fresh, and is known as the Exeter 
River; below the falls it is salty, since the tide makes 
in from the sea, and is known as the Squamscott. 

Boating was first formally recognized in the Acad- 
emy in 1864, when five members of the class of 1865, 
William S. Whitwell, Francis Rawle, Robert H. Rich- 
ards, Sidney K. Gold, and William E. Sparks pur- 
chased at Haverhill, Massachusetts, the four-oared 
shell " Winona " and launched her on the fresh river. 
They used the neighboring Christian Church as a boat 
house. The next year other students bought a shell. 
When, in the early seventies, football, baseball, and 
track athletics were organized, rowing declined some- 
what, but as late as 1881 racing in shells was still a 
prime sport at Exeter. Regattas were regularly held 
about the middle of June, and a careful list of the 
winners appears in Cunningham's history. The races 
were for fours, sixes, double sculls, and singles. The 
second crew in 1875 l st to ^ e ^ rst crew * n a race 
against time, by four seconds. That second crew con- 


tained men who later became well known Arthur 
M. Teschemacher, William A. Johnson, Frank M. Cur- 
tiss, Francis M. Burleigh, William DeW. Hyde, and 
Harlan P. Amen. 

Of the few Harvard men who have rowed against 
Yale in four consecutive races, two had their early 
training at Exeter. They were William A. Bancroft, 
and Nat M. Brigham. Three of those four races 
against Yale, Harvard won. Occasionally, even after 
boating at Exeter had declined, an Exeter man would 
shine as a college oarsman. Among those on Harvard 
crews were William Chalfant, Jr., Fred L. Sawyer, 
Isaac B. Burgess, Seymour L Hudgens, William A. 
Brooks, Jr., Marshall Newell, and Austin G. Gill; at 
Yale, Frank G. Peters, and Ralph B. Treadway. 

In 1912 rowing at Exeter had a great revival. The 
school had been growing, and the other major sports 
did not afford enough opportunity for all the candi- 
dates. Nor did the call for crew men weaken the 
other teams. 

For a time the crews were under the coaching of 
Instructor Elisha J. P. Burgess, who taught math- 
ematics 1911-1915. Rowing machines were set up 
in the basement of Soule Hall for winter practice, and 
with the opening of the river the crews went out every- 
day. The barn on the Gilman House lot was moved 
to the banks of the fresh river for a boat house, and 
a small house on salt river was built for the long 
shells. Harvard became interested in the training of 
rowing men at Exeter, and made a gift of two barges, 
and later of an eight oared shell. Harvard had pre- 
viously given shells, when rowing began here in the 
seventies, and Yale has also given two eights. 

Under the coaching of Mr. Benton of the Faculty 
the crews have raced with Groton, Middlesex, and 


others. Besides coaching the crews, Mr. Benton built 
the Marshall Newell boat house on the salt river. 

Canoeing is also popular. The frail craft ply up 
and down the tortuous channel, through the maze of 
birch and pine thickets, as far as the rapids beyond 
the railroad bridge. Some even venture on the salty 
Squamscott; but canoeing there is dangerous, and 
should be supervised. 

In the late seventies many new sports were intro- 
duced. Lacrosse became temporarily popular, but 
it never seemed to be a typically American game, al- 
though in its origin and descent it is the most Amer- 
ican of all games. Roller skate polo also flourished 
for a time. George F. Harding, '88, was an excellent 
skater. But the game required a heated hall, the 
crowds that gathered were often of a rough character, 
and the fact that it was an indoor game kept it from 
becpming a permanent sport. 

In 1888 the students shot occasionally over the 
traps of the Exeter Gun Club in the edge of Kensing- 
ton, and even today they are sometimes the guests of 
the Exeter Club; but trap shooting is too expensive 
to be widely popular. Small caliber rifle shooting has 
at times had some followers, who shot on a range 
under the Spring Street School, and at butts on the 
Fields beyond. When a new range is built, the sport 
will come to its own again. 

Skating has always been a favorite with Exonians. 
In 1797 the sons of Moses Grant of Boston sent home 
an item of expense, " For tackling the skates." * The 
river furnishes good skating at times, and the hockey 
rinks are much in use. An annual match with Andover 
adds interest to the game. Exeter won in 1914, 4-1; 
1 BeH, P. E. A. p. 91 


in 1915, 5-0; in 1916, 3-0; in 1920, 4-2. Andover 
won in 1917, 2-1; in 1918, 3-2; and in 1919 the score 
was a tie, i-i. Hockey seems to have taken its place 
as a permanent minor sport. 

Tennis has long been popular at Exeter. The first 
courts were on the green near the main building; the 
later ones were built on the campus, and the latest 
are on the Plimpton Fields. In the spring about one- 
fourth of the school play. 

A six-hole golf course on the Fields Beyond provided 
for a time golf of a sort for the faithful; but the wet 
clay soil did not lend itself very well to play, so it was 
abandoned, and the students use the course of the 
town club on Jady Hill. 

Control of athletics in the Academy is in the hands 
of the Athletic Association, which is composed of Mr. 
Ross and Mr. Fiske of the Faculty; Mr. Connors, 
trainer; the captains and managers of the major sports, 
and six members elected from the school. The As- 
sociation, which was founded in 1875, was originally 
open to all students who paid a small fee. At that 
time the students themselves did all that was done for 
athletics. They built the cinder track, an outdoor 
track, the tennis courts, and supplied money for the 
trophy case in the gymnasium, etc. Since the boys 
were paying the bills, it was no wonder that they 
wished to run the sports as they chose. 

For a long time the money for athletics was raised 
by subscription among the students. Early in the fall 
term the football manager would call a meeting after 
chapel and harangue the school on showing proper 
loyalty. Then he would call for subscriptions of fifty 
dollars. Some student would sign for the amount amid 
the cheers of his mates. Then the call would be 
lowered until most of the men had agreed to give some- 


thing. But the system was open to grave objections. 
Much of the money pledged under such excitement 
was never paid. Some pledged more than they could 
pay, and some never meant to pay, but looked ahead 
to the time when their pledges would come due as a 
sort of vague day of judgment that might never dawn. 
The managers of the teams collected what they could 
a thankless task. The scholarship men always gave 
beyond their means. In 1905 the system was changed 
by assessing a tax of $5.00 a term upon each non- 
scholarship student and $3.00 a term for scholarship 
men. In 1911 the tax for scholarship men was reduced 
to $2.00 a term. In return, each boy receives a free 
ticket to all the games except those played with An- 



TTVQLLOWING the Revolution, when patriotism still 
J? burned bright, the students of Exeter organized 
a military company known as the Washington Whites. 
The exact date is unknown; but in the memorial ser- 
vices held after the death of Washington, the Governor 
of New Hampshire, attended by the Council, together 
with the Senate and the House of Representatives, 
marched to the First Church behind " a military es- 
cort formed of the students of Phillips Exeter Acad- 
emy, in uniform, with proper badges of mourning." 
The leader of the band was Lewis Cass. In acknowl- 
edgment, the legislature presented each of the students 
with a pamphlet containing Washington's Farewell 
Address and an account of the observance in Exeter of 
Washington's death. 

The chief duty of the Washington Whites seems to 
have been to drill with ancient firelocks, and to escort 
the Trustees on Exhibition Day in August from the 
main building to the principal's house. Also, they es- 
corted the Hon. John T. Gilman, and later Judge Jere- 
miah Smith, when each in turn was elected governor 
of the state. The roster of the company contains some 
famous names, among them those of Lewis Cass, John 
G. Palfrey, Edward Everett, George Bancroft, George 
Kent, George W. Storer, Alpheus S. Packard, Na- 
thaniel A. Haven, Jr., William Plumer, Jr., Richard 



Hildreth, Jonathan P. Gushing, William B. 0. and 
Oliver W. B. Peabody, and Gideon L. Soule. There 
is no doubt that the company helped to foster patriot- 
ism and to encourage familiarity with the duties of 
a soldier. 1 

Although the Civil War had a profound effect on 
the Academy, as it had upon every other American 
school and college, little is known as to how many of 
the alumni of Exeter took part in it. The first obvious 
effect of the attack on Fort Sumter was to unite the 
Academy with the town in mass meetings to arouse 
enthusiasm for the Northern cause. A meeting was 
held April 22, 1861, in the town hall, at which, among 
others, two students, Leonard H. Pillsbury, '62, and 
Henry Pearson, '63, spoke. The former declared that 
he should start for the front at once, and the latter 
said that at the age of seventeen he had slept on his 
rifle in defense of western territory, and was ready to 
join the colors. Those who planned the meeting were 
Dr. John Sullivan, '59, and Joseph E. Janvrin, '56. 
The enthusiasm aroused was the means of enrolling a 
number of volunteers for Company E, Second Regi- 
ment of New Hampshire. 

The martial spirit of the boys of '61 is well illus- 
trated by the speech of Mr. Charles G. Fall, dass of 
1862, at the centennial celebration in 1883. He said 
in part: 

"On returning here for the first time, how the events of 
those days when we were here come back to us! We, sir, were 
here, some of us, in the days of the war. We were here in 1860 
and 1 86 1. The present Secretary of War, whom we hoped to 
have the pleasure of hearing here today, was here at that time, 
and his father was President. A nephew of Major Anderson was 
likewise a student, and when Lewis Cass, a graduate of the Acad- 

1 For an account of the company, see Bulletin, October, 1916. 


emy, resigned from a Cabinet which refused to reprovision Fort 
Sumter, you may be sure, sir, that the guns of Sumter re-echoed 
among these granite hills. Those, sir, were the days when Gar- 
rison and Phillips and Seward and Greeley and Bryant and 
Chase were the leaders of public opinion; and the boys of those 
days, sir, like the boys of the Revolution, were filled with 
patriotic ardor. How well do some of us remember forming in 
a procession and marching down to the old church, where the 
girls of the village presented us with a flag and with a motto 
plaited in evergreen to place over the portals of the Academy, 
I can see it now, ' Ducit Amor Patriae.' How long it stood 
there, till it grew faded and sunburnt; stood there like the famous 
inscription of the Areopagus, ' To the Unknown God.' 

" And there is another instance which occurs to me, which so 
well illustrates the spirit of the times that I will venture to nar- 
rate it. It was a boyish freak which in the light of today 
might deserve suspension, but those were other days and other 
times, and, according to the old adage, ' circumstances alter 
cases.' In the spring of 1861 every village had its flag raising. 
On one of these occasions in one of the neighboring villages, some 
gray-haired old sinner had expressed disunion sentiments, and 
had insulted the flag. For this cause, in those times, sir, men 
were sometimes tarred and feathered. It was a graduate of this 
Academy who uttered those memorable words, ' If any man haul 
down the American flag, shoot him on the spot.' 

"As soon as the story was told in the Academy, some Paul 
Revere x I wish I knew his name suggested that we ought 
to make the old gentleman a visit. No sooner said than done; 
and, at midnight, some thirty or forty boys, from thirteen to 
fifteen or sixteen years old, started out for a six or seven miles' 
tramp. When we reached his house some of the leaders woke 
him up and told him our errand. After a little parleying he 
came downstairs, followed by his wife and family. We told him 
what we had heard, which he did not deny. We told him what 
we desired, which at first he refused to do, but, when he saw our 
numbers and visions of the feathers flitted through his mind, he 
somewhat relented. The advice of his wife, a true daughter of 
New Hampshire, completed the conquest, and there, sir, in his 
own hallway, surrounded by his family, his idols and his house- 

1 Those who led the attack were Leonard H. Pillsbury, '62, and 
Henry H. Pearson, '63. Bulletin, September, 1909. 


hold gods, we made him revoke the insult, and, kneeling down 
upon the folds of the dear old flag, he raised it to his lips and 
kissed it, not once but again and again. Then, after cautioning 
him against dangers which beset the backslider, we politely 
bade him good-night. Surely, sir, the boys of '61 were lineal 
descendants of the men who brewed the tea in Boston harbor." 

Moved by the spirit of war, some of the students one 
night filed silently out to Greenland, a village eight 
miles away, and dragged home an ancient cannon, 
which they labeled " Phillips for War! " and planted 
before the door of the recitation hall. The next morn- 
ing Principal Soule eyed the gun narrowly and after 
the formal exercises at chapel showed his patriotism 
and his tact in dealing with a new problem by declaring 
that he was not displeased with the martial spirit of 
the boys, since it showed that they were ready to an- 
swer the call of their country; but he added that he 
wondered where the engine came from, and if it really 
was safe to fire. 

His generous stand brought wild cheers from the 
students, whom he then directed to get permission to 
fire the old brass cannon that stood near the town hall 
A collection was taken to buy powder, and many rounds 
were fired. In that way the boys vented their enthu- 
siasm for the cause that was to cost many of them 
their lives. 

Soon the boys formed a company, of which they 
elected George B. Russell, '61, captain, and Peter C. 
Du Bois, '63, who had training in a military school, 
drill master. One night the company bivouacked in 
the Gilman woods, and some of the members amused 
themselves by breaking guard. At daybreak the com- 
pany straggled to breakfast with their ardor for soldier- 
ing distinctly dampened. For drill they had a few an- 


tiquated muskets, and Cleveland and Hanscomb fur- 
nished the martial music of a fife and drum. 

But in spite of the war, studies were not neglected, 
for in the fall of 1 86 1, 1 6 students from Exeter entered 
the freshman class at Harvard, and 8 the sophomore 
class; also, 4 went to Yale, and a few to other colleges. 

Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency was 
in a way due to a visit to his son, Robert Todd Lincoln, 
'60, then a student in the Academy. Ambitious that 
his children should enjoy the best in education, which 
he himself had lacked, Mr. Lincoln intended to send 
Robert to Harvard; and on the advice of friends he 
sent him first to Exeter, to complete his preparation, 
where he planned to visit him if opportunity offered. 
How that visit came about, and what an important in- 
fluence it had on political history, appears in the fol- 
lowing extract from the Nation of August 2, 1917: 

" The name of Abraham Lincoln was already fairly familiar 
to the people of the East through the newspaper reports of his 
stump debates with Stephen A. Douglas; and, besides, he had 
received next to the highest vote for Vice-President in the con- 
vention that launched the Fremont ticket. He was generally 
reputed to be a fascinating speaker, notwithstanding his awk- 
ward presence, and a great many people were curious to see him, 
It so happened that Plymouth Church, in Brooklyn, was conduct- 
ing a course of popular lectures in the winter of 1859-1860, and 
it occurred to the committee in charge that Lincoln might prove 
an attraction. Their offer of two hundred dollars for a single 
appearance, coupled with a hint that other lyceums nearby might 
also like to have him, was promptly accepted, as it presented the 
possibility of a visit to his son with all expenses paid; his sole 
condition was that he should be allowed to speak on a political 
subject of his own choosing. Some of the church members ap- 
pear to have entertained a belated misgiving on this head, as 
Mr. Beecher was doing a good deal in the same line himself. 
The Young Men's Central Republican Union of New York, how- 
ever, stepped in at this juncture and took the contract off the 


church's hands, and on February 27, 1860, in Cooper Union, 
Mr. Lincoln faced an audience different from any he had ever 
before addressed; it was made up mostly of substantial citizens 
who could not have been induced to attend an ordinary political 
rally, a large proportion being ladies. 

" He chose for his text an extract from one of Douglas's 
speeches denying the right of the Federal authority to control 
the question of slavery in the Territories, in spite of the fact that 
it controlled all other governmental matters there. Taking 
Douglas's own arguments, and turning them back upon them- 
selves, he so riddled them with his logic that the audience burst 
frequently into applause and laughter, and the leading news- 
papers the next morning pronounced him the most convincing 
orator New York had ever heard on the slavery question. Forth- 
with began to pour in upon him demands that he should stop 
at this and that point in New England on his way to or from 
Exeter. Up to that time the New Englanders had been some- 
what prejudiced against the newcomer in politics because he 
hailed from what they regarded as a very raw and uncultured 
region and was himself said to be shockingly uncouth; and with 
men of so much higher type among their neighbors, why should 
they go so far afield for a candidate at the coming election? 

" But after his trip to Exeter there was practically nothing 
left of this feeling. Wherever he spoke on that journey, the 
echoes of his visit continued ringing down to the time of the 
meeting of the Philadelphia Convention. On the first ballot 
for a Presidential candidate New England gave him ig votes, 
on the second 32, on the third 42, and then rushed in to help 
make the nomination unanimous. And to the steadfast loyalty 
and earnest work of his new friends from ' Down East/ won on 
that memorable trip to see his son Robert, he owed a generous 
share of the credit for the turn of the tide against his rival, 

A vivid account of the impression made on the under- 
graduates at Exeter by the tall westerner is from the 
pen of Marshall S. Snow, '61, as quoted by the Bulletin 
of September, 1909, from the Washington University 


" The other gentleman was Mr. Lincoln tall, lank, awkward; 
dressed in a loose, ill-fitting, black frock coat, with black trousers, 
ill-fitting and somewhat baggy at the knees. Mr. Lincoln sat 
down in a chair reserved for him, and, with some difficulty, suc- 
ceeded in arranging his long legs about or under the chair. My 
eyes were all for Lincoln. I saw a man whose face impressed 
me as one of the most interesting as well as one of the saddest 
and most melancholy faces that I had ever seen. His hair was 
rumpled, his neckwear was all awry, he sat somewhat bent in the 
chair, and altogether presented a very remarkable, and, to us, 
disappointing appearance. 

"Judge Underwood was introduced as the first speaker, and 
delivered, as I am told, a very able speech. I confess I heard 
none of it, nor did those of my friends who sat near me. We 
sat and stared at Mr. Lincoln. We whispered to each other: 
c Isn't it too bad Bob's father is so homely? Don't you feel 
sorry for him? ' Our feelings were mingled ones of curious in- 
terest in the face of this melancholy looking man and of sympathy 
with our friend, his son. 

"At last, then. Judge Underwood concluded his speech, and 
Mr. Lincoln was presented to us. He rose slowly, untangled 
those long legs from their contact with the rounds of the chair, 
drew himself up to his full height of six feet, four inches, and 
began his speech. Not ten minutes had passed before his un- 
couth appearance was absolutely forgotten by us boys, and, I 
believe, by all of that large audience. . . . We were carried away 
with the arguments, with the style, and with the rapid change 
now and then from earnest, serious argument to something which 
in a humorous fashion would illustrate the point which he was 
endeavoring to make. . . . There was no more pity for our 
friend Bob; we were proud of his father, and when the exercises 
of the evening were over and the opportunity was offered for 
those who desired to meet Mr. Lincoln, we were the first to 
mount the platform and grasp him by the hand. I have always 
felt that this was one of the great privileges of my life." 


NOW that the smoke of battle has cleared, it is 
possible to see something of the part that Exeter 
played in the Great War. The call to arms did not 
stampede the school into neglecting studies for war; 
the students who took college examinations did fully 
as well as those who had taken them in times of peace; 
the school is glad to remember that it kept its head. 
Yet in every proper way it fostered patriotism. The 
Battalion furnished military drill; many of its mem- 
bers enlisted, and the terrible earnestness of the drillers 
impressed itself forcibly upon all who saw them at 

Long before America entered the war, Exeter men 
had died for the Cause. Florence J. Price, '01, joined 
a Canadian regiment, and while taking 'the place of 
a sick comrade on the firing line was killed at Ypres, 
May 30, 1916. Henry A. Butters, '09, a member of 
the Royal Field Artillery, was also killed in action at 
Ypres, August 31, 1916; and Henry E. M. Suckley, 3 o6, 
a member of the American Field Ambulance Service 
with the British Army, was killed near Salonica, March 
26, 1917. 

When the country called them, Exeter men gave 
themselves freely. The number of living graduates of 
the Academy is between seven and eight thousand, of 
whom more than two thousand were in active service 
in the army and navy; the number of known killed is 



62; of those decorated, 68; and the roster is far from 

The history of the Exeter Battalion is the record of 
the students and instructors who saw that their country- 
would probably enter the war, and were eager to be 
ready when the summons came. During the long va- 
cation of 1916 Mr. S. P. R. Chadwick and Mr. N. S. 
McKendrick of the Faculty attended the camp at 
Plattsburg, and on the opening of school in September 
formed the Exeter Plattsburg Club and began drilling 
those who were most eager for training. Intense enthu- 
siasm marked the work; the usual outside activities of 
the school were abandoned for the science of war. The 
boys studied books on war with avidity and attended lec- 
tures on tactics; and on Wednesday and Saturday after- 
noons, traditional holidays at Exeter, they drilled tire- 
lessly in the town hall. 

In the spring of 1917 drill was continued under Lieu- 
tenant James P. Kelly, '14, who had attended West 
Point for a time. Later, when Lieutenant Kelly had 
been called to the aviation service, Cadet Major John 
H. Brewer, '19, took charge, and was followed by Mr. 
Eugene Galligan, Harvard R.O.T.C., who was called 
to service early in the winter term, and was killed in ac- 
tion September 6, 1918. Again Major Brewer took 
charge for a few weeks. Principal Perry had then ob- 
tained a number of guns of Austrian make for use in 
drill. Twenty-five students spent the spring recess 
of 1918 in studying military science, using the old gym- 
nasium as a barracks, and working grimly. 

In the spring term Major Brewer was called to the 
service, and Major Lawrence C. Warren, '18, took com- 
mand until Captain S. A. Dion of the Canadian Expedi- 
tionary Force, who was invalided home because of 
wounds received at Ypres, assumed full charge of mill- 


tary training. Captain Dion's energy, tact, and aggres- 
siveness were infectious and most of the boys in the 
Academy enrolled for training. 

A system of modern trenches was dug on the upper 
end of the golf course, and on land adjoining kindly 
offered by Mr. William H. Folsom, '77. In addition, 
signal, telephone, bayonet, machine gun, and bombing 
detachments were formed. Small books on modern 
warfare by Captain Dion were used as texts. Major 
J. C. Willson, '19, aided Captain Dion in the work of 
drill, and proved an inspiring leader. 

On the opening of school in 1918 military drill for all 
students who were physically fit was required. Khaki 
became the only wear. The school suffered somewhat 
in numbers, since most of the students over eighteen 
years of age who had enrolled for the new year joined 
training camps in the hope of a commission. But Cap- 
tain Dion's lectures on war were fully attended, and 
examinations on them were passed with credit. In a 
word, undergraduate Exeter responded, as did the whole 
country, to the call to arms. A holiday, filled with 
speeches and followed at night by a monster parade, 
marked the signing of the armistice on November n. 
Military drill still continued through the fall term; but 
when, in the winter term, Captain Dion left to enter 
business, drill was discontinued. Nor is there any de- 
sire at Exeter now to foster unnecessary military 

Nine of the Faculty resigned or received leave of ab- 
sence for war work. Two joined the army, two the navy, 
one the Harvard S. A. T. C., two the Y. M. C. A,, one 
the Friends' Reconstruction Unit. Another did Y.M.C. 
A. work at Camp Dix during the long vacation in 1918, 
and two attended Plattsburg in 1916. Still others 
served on local committees. One also served with the 


Y. M. C. A. in Italy, and received the Italian War 

To give a full account of the deeds of Exonians on 
the field of battle is beyond the scope of this volume. 
The sketches and letters here given are but a few of 
many, taken almost at random, for any choice among 
the Exeter men who entered the fiery furnace at Ypres, 
Chateau Thierry and other places that live forever in 
the history of American arms would be an invidious 
distinction. The brief records here given have been 
chosen because they breathe the spirit that actuated all 
the American troops. 

Joseph F. Wehner, '17, captain of the football team 
in 1915, was killed in an air duel in France, September 
20, 1918. Five days before his death he took part in 
an air raid for which he was cited as follows: 

" For extraordinary heroism in action near Rouvres, France, 
September 15, 1918. While on a mission Lieutenant Wehner 
found an enemy patrol of eight machines attacking a single 
observation machine. He immediately attacked, destroying one 
and forcing another down out of control, his own plane being 
badly damaged by enemy machine-gun fire. He managed to con- 
voy the American plane to safety. A bronze oak leaf is awarded 
to Lieutenant Wehner for the following act of extraordinary 
heroism in action near Mangiennes and Rieville, France, Sep- 
tember 1 6, 1918: Amid terrific anti-aircraft and ground machine- 
gun fire, Lieutenant Wehner descended, attacked, and destroyed 
two enemy balloons. One of these balloons was destroyed in 
flames after it had been hauled to the ground and was resting 
in its bed. 57 

Stephen Potter, '15, was killed in an airplane fight 
with Germans over the North Sea, April 25, 1918. He 
was born December 26, 1896, and entered the Academy 
in 1911. In an unusually strong class, he was easily a 
leader, and captained the track team in his senior year. 
He was secretary of the class and a member of the 


Senior Council. From Yale he entered the Naval Re- 
serve, received his training, and sailed for England, 
where he was assigned to duty over the North Sea. On 
enlisting he wrote, " I feel sure that this is my duty 
above all else. I realize that nothing else now counts." 
Upon leaving for active service he wrote, " I feel sure 
that I shall pull through it all. If I do, nothing will be 
sweeter than life. If I don't, I shall have an awful 
moment, and then have perfect peace forever. I 
have full belief and confidence in that. For you, time 
will heal all sadness." He wrote nine days before 
the end, " If you receive this you will know I have 
done my duty to the best of my ability. ... Be sure 
I am wonderfully glad that I could give up my life so 

An English fighter who was flying with the squadron 
when Potter was killed wrote, " I never in my life have 
seen such a wonderful sunset. It seemed as if nature 
was giving a tribute to those who had c gone west ' 
and it was a glorious scarlet and golden west which 
welcomed them." 

The official report of Potter's death follows: 

" Potter left the North Sea station in a British seaplane and 
steered due east six miles west-southwest of Hinder Light. An- 
other plane accompanied Potter. Two enemy planes were sighted 
to port, heading toward them. Both British planes dived about 
100 yards apart, closing upon the nearest German. 

" Potter's companion had emptied one drum from the forward 
cockpit when the gun jammed. Two more hostile planes then 
appeared overhead, attacking vigorously. Both Britons turned to 
the west, pursuing one of the lower enemy, who was soon lost to 
view. Three others passed astern, following at a sharp angle. 
Potter was close above his companion, and dove to within 100 
feet of the water. 

" Both machines flattened out, and Potter's companion, being 
faster, throttled down until Potter came abreast. Thus they 


ran westward at full speed, close together, for several minutes 
under continuous volleys from the rear. 

" Four more enemy machines now appeared in V formation. 
Of seven Germans in action, four were attacking Potter and the 
others his companion. Potter fell behind and began to zigzag. 

"Again his companion throttled down to let him catch up, 
and began climbing to reduce headway. Potter dodged again 
but was then broadside to all enemy machines and under their 
fire only fifty feet from the water. His companion, 250 feet 
above, saw Potter's machine burst into flames, come down part 
of the wajr under control, then crash on the port wing tip. 

" Potter was last seen on the surface amid flames, which sud- 
denly turned to a huge cloud of smoke. 

" Two of the enemy circled over the spot, then joined the other 
side. When the pall had cleared, not even wreckage was visible." 

Second Lieutenant Kenneth E. Fuller, '12, who 
was killed July 18, 1918, while leading his men in a 
desperate and successful assault on a nest of enemy 
machine guns near Longpont and Vierzy, between 
Chateau Thierry and Soissons, was a typical example 
of the young American who went to war, not to kill, 
but because he felt it a duty. A member of a family 
fond of shooting and fishing, he never could bring him- 
self to kill; but instead he devoted himself to art and 
poetry, and attained great skill with the violin. He 
graduated at Harvard and the Harvard Law School, 
and enlisted in 1916. After reaching France he was put 
into legal work affecting American soldiers, but he felt 
that his real call was to fight, so he resigned from a posi- 
tion of safety in the Judge Advocate's department to 
go to the front. He said, " I don't think I could go up 
to a German boy and stab him with a bayonet, but 
that is what may be required of me." In a letter to 
his father telling him of his decision to go to the front, 
he said, "I have acquired a < strong dislike for the 
young, healthy embosque and it would be a terrible 
wrench for me suddenly to become one. . . . The 


second-lieutenant who goes ' over the top ' successfully 
displays about the finest qualities a man can have, and 
for a year my mind has been set on being put to the 
test, to see if I had a share of those qualities. ... I 
have never been happier since I joined the army. I 
am going to the front, where men do the real, honest- 
to-goodness work of the war, where they sweat and 
swear, but go to sleep (when they can) with easy 
consciences and proud souls." In the final attack he 
crawled forward to locate the concealed guns, a mis- 
sion so dangerous that he would not send any of his 
men, and then returned and led the assault. The re- 
port says, " What few of his men reached the guns took 
them and saved hundreds of lives." 

Duncan Q. Guiney, '09, a private in Company L, 
loyth U. S. Infantry, was killed in action in Flanders, 
August 21, 1918. On August 12, a few days before 
the fatal charge, he wrote: 

" Many of us are writing our last letters, as God only knows 
the future. Inasmuch as the other American regiments that 
have gone up before us have suffered quite heavily, we are 
expecting to bleed and suffer too, and I believe we are ready! 
I expect to give the best that is in me to be the first in the 
fighting and the last to quit. . . . Just think of all the 
wonderful deeds performed in the past by the Athenians, 
Romans, English, French and even Germans. And then think 
of the chance I've got. I wouldn't swap places with a king! 
If I'd lived 2,000 years I couldn't have had a chance to equal 

Howard W. Arnold, 'u, was killed while leading an 
attack near Chateau Thierry, July 28, 1918. On July 
20 he wrote to his family: 

"The men were magnificent everyone was. Ours, the and 
Battalion, up front, fought gloriously and held, held, held 
they accomplished the unheard of, the impossible, and the whole 


Division stood like a solid stone wall of olive drab, fighting, 
dying and conquering. . . . 

"Lack of sleep was the worst of all from Sunday noon 
until Friday noon I honestly did not sleep at all except for 
here and there a precious snatched half hour. . . . 

" I know, dear people, these anxious weeks will be worse 
for you than for me, but we just must take things with a smile 
and ' Carry on. 7 So far I've been spared; Lord how I pity those 
with c bullet proof ' and c camouflaged ' jobs! " 

The following letter of immortal simplicity and de- 
votion was written by Lieutenant Henry A. Butters, 
'09 (whose death before we entered the war has al- 
ready been referred to in the beginning of this chapter) 
shortly before he was killed in action, August 31, 1916: 

" I am no longer untried. Two weeks' action in a great 
battle is to my credit, and if my faith in the wisdom of my 
course or my enthusiasm for the cause had been due to fail, 
it would have done so during that time. But it has only become 
stronger; I find myself a soldier among millions of others in 
the great allied armies fighting for all I believe right and 
civilized and humane against a power which is evil and which 
threatens the existence of all the right we prize and the freedom 
we enjoy. 

" It may seem to you that for me this is all quite uncalled 
for, that it can only mean either the supreme sacrifice for 
nothing or at least some of the best years of my life wasted; 
but I tell you that I am not only willing to give my life to this 
enterprise (for that is comparatively easy except when I think 
of you), but that I firmly believe if I live through it to 
spend a useful lifetime with you that never will I have an 
opportunity to gain so much honorable advancement for my 
own soul or to do so much for the world's progress, as I am 
here daily, defending the liberty that mankind has so far gained 
against the attack of an enemy who would deprive us of it, 
and set the world back some centuries if he could have his way. 

"I think less of myself than I did, less of the heights of 
personal success I aspired to climb, and more of the service 
that each of us must render in payment for the right to live 
and by virtue of which only can we progress. 


" Yes, my dearest folks, we are indeed doing the world's work 
over here, and I am in it to the finish." 

Arthur Bluethenthal, '09, famous as an athlete at 
Exeter and Princeton, who was killed in action June 7, 
1918, in France, wrote thus to his family shortly before 
his death: 

..." Don't think for a minute that I won't do everything 
I can to live I love life but my life does not now belong to 
me. It belongs to France to the Allies to the cause for 
which I have pledged myself till the war is over and won. . . . 

" And if I shouldn't come back I want you not to feel badly 
about it. I am glad I have the chance to live in times like 
these and to do my bit for the future of the world for a 
world that my family is going to be able to live in peace and 
happiness, because there will be no more war. . . . 

"And if I shouldn't ever see you again, remember not to 
be sorry but glad and proud of me. . . . 

" This is a funny way for me to write, isn't it? But I am 
a lot more serious over here than I was at home. Here we 
face every day the stern facts of life and death and we are not 

"It's hard to explain the way we feel about it all, about 
France we who volunteered to fight for her long before our 
own country was too proud to fight. Alan Seegar, who was in 
the Foreign Legion, our regiment, summed it all up in his ' Ode 
to the Volunteers' fallen for France the following verse: 

c Yet sought they neither recompense nor praise, 
Nor to be mentioned in another breath, 
Than their blue-coated comrades whose great days 
It was their pride to share aye, 
Share even unto the death. 
Nay, rather, France, to you they rendered thanks, 
Seeing they came for honor not for gain; 
Who opening to them your glorious ranks, 
Gave them that grand occasion to excel, 
That chance to live the life most free from stain 
Aiid that rare privilege of dying well.' " 


Grief is not the only, nor indeed the predominant, 
emotion that one feels in reading these letters. The 
spot where one of those sons of the old Academy lies is 
forever America, and in the tenderest and most sacred 
sense, forever Exeter. 


On a large tablet in the Chapel at Exeter is inscribed this 
heading, and these names. 

KoII of 




JOHN BROADHEAD VAN SCHAICK, 1883. Died of influenza at 

Treves, Germany, December 11, 1918. 

EZRA CHARLES FITCH, JR., 1901. Died of pneumonia at Hart- 
ford, Conn., October 13, 1917. 

FLORENCE JOHN PRICE, 1901. Killed at Ypres, May 30, 1916. 
HUGH CHARLES BLANCHARD, 1905. Killed in action, July 18, 

ROGER WOLCOTT HITCHCOCK, 1906. Killed in action at Chateau 

Thierry, September 2, 1918. 
GARNETT MORGAN NOYES, 1906. Died of influenza at Camp 

Lee, Va., September 24, 1918. 
HENRY MONTGOMERY SUCKLEY, 1906. Killed near Salonica, 

March 18, 1917. 
JACK STEWART ALLISON, 1907. Killed in action in the Argonne 

Forest, October 14, 1918. 

Killed in Action 


STANTON KING BERRY, 1907. Died of pneumonia in France, 

October 19, 1918. 
OLIVER MOULTON CHADWICK, 1907. Killed in action at Bix- 

choote, Belgium, August 14, 1917. 
MICHAEL THOMAS O'DONOGHUE, 1907. Killed in action at 

Somme-Py, October 4, 1918. 
ARTHUR MEREDYTH ROBERTS, 1907. Killed in airplane accident 

in France, October 18, 1918. 
CHARLES HENRY; BURNS, 1908. Died from wounds received in 

action, October 18, 1918. 
LIVINGSTON Low BAKER, 1909. Killed in airplane accident in 

Italy, June i, 1918. 

ARTHUR BLUETHENTHAL, 1909. Killed in action June 7, 1918. 
HENRY AUGUSTUS BUTTERS, 1909, Killed in action at Ypres, 

August 31, 1916. 

JOHN JOSEPH FITZGERALD, 1909. Died in service. 
DUNCAN QUARTUS GUINEY, 1909. Killed in action in Flanders, 

August 21, 1918. 
IRAD MORTON HIDDEN, 1909. Died of pneumonia in France, 

October i, 1918. 

JAMES PATRICK DUNN, JR., 1910. Died at Camp Devens, Mass. 
ROBERT GREENLEAF DURGIN, 1910. Died at sea, October, 1918. 
THEODORE HERVEY GUETHING, 1910. Died of pneumonia at 

Dover, N. J., Arsenal, October 16, 1918. 
HOWARD WILLIS ARNOLD, 1911. Killed in action on the Ourcq, 

July 29, 1918. 
RALPH EDWIN CARPENTER CHAPMAN, 1911. Died of influenza 

at Camp Colt, Pa., October i, 1918. 
ALEXANDER DICKSON WILSON, 1911. Killed in action, October 

i, 1918. 
KENNETH EUOT FULLER, 1912. Killed in action near Chateau 

Thierry, July 18, 1918. 
EDGAR, HARRY JONASSON, 1912. Died of cerebral meningitis at 

Portsmouth, Va., October 8, 1918. 
HARRY HUBBARD METCALF, 1912. Died of pneumonia at Park 

Field, Memphis, October 13, 1918. 
THOMAS RIPLEY DORR, 1913. Died at Norfolk Naval Hospital, 

August or September, 1917. 
CLAUDIUS RALPH FARNSWORTH, 1913. Killed in action at 

Chateau Thierry, July 12, 1918. 


HENRY NORMAN GRIEB, 1913. Died at Bourges, France, August 

26, 1917, of wounds received in action. 
HENRY FRENCH HOLLIS, 1913. Died at Dayton, O., September 

4, 1918- 
GEORGE SOUTHWICK KERR, 1913. Killed in action on the Ourcq, 

October, 1918. 
WINTHROP FLOYD SMITH, 1913. Died of pneumonia at Bay 

Shore, L. I., Aviation Station, October 10, 1918. 
EDWARD LAIRD YOUNG, 1913. Died in Russia, March 14, 1919. 
CHARLES CLAYTON COLE, 1914. Killed in airplane accident at 

Park Place Field, Houston, Tex., December 6, 1918. 
FRANK DURHAM HAZELTINE, 1914. Killed in action at St. 

Mihiel, September 12, 1918. 
EARLE MADISON LAWRENCE, 1914. Died of pneumonia at Camp 

Colt, November 20, 1918. 
FRANK HOLMES ARNOLD, 1915. Killed in action in the Cam- 

brai-St. Quentin drive, September 29, 1918. 
LLOYD FREDERICK EMERSON, 1915. Died in France, 1918. 
THOMAS BROWNE McGuiRE, 1915. Killed in railroad accident, 

Chicago, January 15, 1918. 

LEONARD SOWERSBY MORANGE, 1915. Killed in airplane acci- 
dent at Shotwick, England, August n, 1918. 
STEPHEN POTTER, 1915. Killed in airplane fight in North Sea, 

April 25, 1918. 
PIERCE BUTLER ATWOOD, 1916. Died July 21, 1918, of wounds 

received in action at Chateau Thierry. 

EDWARD LAURISTON BULLARD, 1916. Killed in automobile ac- 
cident in France, April 8, 1919. 
STORRS WRIGHT BUTLER, 1916. Died of pneumonia at Camp 

Dix, September 23, 1918. 
JOSEPH EMERSON EATON, 1916. Died at Camp Devens, July 14, 

JAMES MCCLELLAND SHANNON, 1916. Died May 31, 1918, of 

wounds received in action. 
ROBERT GURDON THOMSON, 1916. Died February 16, 1920, 

from disease contracted in the Argonne. 
RICHARD CRAWFORD CAMPBELL, JR., 1917. Died at Hanover, 

N. H., October 7, 1918. 
ABRAM ROBERTSON FRYE, 1917. Killed in air duel in France, 

July 9, 1918. 

ALLEN HOLLIS, JR., 1917. Died of influenza at Cambridge, 
December 18, 1918. 


SANFORD HUBBELL POTTER, 1917. Died of influenza at Camp 
Zachary Taylor, October 17, 1918. 

SPENCER WALLACE SLAWSON, 1917. Died of pneumonia at Han- 
over, N. H., October, 1918. 

RICHARD SANDERS TRUITT, 1917. Died of pneumonia at Camp 
Lee, October 13, 1918. 

JOSEPH FRANK WEHNER, 1917. Killed in action September 20, 

EDWARD CLARKSON BONNELL, 1918. Died of wounds received 
in the battle of the Hindenburg Line, October 2, 1918. 

GEORGE WINTHROP BOURN, JR., 1918. Killed in action at 
Chateau Thierry, July 21, 1918. 

MORSE FREEMAN, 1918. Died of pneumonia at Camp Quantico, 
October 4, 1918. 

RICHARD ALEXANDER HEWAT, 1918. Killed in action August 
14, 1918. 

STANLEY WALLACE PETERS, 1918. Killed in action April 9, 1917. 

HENRY FOSTER WHITE, 1919. Died in service, December 26, 

Miss KATHERINE P. IRWIN, Academy Nurse. Died in France, 
June 24, 1918. 

EUGENE GALLJGAN, Military Instructor. Killed in action Sep- 
tember 6, 1918. 


These decorations were awarded Exeter men for services in 
the Great War. 

EDWARD TUCK, 1858. Prix de Vertu. Cross of the Legion of 

JEFFERSON BUTLER FLETCHEK!, 1883. Distinguished Service 

JAMES ROBERTSON BARBOUR, 1887. Cross of Chevalier of the 

Legion of Honor. 

THOMAS CURTIS CLARKE, 1893. Croix de Guerre. 
CHARLES NORMAN FISKE, 1894. Distinguished Service Medal. 
WALTER WILLIAMSON MANTON, 1901. Distinguished Service 



JOHN H. LEAVELL, 1903. Distinguished Service Cross. 

ROGER WOLCOTT HITCHCOCK, 1906. Distinguished Service Cross. 
Croix de Guerre with Palm. 

GEORGE MILLER PINNEY, JR., 1906. Croix de Guerre. 

HENRY MONTGOMERY SUCKLEY, 1906. Croix de Guerre. 

OLIVER MOULTON CHADWICK, 1907. Medal of Aero Club of 

NORRIS WILLIAM GILLETTE, 1908. Distinguished Service Cross. 

ADOLPH ANSELMI, 1909. Croix de Guerre. 

ARTHUR BLUETHENTHAL, 1909. Croix de Guerre. 

CHANDLER SPRAGUE, 1909. Distinguished Service Cross. 

ARTHUR HADDON ALEXANDER, 1910. Distinguished Service Cross. 

EDWIN CHARLES PARSONS, 1910. Croix de Guerre with 9 Palms. 
Medaille Militaire. Cross of the Legion of Honor. 
Cross of Leopold. 


JOHN HAMMOND MACVEAGH, 1911. Croix de Guerre, highest 

JOHN JEFFERSON FLOWERS STEINER, 1911. Distinguished Serv- 
ice Cross. 

SUMMERFIELD BALDWIN, 3RD, 1912. Croix de Guerre. 

WILLIAM JOHN BINGHAM, 1912. Croix de Guerre. 

SAMUEL ANDREW BOWMAN, 1912. Distinguished Service Cross. 

KENNETH ELIOT FULLER, 1912. Croix de Guerre. Distin- 
guished Service Cross. 

APPLETON TRAIN MILES, 1912. Croix de Guerre with Palm. 
Legion of Honor. 

DANIEL WILLARD, JR., 1912. Croix de Guerre. 

ROBERT WILLIAM WOOD, JR., 1912. Croix de Guerre. 

WILLIAM CLOSSON EMORY, 1913. Croix de Guerre with Silver 

HERBERT RUSHFORTH GARSIDE, 1913. Croix de Guerre. 

ROBERT GRANVILLE HUTTON, 1913. Croix de Guerre. 

HARRY HOBSON NEUBERGER, 1913. Distinguished Service 

CHARLES GORDON GREENHALGH, 1914. Croix de Guerre. 

HAROLD DANA HUDSON, 1914. Distinguished Service Cross. 

JOSEPH TIMOTHY WALKER, JR., 1914. Croix de Guerre. 

JAMES EDWARD BRESLIN, 1915. Croix de Guerre with Palm. 
Cross of Legion of Honor. Distinguished Service Cross. 

JOSEPH ROBERT DENNEN, 1915. Croix de Guerre. 


BROWNLEE BENSEL GAULD, 1915. Croix de Guerre. 

JOHN HOLME LAMBERT, 1915. Distinguished Service Cross. 

JAMES MILLER PARMELEE, 1915. Croix de Guerre. 

Louis FELIX TIMMERMAN, JR., 1915. Distinguished Service 

HOWARD CAMPBELL, 1916. Croix de Guerre with Silver Star. 

ALAN AVERY CLAFLIN, JR., 1916. Croix de Guerre. 

JAMES MORISON FAULKNER, 1916. Croix de Guerre. 

FRANK STEPHEN KELLY, JR., 1916. Croix de Guerre. 

NORMAN COIT LEE, 1916. Medaille Militaire. 

RUSSELL HAYWARD POTTER, JR., 1916. Croix de Guerre. Deco- 
rated second time with Gold Star. 

EDWARD ELLIS ALLEN, JR., 1917. Italian War Cross. (Croce 
di Guerra.) 

GUY EMERSON BOWERMAN, JR., Croix de Guerre. 



STACY COURTIS RICHMOND, JR., 1917. Italian War Cross. 

JOSEPH FRANK WEHNER, 1917. Distinguished Service Cross 
with Bronze Oak Leaf. Medal of Honor of Aero Club 
of America. 

GEORGE HENRY LOWE, JR., 1918. Croix de Guerre with Two 

HENRY CLARENCE MURRAY, 1918. Croix de Guerre. 

HARDWICKE MARMADUKE NEVIN, 1918. Medaille Militaire. 

RICHMOND ROSSITER, 1918. Croix de Guerre. 

MALCOLM KENNETH DOUGLAS, 1921. Croix de Guerre. 

OTIS M. BIGELOW, JR., Instructor. Italian War Cross. 


Army Navy 

Brigadier-General, r Captains, 2 

Colonels, 5 Commanders, 3 

Lieutenant-Colonels, 9 Lieutenant Commanders, 2 

Majors, 46 Lieutenants, (s. g.) 6 

Captains, 149 Lieutenants, (j. g.) 25 

First Lieutenants, 217 Ensigns, 102 
Second Lieutenants, 333 

Total, 900 Officers 














































































* 5 



















Total . . . 


Banner Class, 1915 

. . . . 208 men 

Number of men in auxiliary 



Grand Total 


Total number on Honor Roll ... 62 

Total number of decorations ... 68 


^TTMIE place which Exeter holds in secondary educa- 
JL tion has been won by fostering traditions and 
ideals which lie rooted deep in the soil of early New 
England. Benjamin Abbot laid the foundations for 
ideals when he insisted that the homely task of constru- 
ing Latin be done with intense thoroughness. The 
learned formed an intellectual aristocracy to which 
every frugal man desired his sons to belong. No sac- 
rifice on his part was too great. Daniel Webster well 
illustrates this trait in reference to his own father, who 
was determined that his sons should not toil unf ruitf ully 
as he had done. The struggles of such families as that 
of Webster to send their sons to Exeter and thence to 
college are of deep pathos and beauty. It is small 
wonder, then, that the sons came imbued with the fire 
of sacrifice lit at home. The light of joy in the parents' 
eyes at scholastic honors won; the memory of the stern 
struggle which the sons saw on their return home from 
a term at John Phillips's school; the hope for better 
things for themselves, for their parents, and for their 
own future, these led those early Exonians to use 
jealously and without waste the rare chance of in- 
struction under peerless Master Abbot and his zealous 

Chief among the cherished traditions that have made 
Exeter is that the day's work must be done. This 
manifests itself in many ways. For one thing, a boy is 



ashamed not to do to the best of his ability the day's 
requirement. When all is said and done, the earnest 
belief that work comes before play, that not to do the 
task is treason, that a stigma attaches to the boy who 
shirks, keeps the Exeter student loyal to work. Also, 
ever since the days of Benjamin Abbot the boy who 
could answer well has always been the boy most ad- 
mired and copied at Exeter. He is to scholarship what 
the members of the football team are to athletics. No 
boy feels shame-faced in answering well; a clear, defi- 
nite answer seems in no way to be compromising; he 
is not setting himself above his class-mates. On the 
other hand, the brilliant answer, the perfect recitation 
is eagerly sought, and the maker is copied. The boy 
feels that great pressure of public opinion which is the 
strongest deterrent and the strongest stimulant among 
boys and among men. 

When, under President Eliot, Harvard enlarged and 
changed entrance requirements to meet the demands of 
a restless and growing democracy, Exeter was not slow 
to fall into step. New courses were added; yet the 
old ones which had long served with such value were 
by no means discarded. Latin, Greek, and mathemat- 
ics, which long ruled almost to the exclusion of other 
studies, are still the backbone of a student's course. 
But the course is now complete and rounded, deficient 
in no detail. The widening schedule has not encroached 
vitally on the ancient, ennobling, and refining humani- 

Learn, or give your place to some one who can do the 
work, is a frank statement of the requirements at 
Exeter. In other words, if a student fails hopelessly 
in studies or in manly conduct, he is failing to live 
up to the ideals laid down for all who are citizens in 
good standing in the little commonwealth. Just what, 


then, are the penalties? The three designations of 
study hours, restrictions, and probation are all aimed 
not to punish but to reclaim the student so that he 
may again become a member in good standing. But in 
case, after being classified in studies so that he can 
do the work he still fails, or if he does not respond to 
the exuberant and ennobling elements and examples 
about him to lead to a profitable academic life, there 
is only one step left: he must go elsewhere, where the 
pressure of studies is not so great, or where the stand- 
ards of conduct are not so severe. The number of those 
who have been required to withdraw in some years has 
been rather large. If each boy so dismissed had be- 
come an enemy of Exeter, the school would have suf- 
fered; but many a boy has declared his debt to the 
school for such severity. In fact, the few American 
schools which have adhered rigidly to such stern 
methods have earned the deep gratitude of American 

One thing which has fostered pure democracy at 
Exeter is the independence of the individual instructor. 
He is chosen in the first place for certain qualities of 
leadership, and these qualities are fostered by his life 
in the school. He holds his position by the results which 
he obtains as a teacher, not by flattery to the senior 
members of his department or to the principal. In the 
conduct and governing of his classes he has free rein; he 
is responsible for results, but for the larger questions 
of how successful his life is to be he must answer to his 
own conscience. In much the same way as the stu- 
dent, the young instructor is left pretty much to work 
out his own salvation. In rare instances the instructor 
misuses his liberty; and in that case he fails. 

It is in the weekly meetings of the Faculty that the 
democracy of the school is best served by the total in- 


dependence of the instructors. The great questions 
at Exeter are settled in Faculty meeting, where the 
voice and vote of each instructor have weight. Ever 
since 1857, when the powers of school government 
were conferred on the Faculty, all matters of school 
policy have been settled by the Faculty, not by the 
principal or by the Trustees. In Faculty meeting every 
instructor can speak his mind freely, frankly, fearlessly. 
On occasion the principal has been voted down. This 
deciding of vital matters in open session is of countless 
advantage. The students kiiow that their cases are 
settled not by any star chamber council, but by care- 
ful deliberation in common assembly. And every boy, 
through his adviser, has a friend at court. 

The Exeter tradition of a large amount of freedom 
has been a great factor in establishing boys for a manly, 
independent existence. The liberty to study when and 
where he wishes, without supervision, of using or of 
wasting his hours, throws many a new Exonian for a 
few days of the opening year into a quandary. He 
leaves the recitation room with the next assignment 
clearly in mind, but he may now have a free period, 
in which he may visit the school post office, and in 
general do what he wishes. The next recitation seems 
remote, though he knows that he needs time for its 
preparation. Shall he idle away those minutes in a 
companion's room, or shall he attack that vagrant les- 
son? The wasting of those precious minutes brings 
swift retribution when he appears in class the following 
hour. In the grim determination to make good next 
time the new boy is making a long stride towards good 
Exeter citizenship. Quickly, then, he falls into the 
habit of doing his work on his own initiative; no one 
is watching him; he is the master of his own fate. This 
very fact has led to the expression that Exeter is a 


school for manly boys. No coddling is practised, nor is 
it necessary. And it is not a place for boys who need 

Exeter has always paid rich awards for work well 
done. The hard, earnest preparing and reciting of les- 
sons, the eliminating of failure, the determination to 
profit by mistakes, constitute the student's labor. And 
the reward is always secured. The approval of the 
instructor and of the student's classmates, the constant 
return of examination papers with steadily rising marks, 
these are some of the rich rewards of those who toil. 
Then come the monthly marks, the term marks, and 
last, the college examinations in June, which provide 
a glorious reward for work well done. 

The task of Exeter is simplified by meeting the re- 
quirements of the College Entrance Examination Board 
each June. The examinations give a definite standard 
by which the success of students in mastering their sub- 
jects is gauged. Each instructor is allowed entire free- 
dom in getting results. Constant drill in the elements 
of any subject is a requisite for success. Newer edu- 
cational fads, the attempt to work reforms, the chop- 
ping and changing which have wrecked many schools 
and have left in confusion many a young mind, have no 
place at Exeter. At once holding to the tried and true 
in education, yet ever reaching forward to keep abreast 
to the times, Exeter finds her truest place in preparing 
boys for college. 


In addition to funds for running the school, John 
Phillips provided about two thousand pounds for edu- 
cating " such as may be of excelling genius and of good 
moral character." The competition for the scholar- 


ships under this fund, which are awarded on a basis of 
high standing in studies with due regard for pecuniary 
needs, has been a potent factor in keeping the standard 
of work in the Academy of high grade. Oftener than 
not the leaders in class are scholarship boys. Their 
mastery of every detail in the lesson, and often their 
voluntary looking up of outside references inspires both 
teachers and fellow students. Also the need of scholar- 
ship boys to dress simply yet genteelly sets a standard 
of modest, suitable attire that boys of means are quick 
to adopt. The presence of so many scholarship boys, 
who lead with a good deal of regularity in the athletic, 
social, religious and literary life of the undergraduates 
sets an example that automatically drives out the bizarre 
in dress and action. The new boy at Exeter may feel 
a shock when first he sees a boy who had just led his 
class in recitation waiting on him at table in Alumni 
Hall, or shoveling snow from the walks, but he soon 
finds that the worker stands quite as high as the boy 
of means; and when elections come, rich and poor, high 
and low are voted for with regard to their fitness and 
popularity, not with regard to their wealth. The boys 
of .means must necessarily admire the class-mate of 
sturdy self-reliance who pays his own term bills, and 
at the same time wins the school honors which the boy 
of means himself would gladly win and may if he is 

Besides high standing in studies there are other re- 
quirements for holding scholarships. No student who 
uses tobacco is -considered a candidate; and the candi- 
date's tastes and habits must be frugal. In other words, 
the income from scholarships is to be used with Puritan 
simplicity. There is no need to urge the foundationers 
to lead the simple life. 

It was not until eighty years after the founding of 


the Academy that any new acquisition of scholarships, 
now so common and valuable, was made. The will 
of Dr. Jonathan Sibley, Union, Maine, who died Octo- 
ber 1 6, 1860, contained this clause: " I give and devise 
to the Trustees of the Phillips Exeter Academy in Ex- 
eter, N. H., the sum of one hundred dollars, to be 
applied by them in any manner in which they shall 
deem expedient for the benefit of said Seminary; and 
this bequest I make in grateful remembrance of the 
favors which my son, John Langdon Sibley, has re- 
ceived at that institution." This bequest John L. 
Sibley, class of 1819, turned over to the Trustees, 
adding one hundred dollars of his own. The following 
year he added another hundred dollars. He made the 
requirement that no student who used tobacco or stim- 
ulants in any form should benefit by the foundation. 
Later, on November 25, 1862, Mr. Sibley gave the 
Trustees a legacy which he had received from his father, 
saying in part: " I wish this gift, though I inherited 
the property without any restrictions or conditions, 
may be considered as coming from my father, Dr. Jon- 
athan Sibley. It has in my eyes a sacredness which I 
could not attach to any property acquired by my own 
exertions, and as this property was acquired by the 
most rigid economy both of my father and my mother, 
Persis (Morse) Sibley, through a long life, and for 
many years of it by a self-denial which it would not be 
expedient for me to illustrate by details, it is confi- 
dently expected that it will be vigilantly guarded by 
the trustees." For ten years Mr. Sibley jealously kept 
his secret; but at the Soule Festival, April 19, 1872, he 
was prevailed on to allow the gift to be disclosed. The 
storm of applause at the announcement was overwhelm- 
ing, and Mr. Sibley reluctantly told the story of his 
father's struggles, and of his own. It seems that his 


father in riding through Exeter in 1797 h a( * seen the 
boys at play in the school yard, and had determined 
that his own son should enjoy an education. " So," 
said Mr. Sibley, "in 1819 I was sent to Dr. Abbot's 
school, while my father continued to toil on his rough 
farm in the woods of Maine. Never shall I forget the 
day when I was admitted to the benefits of the founda- 
tion fund of the Academy. My clothes were of the 
rough homespun of the backwoods, and I was as green 
as the grass on the village common. I was very poor, 
but by rigid economy, and by teaching during the win- 
ter months, I managed to keep body and soul together. 
It was a hard struggle, and had it not been for the 
little aid my father gave me, I could not have suc- 
ceeded. Now and then there came from the farm one 
dollar, or perhaps two, never more than three, 
which the utmost self-denial alone enabled my father 
to send me." Mr. Sibley added that he should increase 
his father's legacy by ten thousand dollars, and give it 
all to the Trustees, though it left him very little for 
his own use. When he had finished his simple narrative 
of the bitter struggle through which he and his parents 
had passed, there was not a dry eye in the audience; 
every person felt that he had looked deep into the 
springs of human love and devotion. The Sibley be- 
quests have been rigidly kept; half of the income is 
added to the principal each year. The principal now 
amounts to $78,884.08. 

John L. Sibley was born in Union, Maine, in 1804, 
and graduated from Harvard in 1825. The next two 
years he spent as assistant in the college library. Then 
he studied for the ministry, and was ordained as pastor 
in Stow, Massachusetts, but in 1833 he returned as 
assistant in the Harvard College Library. In 1856 he 
was made chief librarian, and filled the position for 



twenty years. He spent much time in cataloguing the 
books in the library ; and in addition wrote two capa- 
cious volumes of biographical records of the early grad- 
uates of Harvard, which required long and painstaking 
efforts. He died in 1885. 

If those who have provided scholarships for Exeter 
could read the chapter of what their aid has done for 
boys " of excelling genius and of good moral charac- 
ter/ 3 they would feel that their sowing had returned 
a hundred fold. Jared Sparks, historian, and president 
of Harvard College, left his work as journeyman car- 
penter in Willington, Conn., in 1809, sent his trunk 
to Exeter on the chaise of a man who lived there, and 
himself walked the whole distance. Impressed by the 
earnestness of the young artisan, Principal Abbot gave 
him a place as a foundationer, and the future of the 
brilliant scholar was assured. Christopher C. Langdell 
also made his career possible by winning a scholarship 
at Exeter. He had been employed as a mill operative 
and came so badly prepared that at first Principal 
Soule refused him aid. At this rebuff he sat on the 
steps of the old Congregational church in the school 
yard and wept. But he made a second appeal to 
Principal Soule, this time with success, and began in 
class the career which was to end with brilliance as the 
maker of the Harvard Law School by the case system, 
which he devised. Many other careers scarcely less 
distinguished may be chosen almost at random from the 
list of foundationers. 

The establishment of the Sibley scholarships set the 
fashion and others have come regularly, until they now 
number about fifty, and provided for the school year 
1921-1922 an income of $14,000. This proves, natu- 
rally, of great help to the boys who apply for aid. In 
1870 George Bancroft, dass of 1811, historian and 


United States minister to England and Prussia ; in 
founding a scholarship, wrote: "A schoolboy is for- 
gotten in the place of his haunts, but for himself he 
can never forget them. Exeter is dear to me, for the 
veneration in which I held Dr. Abbot, my incomparable 
preceptor, and for the helping hand extended to me by 
its endowments. I desire to repeat for others that come 
after me what was done for me." 

The endowed scholarships at Exeter are constantly 
increasing, and their value to the school it is impossible 
to state. 


To those who love Exeter and have followed its his- 
tory, one of the most significant and cheering facts is 
that when, either through growth or changed conditions 
the needs of the school have grown acute, friends, both 
from the ranks of the alumni and from without, have 
come forward. Their donations have met the needs for 
new buildings, for enlarged grounds, for athletics, for 
higher teachers' salaries, and for enriching the life of 
the students. With the increasing cost of living and of 
expenses in general the ordinary revenues of the school 
were wholly inadequate; but the increase has been met 
unselfishly by those who in many cases could hardly 
have been looked to for such generous aid. 

The first gift of importance after the founding by 
John Phillips was the west half of the Academy yard 
which was given by John T. Gilman, named by the 
Founder as his successor as chairman of the Trustees. 
Then for a good many years there was no special need 
for funds. The expenses of the school were met by the 


slight fee charged for instruction- The Sibley bequests 
spoken of elsewhere called attention finally to the fact 
that funds to eke out those of John Phillips might do 
great good in furthering education, 

The alumni had shown their loyalty in various 
gatherings at Exeter; but it was not until the fire of 
December, 1870, that destroyed the fine old Georgian 
recitation building erected by John Phillips in 1 794 that 
they were given an incentive to do something of im- 
portance for the Academy. The committee which was 
appointed to rebuild the main hall found instant re- 
sponse to the appeal, and hundreds gave to the fund of 
over $46,000 which was raised at that time. When in 
turn this hall was burned in 1914, many of those who 
contributed in 1871, augmented by hundreds of younger 
alumni, raised over $147,000 for the new recitation 
building which follows the fine lines of the hall of 1794. 

The need for new funds from 1872 until the coming 
of Dr. Amen as principal in 1895 was n t ver y great. 
Woodbridge Odlin had given $20,000 to found an Eng- 
lish professorship, alumni had given $2,000 for a special 
fund, and the alumni loan fund had been started. 
Among general gifts during this time were some of im- 
portance. Gideon F. T. Reed had given $10,000, 
Henry Winkley had given $30,000, John Phillips, of 
Boston, a descendant of the Founder's brother, $25,000, 
Nathaniel S. Simpkins, Jr., class of 1850, and other 
alumni, $5,000, Francis P. Hurd, $50,000, Francis E. 
Parker, class of 1834, $112,000, and others had made 
minor donations. 

Most of the scholarships and special funds now 
owned by the Academy came through the zeal and de- 
votion of Principal Amen. In 1895 the school was strug- 
gling for existence, and he at once enlisted the aid of 
every alumnus and friend. By raising the standard of 


the school in every way, and by making the alumni 
aware of the chance for betterment he gained the help 
so badly needed. The material equipment of the Acad- 
emy was far behind its needs; therefore he never failed 
to make clear these needs; and the appeal did not go 

Of late years the material equipment has been in- 
creased by a number of gifts. Most important among 
these are Merrill Hall, given by Dr. Abner L. Merrill, 
'38; the Gilman and the Long Houses, given by D. 
Hunter McAlpin, '82, and Charles W. McAlpin, '84; 
the Plimpton Fields, and the Fields Beyond, given by 
George A. Plimpton, '73; the Tuck House, given by 
Edward Tuck, '58; the Graduates' House given by the 
Class of 1890; the Thompson Gymnasium and Swim- 
ming Pool, given by William B. Thompson, '90; the 
first recitation hall, and the land on which it stands, 
the gift of the Class of 1891; the Hill Bridge, con- 
necting the playing fields, the gift of George Hill, '65; 
the Davis Library, the gift of Benjamin P. Davis, '62 ; 
and the Lamont Infirmary, the gift of Thomas La- 
mont, '88. 

For development and expansion the Academy must 
rely on funds outside of the yearly income from tuition. 
If the school had had no gifts and endowments since its 
founding, it would still be a small school of sixty or 
seventy scholars, much as it was in the day of Benjamin 
Abbot. Even under these conditions the tuition fee 
must have been advanced to its present rate, for the 
expenses would have rapidly mounted far beyond 
income. In other words, the school can pay its 
expenses from its yearly income; but for any im- 
provements, for further enriching the life of students 
and instructors, more funds, some of them unrestricted, 
must come from outside sources. No other field of edu- 



cation offers a fuller reward for the investment of funds 
for the good of the future generations of the world. It 
is for this help that the Academy must look to alumni 
and friends. The names of those who add to John 
Phillips's foundation are joined to his in the cause of 


Although proud of her past, Exeter is more con- 
cerned with the present and with the future. She has 
never relied upon her past; that, perhaps, is the reason 
that for almost forty years no history of the school and 
its place in American education has been written. In 
the church, in politics, at the bar, in the army and the 
navy, in every form of public life, Exeter men have 
played a worthy and characteristic part. But, just as 
did the Founder, Exeter clings to ideals. With the new 
buildings and the enlarged endowment come new and 
greater obligations, but there is no danger that Exeter 
will forget either her duty or her ideals. The con- 
sciousness of defects that need mending, of debts to the 
country and of unattained standards, keeps the men 
who guide the school close at their high calling. The 
Academy still fosters good morals, manly character, 
and sound scholarship in its students, for whom old 
Puritan John Phillips founded a school " To learn them 
the great and real business of living." 


The earliest mention of the studies at the Academy occurs in 
the private diary of the first Preceptor, William Woodbridge, 
which was quoted by the News-Letter of July 5, 1895, He 
speaks of teaching languages, figures, geography, composition, 
and speaking. The course of study was perhaps made not pri- 
marily with the view of sending students to college; since, ac- 
cording to the Founder, Exeter was intended to fit boys for 
life rather than for college. -But from the earliest years boys 
entered college regularly. Of those who entered Exeter under 
William Woodbridge, eight received degrees at Dartmouth, 
seven at Harvard, and one at Brown. Nathaniel Thayer, class 
of 1783, from Hampton, N. H., and Charles Walker, class of 
1784, Concord, N. H., both received the degree of A.M. at Har- 
vard in 1789. Three brothers, George, James, and John Sul- 
livan, of Durham, N. H., all of the class of 1783, received the 
degree of A.B. from Harvard in 1790. The first man to enter 
Dartmouth from Exeter was Joseph Lamson, who lived in Ex- 
eter. He graduated from Dartmouth in 1790. 

The fact that those men entered college from Exeter shows 
that all of them had studied Latin, a little Greek, and some 
arithmetic. It also discredits the statement of Professor Hoyt 
that only two boys in the Academy when Benjamin Abbot be- 
came principal had " looked into the mysteries of Latin." Har- 
vard and other colleges at that time required Latin, Greek, and 
arithmetic. Later, their requirements were gradually made 
more difficult; but in the meantime the course at Exeter, 
planned for general education with admission to college as easy 
but incidental to general culture, had been broadened by the 
addition of many courses. 

The two following certificates of accomplishment show to 
some extent the studies pursued. The oldest known is in the 
Harvard College Library. The recipient, Theodore Mansfield, 
entered Exeter in 1785: 



The bearer of this, Theo. Mansfield, has been a student at 
the Phillips Exeter Academy. He has read those Classic Au- 
thors, a knowledge of which is considered as necessary for an 
Introduction into one of the Universities. He has likewise read 
a part of Horace's Odes, & paid some attention to Geography, 
Mathematicks and English Grammar. His conduct has been 
uniformly pleasing to his instructors, & he is now regularly 
dismissed from that Institution, 


Benj m . Abbot, 
Exeter Dec r . 27th. 1790 Inst r . of s d . Academy. 

The second certificate has been widely quoted. It was given 
to Lewis Cass, and is now in the Davis Library at Exeter. 


The Trustees of Phillips Exeter Academy, with a view to en- 
courage Industry, Science and Morality, have determined that 
certificates may be granted to students in certain cases. Be it 
therefore known that Lewis Cass has been a member of the 
said Academy seven years, and appears on examination to have 
acquired the principles of the English, French, Latin and Greek 
languages, Geography, Arithmetic and practical Geometry; 
that he has made very valuable progress in the study of Rhetoric, 
History, Natural and Moral Philosophy, Logic, Astronomy and 
Natural Law; and that he has sustained a good moral character 
during said term. 

In testimony whereof we hereunto set our hands, and affix the 
seal of said Academy, this second day of October, one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-nine. 

John T. Oilman, 
Benjamin Abbot. 

Joseph S. Buckminster, class of 1792, recorded that he had 
studied the Greek Testament, Xenophon's Cyropaedia, Horace's 
Epistles, Sallust, Cicero, Virgil, Livy, Blair's Rhetoric, and 
Morse's larger Geography. 

In 1808 the Trustees raised the requirements for admission 
to the English department by the following vote; 


" That hereafter all those, who enter the Academy with a view 
to an English education only, shall be subject to an examination. 
That the qualifications for admission be such acquaintance with 
English Grammar as to distinguish with facility the parts of 
speech, & a knowledge of the fundamental rules of Arithmetic 
including Reduction & Simple Proportion, or what shall be 
deemed an equivalent, such proficiency in the Latin Language, 
as is ordinarily acquired in one year." 

To do the work in this department Ebenezer Adams, A.M., 
was appointed professor. He resigned the following year, and 
in 1811 Hosea Hildreth was appointed professor. He continued 
to hold the position till 1825. Those two men were called 
Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. 

The next important change in the curriculum came in 1818, 
when the following course of study was defined; the same word- 
ing was retained for many years: 

" Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of good moral 
character, studious habits, and good capacities for improvement. 
They must give assurance for themselves, if of age, otherwise 
through their parents or guardians, of their intention to remain 
at the Academy, until they have completed the usual course of 
preparation for college or the course of English education 
established at this institution. 

" The time for admission is at the commencement of the term 
next succeeding the annual meeting of the Trustees in August. 
Provided, however, that persons duly qualified, may at any 
time be admitted to advanced standing, at the discretion of the 


"This department comprises three classes, exclusive of the 
Advanced Class, on the assumption that three years will usually 
be necessary to prepare for College. These classes are so 
subdivided and arranged, as to give scope and encouragement to 
industry and talents; but all advancements from one class or 
division, to another, take place in consequence of satisfactory 

" Those students, who may choose to remain at the Academy, 
after completing the course of preparation for College with a 
view, either to obtain a more accurate and extensive knowledge 
of the Latin and Greek classics, or to enter College in ad- 
vanced standing, constitute the Advanced Class. 



First Year 

" Adams's Latin Grammar, Jacobs's Latin Reader, Viri Romani, 
Caesar's Commentaries, Latin Prosody, Virgil's Bucolics, Geog- 
raphy and Arithmetick. 

Second Year 

"Arithmetick, Exercises in reading and making Latin con- 
tinued, Cicero's Select Orations, Buttmann's Greek Grammar, 
Jacobs's Greek Reader, Danzel's Collectanea Graeca Minora, 
Greek Testament, Sallust, Virgil's Aeneid, English Grammar 
and Declamation. 

Third Year 

" The same Latin and Greek authors in revision, English Gram- 
mar and Declamation continued, Virgil's Georgics, Algebra, ex- 
ercises in Latin and English translations and compositions. 

Advanced Class 

"Horatius Flaccus, Titus Livius, Excerpta Latina, Parts of 
Terence's Comedies, Collectanea Majora, Homer's Iliad, or 
such Latin and Greek authors as may best comport with the 
student's future destination; Algebra, Geometry, Adams's Ro- 
man Antiquities and Elements of Ancient History. 

English Department 

" Candidates for admission into this department must be at 
least twelve years of age, well instructed in reading and spelling, 
familiarly acquainted with Arithmetick through Simple Propor- 
tion with the exception of Fractions, with Murray's English 
Grammar through Syntax, and must be able to parse simple 
English sentences. 

The following is the course of Instruction and Study in the 
English Department, which, with special exceptions, will com- 
prise three years. 


First Year 

" English Grammar, including exercises in parsing and analys- 
ing, in the correction of bad English, Punctuation, and Prosody; 
Arithmetick, Geography and Colburn's Algebra. 

Second Year 

" English Grammar continued, Geometry, Plane Trigonometry, 
and its application to Heights and Distances, Mensuration of 
Superfices and Solids, Elements of Ancient History, -Logick, 
Rhetorick, English composition and Exercises of the Forensick, 

Third Year 

" Surveying, Navigation, Elements of Chemistry and Natural 
Philosophy, with experiments, Elements of Modern History, 
particularly of the United States, Astronomy, Moral and Polit- 
ical Philosophy, with English Composition, Forensicks, and Dec- 
lamation continued. 

"A course of Theological Instruction is given to the several 
classes, and likewise Instruction in Sacred Musick. Writing is 
daily taught in both departments by an approved master. 

" Those, who shall have spent at least one year in the depart- 
ment of languages, and have made good improvement, may en- 
ter upon the course of English education without the examina- 
tion prescribed for mere English scholars. Students qualified 
to enter College, may be allowed the privilege of completing, if 
able, the course of English education in two years. The same 
privilege may be extended to others, whose superior improve- 
ment shall appear on examination, to authorize such advance- 

"At the close of each Term the several classes of both 
departments are critically examined in all the studies of that 
Term; Those students, who are found to excel, are advanced 
or otherwise distinguished; but those, who prove materially defi- 
cient, are prohibited from proceeding with their class, until 
deficiencies are made up. 

" To those students, who honourably complete their Academ- 
ical course, testimonials are publickly presented by the Princi- 
pal at the annual Exhibition." 


This course of study, adopted in 1818, remained practically 
unchanged until 1839. But beginning with 1832 instruction was 
offered in French and Spanish to those who desired it. The age 
for admission to the English department was raised to fourteen 
years. In addition, a new course was offered. It was designated 
as the Extended Course, and met the requirements of the soph- 
omore class in college. Many of those who remained for the 
longer term in the Academy entered the Junior class in college. 
The course provided was: 

Latin: Cicero, De Amicitia; Terence, Tacitus, Plautus, Ju- 
venal. Greek: Demosthenes and Aeschines. Odyssey of Homer, 
Clouds of Aristophanes, Antigone and Electra of Sophocles, 
Alcestis of Euripides, Prometheus of Aeschylus. Mathematics: 
Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Conic Sections. The higher 
branches in the English Department. Declamations, Transla- 
tions and Compositions through the whole course. 

The annual catalogues of the period name many of the 
texts required, such as Andrews and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, 
Felton's Greek texts, Day's Algebra, and Olmsted's Astronomy. 

Phillips Exeter Academy has always fostered the humanities 
rather than the sciences, and in 1848 the Trustees voiced in un- 
mistakable language their faith in Latin and Greek. At the 
annual meeting of that year they passed a vote that rings like 
a clarion and is a declaration of creed to all those who love the 
old learning. It still stands, as strong and unimpaired as on that 
day when a committee made the following report: 

Those students whose bad habits or want of capacity prevent 
their success in the Latin, usually desire to finish their Academic 
course in the English Room in this way the English Room 
is liable to be filled with the idle and stupid. Under these cir- 
cumstances, we believe that the benevolent purpose of the 
Founder would be more effectually carried out by appropriating 
the funds of the Institution to the instruction of young men of 
talents and promise, in a thorough Classical Course of study, 
including, as heretofore, all those Mathematical & other English 
branches belonging to such a course. 

Thereupon the Trustees passed this vote: That the Depart- 
ment for mere English Students be & hereby is discontinued 
Provided, however, that, in case a suitable number from any 
class fitted for College, should wish to pursue an extended course 
of English studies, they may be permitted to do so. 


In accordance with that vote the English department was en- 
larged for a special few; but the old undesirable class of English 
students was done away with. It seemed not to make any 
difference in the total registration. The year the vote was 
passed there were 69 enrolled; the next year there were 70; 
after that the numbers rapidly mounted, till in 1857 there were 
125 students. From then on the increase for many years was 
constant. The last mention of the English department is in 
1853; after that year it was discontinued altogether and instruc- 
tion in English became a part of the regular course. 

The advanced class survived until 1871. The next year the 
classes were divided into Senior, Middle, Junior, and Prepar- 
atory. That division was the outgrowth of the old Junior, Mid- 
dle, Senior, and Advanced classes. During the years between 
1855 and 1871 the course of study, except for changes in text 
books to keep up with the times, had remained pretty constant. 

Since Exeter has always prided herself on fitting boys for col- 
lege in the best possible manner, the sweeping changes in the 
requirements demanded by Harvard under the newly elected 
President, Charles W. Eliot, had either to be met, or the school 
had to admit failure. Dr. Soule was too old and feeble to at- 
tempt to make the changes; but Principal Perkins, aided by 
Professors Wentworth and Cilley, met the situation squarely, 
and so amended the course of study that it continued to meet 
every requirement. The schedule as modified by the school 
year 1873-1874 was as follows: 


Latin: Allen and Greenough's Grammar, Leighton's Latin 
Lessons, Caesar, books I-IV, Nepos, 1,000 lines, Prosody, La- 
tin composition. Mathematics: Arithmetic to percentage. 
Ancient History: Smith's Smaller History of Rome. Ancient 


Latin: 3,000 lines of Ovid, Cicero, four Catilinarian orations, 
Manilian Law, Ligarius. Greek: Goodwin's Grammar, Leighton's 
Lessons, Anabasis, Book L Mathematics: Arithmetic finished, 
Greenleafs Elementary Algebra. Ancient History: Smith's 
Smaller History of Greece. 



Latin: Virgil, Books I-VT, Caesar, Nepos, Ovid, reviewed. 
Greek: Anabasis, Books II-V, Homer, Iliad, Books I-II. Math- 
matics: Algebra, Todhunter's or Hamblin Smith's two Books 
of Chauvenet's Geometry. Ancient -History: Smith's Smaller 
History of Greece. English: Grammar and Composition. 
Ancient Geography, reviewed. 


Latin: Cicero, De Senectute, Virgil, Bucolics. Greek: Herod- 
otus, Book VII, Homer, Iliad, Book III. Mathematics: Chau- 
venet's Geometry, Books III-V, Peirce's Elements and Tables 
of Logarithms. French: Otto's Grammar, Bocher's Reader. 
Histoire Grecque. English: Shakespere, Scott and Goldsmith. 
Modern and Physical Geography, Guyot's Physics. 

The addition of French,. English, and the sciences to the 
curriculum met the changed conditions, and Exeter kept her 
place as the most important of the so-called " Harvard feeders." 
In 1874-1875 a separate English course was again provided, to 
extend over three years. The course was revived through 
the establishment of an English Professorship by Wood- 
bridge Odlin, class of 1817. The number of studies was largely 
increased, until it included astronomy, logic, political economy, 
botany, and studies in the history of Christianity besides the 
regular studies of English, modern languages, mathematics, etc. 
The English course was finally merged in the regular schedule 
in the school year 1890-1891. Latterly there had been required 
two years of Latin in the English course; so that the training 
was not very different from that of the classical course until the 
later years were reached. 

In order to provide instruction in modern languages the Trus- 
tees in 1873 asked Professor Cilley to prepare to give courses 
in French, Professor Wentworth in astronomy, and Principal 
Perkins in physics and botany. Such teaching was so distaste- 
ful to Wentworth and Cilley that the Trustees appointed Mr. 
Oscar Faulhaber, a German, to teach French and German. 

The physical laboratory, to facilitate the teaching of physics, 


was built in 1887-1888, and the chemical laboratory in 1890- 
1891. At that time the plan was to make the two laboratories 
the wings of a greater laboratory that was to extend toward 
the place now occupied by Alumni Hall; but it was impossible to 
stimulate interest in science at Exeter beyond the barest re- 
quirements for college. Principal Walter Q. Scott, at whose 
instigation the physical laboratory was built, was very fond of 
science; but he resigned his principalship and went elsewhere 
before his ideas for the advancement of science could take deep 

In the year 1904-1905 a course in mechanical drawing was 
provided for the Upper Middle and the Lower Middle Classes. 
As a matter of fact, Exeter had been grounded so firmly in the 
classics that science could not obtain a very firm footing, even 
though the reformers urged it. At every fresh declaration of 
its old adherence to the humanitarian studies the enrollment at 
Exeter has increased. 

In spite of the insistence on classical studies, most boys at the 
Academy take the course which leads to the English diploma. 
In 1916 there were 24 classical diplomas awarded, and 83 
English; in 1917, 25 classical and 94 English; in 1918, 14 
classical and 79 English; in 1919, n classical and 87 English; 
in 1921, 29 classical and in English; in 1922, 21 classical and 
142 English. 

The requirements for the classical diploma are five years of 
Latin and Greek, by any combination of the two studies; that 
is, of the 73 hours required for the diploma, enough must be 
made up from the studies of Latin and Greek so that the sum 
total equals the required five years of study. Junior Latin 
counts six hours, and the other courses in Greek and Latin count 
five hours a year each. For the English diploma two years of 
Latin are required, but no Greek, although Greek will count if 
offered. But in case a student has some Greek as well as some 
Latin he usually tries to earn the rarer and more valued clas- 
sical diploma. 


The Academy offers instruction in all the studies required for 
admission to the leading colleges and scientific schools. No pro- 
vision is made for the fragmentary study of isolated subjects, nor 
for short courses in mere " information studies." The courses of study 
in every department continue at least throughout the year, and, 
usually, are pursued for two or more consecutive years. Thorough, 
systematic, and consecutive training is thus secured in all departments. 

Students prepare their lessons in their own rooms. Recitations 
are held from eight to one o'clock and from four to six o'clock. 
Each period is an hour long. Wednesday and Saturday after- 
noons are half -holidays. 

The method of instruction assumes that the pupils have some 
power of application and a will to work. Those who conspicu- 
ously fail in these respects may not remain in the school. Earnest 
students who are hampered by inadequate preparation are assisted 
by the Preceptorial Instructors, who meet their pupils in small 
groups, discover and correct individual weaknesses, and after a few 
days or weeks return the boys to the regular classes from which 
they have been taken. 


Appended to the name of each of the following courses is the 
number of recitation periods which it requires each week through 
one year. This number also serves to indicate the relative value 
of the course in the fulfilment of the requirements for admission 
to a given class. In each department the courses are arranged 
in the order of their advancement. For admission, therefore, 
to any course the preceding courses in the same department are 
prerequisite. Exception is made only in the case of History 2, 
History 3, and History 4, all of which are of the same grade, 
and in the case of Declamation, which is prescribed during the 
Upper Middle and Senior years. 


LATIN i (Six Hours): Introduction to Latin; Fabulae Faciles; 
Caesar's Gallic War, Book I. (Ch. 1-29); Grammar; Translation 
at sight. 



LATIN 2 (Five Hours): Cesar's Gallic War Books II., IV., V., 
VI ; Ovid, Selections from the Metamorphoses, 1,000 lines; Nepos, 
Ten Lives; Grammar; Composition; Translation at sight. 

LATIN 3 (Five Hours): Cicero, Eight Speeches and Selected 
Letters; Grammar; Composition; Translation at sight. 

LATIN 4 (Five Hours): Virgil's -^Eneid, Books I.-VL, and Selec- 
tions from Books VII.-XIL; Composition; Translation at sight. 


GREEK i (Five Hours): The Elements of Greek; Grammar; St. 
Mark's Gospel; Colson's Greek Reader, or other easy Attic prose; 
Composition; Translation at sight. 

GREEK 2 (Five Hours): Xenophon's Anabasis, Books I.-IV., and 
Hellenica, Books L-III.; Grammar; Composition; Translation at 

GREEK 3 (Four Hours): Homer's Iliad, Books I.-IIL, VI., and 
Odyssey, Books L, VI-XIL, with selections from Books XIII- 
XXIV.; Translation at sight. 


MATHEMATICS i (Five Hours) : Algebra (Four Hours) ; Construc- 
tive Geometry (One Hour). 

C MATHEMATICS 2 (Five Hours): Algebra (Four Hours); Plane 
I Geometry (One Hour). 
\ or 

MATHEMATICS 3 (Four Hours) : Algebra. 

(This course is counted as Lower Middle.) 
MATHEMATICS 4 (Four Hours): Plane Geometry. 


MATHEMATICS 5 (Four Hours): Algebra (Two Hours); Plane 
Geometry (Two Hours). 

(A new student to be eligible for this course must pass in Sep- 
tember an examination in the first two books of Plane Geometry.) 
x MATHEMATICS 6 and 7 (Four Hours): Plane Trigonometry; Solid 
MATHEMATICS 8 (Two Hours) : College Algebra. 


ENGLISH i (Four Hours): Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation, 
Dictation, Letter- Writing, Compositions; Hughes's Tom Brown's 
School Days; Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome; Longfellow's 
Evangeline, Courtship of Miles Standish; Aldrich's Story of a Bad 
Boy; Stevenson's Kidnapped. 


ENGLISH 2 (Four Hours): Selected Works of Fiction; Biography; 
Poetry; Miscellaneous Assignments in Library; Rhetoric; Composi- 

ENGLISH 3 (Three Hours): Sandwick's How to Study; Cheney's 
Short History of England; A Study of the Types of Literature, ~ 
the Novel, the Short-Story, the Essay, Poetry, including the Drama; 
Rhetoric; Compositions. 

ENGLISH 4 (Four Hours) : Sandwick's How to Study; Shakspere's 
Macbeth; Selected Plays; Macaulay's Johnson; Selections from Bos- 
weirs Johnson; Browning's Poems; Patriotic Addresses; Miscella- 
neous Assignments in Library; Compositions. 

ENGLISH 5 (Four Hours): Shakspere's Hamlet and Twelfth 
Night; Palgrave's Golden Treasury (First Series); Selections from 
Dryden, Swift, Pope, Byron, Shelly, Keats, Browning, and Tennyson; 
Dickens's David Copperfield; Thackeray's Henry Esmond; Haw- 
thorne's House of the Seven Gables; Literary History from the time 
of Shakspere; Rhetoric; Compositions. 

DECLAMATION i (One Hour): Selections from Henley, Stevenson, 
Scott, Browning, and Shakspere. 

DECLAMATION 2 (One Hour) : Selections from Dickens, Stephen 
Phillips, Rostand, Shakspere; Short Original Speeches, or (for ad- 
vanced students) scenes from Shakspere and one-act Plays. 

NOTE. English $ is intended for those only who have passed the 
regular required English for College. 


FRENCH i (Four Hours): Chardenal's Complete French Course, 
Lessons i to 65; Pronunciation, Composition, Dictation; Irregu- 
lar verbs: aller, craindre, devoir, dire, ecrire, faire, lire, mettre, 
mourir, naitre, partir, pouvoir, prendre, savoir, venir, voir, vouloir; 
Bierman and Frank's Conversational French Reader; de Mouvert's 
La Belle France; Labiche (Le Voyage de M. Perrichon); Malot (Sans 
Famille) ; Olmstead and Barton's Elementary French Reader. 

FRENCH 2 (Four Hours): Chardenal's Complete French Course 
through Chapter 100; Daily drill in composition; Dictation; Buffum's 
Contes Francois or French Short Stories; Daudet (Le Petit Chose); 
Labiche (La Poudre aux Yeux); Erckmann-Chatrian (Madame 
Th^rese, Le Conscript, Le Juif Polonais); Thiers (Expedition de 
Bonaparte en Egypte); Theuriet (Bigarreau); Claretie (PierriUe). 

FRENCH 3 (Four Hours) : Carnahan's Review Grammar and Com- 
position; Vreeland and Koren's French Syntax; Comfort's Exercises 
in French Prose Composition; Sarcey (Le Siege de Paris); Dumas 
(La Question d'Argent); Daudet (Tartarin de Tarascon); Sardou 


(Les Pattes de Mouche); Hugo (Quatre-vingt-treize) ; Augier (Le 
Gendre de M. Poirier); Bordeaux (La Peur de Vivie); Dictation; 
Summaries; Original Compositions. 


GERMAN i (Four Hours): Bacon's New German Grammar; Allen's 
German Life ; Campe's Robinson der Jungere. 

GERMAN 1-2 (Five Hours) : Bacon's New German Grammar; Allen's 
German Life; Campe's Robinson der Jungere; Betz's Aus der Jugend- 
zeit; Truscott and Smith's Elementary German Composition. 

NOTE. German 1-2 is designed to prepare the student in one year for 
the College Board examination in Elementary German. 

GERMAN 2 (Four Hours) : Wesselhoeft's Elementary German Gram- 
mar; Baumbach's Der Schwiegersohn ; Moser's Der Bibliothekar ; 
Fulda's Unter Vier Augen; Gerstacker's Irrfahrten; Written Composi- 

GERMAN 3 (Four Hours): Schurz's Lebenserinnerungen; Scheffel's 
Der Trompeter von Sakkingen; Freytag's Aus dem Jahrhundert des 
Grossen Krieges ; Chiles's German Composition. 


SPANISH i (Four Hours): De Vitis's Spanish Grammar; Harrison's 
Spanish Reader; Bransby's Spanish Reader; Cuentos Modernos; Cuen- 
tos Castellanos; Alarcon's Novelas Cortas Escogidas; Valer's El Pajaro 
Verde; Grammar; Pronunciation Drill. 

SPANISH 2 (Four Hours): Hills and Ford's Spanish Grammar; 
Galdos's Dona Perfecta; Moratin's El Si de las Ninas; Alarcon's El 
Capitan Veneno; Calderon's La Vida es Sueno; Gil y Zarates's Guz- 
man el Bueno; Grammar and Daily Composition. 


HISTORY i (Two Hours): Morey's Outlines of Greek History; 
Hamilton's Junior History of Rome; Andrews's American's Creed. 

HISTORY 2 (Four Hours) : Goodspeed's History of the Ancient 
World; Sanborn's Classical Atlas; Ivanhoe Series of Outline Maps; 
Note-books; Collateral reading. 

HISTORY 3 (Four Hours) : Montague's Elements of English Con- 
stitutional History; Wrong's History of the British Nation; Tuell 
and Hatch's Selected Readings; McKinley Series of Outline Maps; 
Note-books; Collateral reading. 

HISTORY 4 (Four Hours): Hart's New American History; Sparks's 
Men Who Made the Nation; Epoch-making Papers in United States; 
History; Outline maps; Note-books; Collateral reading. 


HISTORY 5 (Four Hours): Channing's Students' History of the 
United States; Hart's Formation of the Union; Wilson's Division and 
Reunion; Hart's Epoch Maps; Note-books; Considerable reading in 
standard works and in the sources; Special reports. 

NOTE. History 5 is intended for those only who have passed Ele- 
mentary History for college or have completed satisfactorily History 2 
or 3 or 4. 


BIBLE i (One Hour) : A general introduction to the study of the 
Bible; the Bible and Note-books. 

BIBLE 2 (One Hour): A more detailed study of parts of the 
Bible; Kent's Historical Bible; Note-books. 


PHYSICS (Four Hours): Stone's Experimental Physics; Labora- 
tory tfork. 


CHEMISTRY i (Four Hours): Laboratory work and recitations on 
Elementary Chemistry, mostly inorganic. 

CHEMISTRY 2 (Five Hours): A systematic study of the most 
important elementary substances and inorganic compounds; Scheme 
of the chemical elements; Applications of Chemistry in the arts; 
Qualitative Analysis, Lectures and Laboratory work. 

NOTE. Chemistry 2 is intended for those only who are candidates for 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and who wish to anticipate 
Freshman Chemistry. 


MECHANICAL DRAWING i (Two Hours) : Drawing Instruments and 
their use; Geometrical Constructions (Plane figures); Tracing. 

MECHANICAL DRAWING 2 (Two Hours): Introductory work in 
Descriptive Geometry with applications; Mechanical Drawing from 
Objects; Working Methods. 


Music i (One Hour): A lecture course in the Appreciation of 
Music; Syllabus and Note-books. 

(This course is open, in general, to Upper Middlers and Seniors 

Music 2 (Two Hours): A detailed study of diatonic Harmony 
through the higher discords; Anger's Treatise on Harmony, volumes 


one and two; Foote and Spaulding's Harmony; Music manuscript 

NOTE. Music 2 is intended for those only who have had at least two 
years of piano work or its equivalent. 


PHYSICAL TRAINING (Four Hours) : Bar Bells, Dumb Bells, Indian 
Clubs; Free Arm Movements; Squad work with Chest Weights; Ex- 
ercises for symmetrical bodily development. 

At the beginning of the Fall Term and again at the end of the sea- 
son's work, the Director of the Gymnasium gives each new student 
a thorough physical examination, which includes measurements and 
strength tests. From this examination a chart is made out for each 
student, showing his size, strength, and symmetry in comparison 
with the normal standard of those of his own age, and indicating 
the parts of the body which are defective in strength or development. 

After the physical examination all members of the school are 
required to engage in football or other sports appropriate to the 
season. The prescribed gymnasium work begins early in Novem- 
ber and continues to the end of the Winter Term. Thereafter all 
students are required to report regularly at the Playing Fields 
four times a week, where they participate in baseball, or track 
sports, or tennis, or golf, or rowing, as the individual may prefer. 


Every student must have each year a schedule of at least 18 hours, 
exclusive of Physical Training. 

The following courses are prescribed: Latin, i, 2; Mathematics 
r, 2 or 3, 4 or 5; English i, 2, 3, 4; Declamation during the 
Upper Middle and Senior years; French i, 2, or German i, 2; 
or Spanish i, 2; History 2 or 3 or 4; Physical Training each 
year. Other courses are elective; but the choice is restricted to 
narrow limits by the requirements for Senior standing and for college 
admission, and by the following regulations. 

Of the foreign languages Latin is taken up first. Members of 
the Lower Middle Class are required to take Greek, or a modern 
foreign language, and all the) other studies of that class. Candi- 
dates for the classical diploma are advised to begin Greek in the 
Lower Middle year, and to postpone the beginning of German or 
French to the Upper Middle year. 

History 2, 3, and 4, Physics, Chemistry, and Drawing are in 
general open to Upper Middlers and Seniors only. 

Every student's schedule of studies must be approved at the 


beginning of the year by his Adviser. Necessary changes may be 
made at any time, if approved by the Secretary of the Faculty, 
the Adviser, and the instructors concerned. 


Students entering the Academy with credit for a part of the work 
included in its curriculum select, subject to the rules given above, 
such studies as their preparation warrants and their college plans 
require. Those who enter without such credit pursue the following 
course of study: 


Latin i. History i. 

Mathematics i. Bible i. 

English i. Physical Training. 


Latin 2. Greek i or a Modern Foreign 

Mathematics 2 or 3. Language. 

English 2. Physical Training. 


Mathematics 4 or 5. Greek 2 or a second year of a 

English 3. Modern Foreign Language. 

Declamation. Physical Training. 

Other courses amounting to at least six hours. 

French, German, or Spanish must be begun not later than this 


English 4. Physical Training. 


Other courses amounting to at least fourteen hours. 


Except for certain important changes, John Phillips wrote 
the constitution for Exeter as already adopted by Phillips Acad- 
emy, Andover. The Andover constitution was composed by Judge 
Samuel Phillips and Eliphalet Pearson. 

When we reflect upon the grand design of the great Parent of the 
Universe, in the creation of mankind; and the improvements, of 
which the mind is capable, both in knowledge, and vertue, as well 
as upon the prevalence of ignorance and vice, disorder & wickedness 
and upon the direct tendency, and certain issue of such a course 
of things Such reflection must occasion, in thoughtful minds, an 
earnest solicitude to find the source of these evils and their remedy. 
And a small acquaintance with the qualities of young minds how 
susceptible and tenacious they are of impressions evidences that the 
time of Youth is the important period, on the improvement or 
neglect of which, depend the most weighty consequences to individ- 
uals themselves, & the community, 

A serious consideration of these things, and an observation of the 
growing neglect of Youth, must excite a painful anxiety for the 
event; and may well determine those whom their Heavenly Benefac- 
tor hath blessed with an ability therefor, to promote and encourage 
publick free Schools, or Academies, for the purpose of instructing 
Youth; not only in the english and latin grammar, writing, arithmetic, 
and those sciences wherein they are commonly taught, but more espe- 
cially to learn them the great end, and real business of living. 

Earnestly wishing that such institutions may grow and flourish 
That the advantages of them may be extensive & lasting That 
their usefulness may be so manifest as to lead the way to other 
establishments on the same principles And that they may finally 
prove eminent means of advancing the interest of the great 
Redeemer To His patronage, and blessing, may all friends to learn- 
ing and religion most humbly commit them. 

To all People to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting 
Whereas the General Assembly of the State of New Hampshire did 
by their Act, on the 3d day of April, Anno Domini 1781, Incorporate 
an Academy, in the Town of Exeter, and County of Rockingham, by 
the name of The Phillips Exeter Academy, for the purpose of pro- 
moting Piety and Vertue; and for the education of Youth as is, in 



said Act directed: and Whereas, by said Act, all the lands, tenements 
& personal estate, that shall be given to Trustees for the use of said 
Academy, are, and shall be for ever exempted, from all taxes what- 
soever. Therefore, in Consideration of the great importance of the 
design mentioned; and of the Powers, Privileges and Immunities, in, 
& by said Act granted, and for the sole purpose of promoting Piety 9 
Vertue and usejul Literature I John Phillips of Exeter aforesaid, 
Esquire, Have granted; and, with most humble thanks to the Lord, 
and Giver of all things, for the opportunity, ability and dispositon, 
by Him given, Do, by these presents, most chearfully, grant to the 
Trustees of the said Phillips-Exeter-Academy, nominated and ap- 
pointed by said Act; and to their Successors in that Trust, all my 
right, title and interest in & unto the Real estate described as 
followeth, vizt. 

(Here follows a description of the lands, rights in saw mills, 
etc). 1 

Provided however, That any mortgaged lands, how long soever 
the time for payment has been elapsed, may be redeemed by the 
Mortgagor's payment, at a time the Trustees shall judge reasonable, 
such Sum or Sums of Money, as shall appear to them justly and 
righteously due, on their respective Mortgages. 

To Have and to Hold the granted premises, with all their appur- 
tenances, to the said Trustees of the said Phillips Exeter Academy, 
and to their Successors in said Trust, for the use and purposes, and 
upon the trust herein mentioned, on such terms and conditions, as 
the first Grantor has a (legal) right to express in the Deed or Instru- 
ment of conveyance by him made; and which are the necessary, 
or beneficial standing Regulations, forming the Constitution of this 
Academy; and ever to be considered as essentially and inseparably 
connected with this Grant, being as follows, vizt 

The first Instructor shall be nominated, and appointed by the 

The Trustees, or a major part of them, shall meet once a year, 
at the Phillips-Exeter-Academy: Their first meeting shall be on the 
i8th. day of Decembr A.D. 1781 when, they shall determine on 
the time for holding the annual meeting: Which may be altered, 
as they shall hereafter find most convenient. 

A President, Clerk & Treasurer shall be annually chosen, who shall 
officiate till their places are supplied by a new election: and no mem- 
ber shall sustain the office of Clerk and Treasurer at the same time; 
an Instructor shall not be chosen President: and upon the decease of 
a President, Clerk, or Treasurer, another shall be chosen in his room, 
at the next annual meeting. 

i A footnote by John Phillips says, "Academy Lands eight thousand 
seven hundred acres in settled towns N. Hampr." 


The President shall call special meetings upon the application of 
any three of the Trustees; or upon the concurrence of any two of 
them in sentiment with him, on the occasion of such meeting: And 
upon the decease of the President, a special meeting shall be called, 
by any three of the Trustees. 

All notifications for special meetings shall express the business 
to be transacted, if convenient; and be given, at least, one month 
previous to such meeting if not incompatible with the welfare of 
the Academy. 

And when a special meeting shall be called, for the appointment 
of an Instructor; or to transact other business of material conse- 
quence, information shall be given, by leaving a written notification 
at the house of each Trustee ; or in such, other way, as that the Pres- 
ident or members notifying shall have good reason to believe that 
each member has received the Notice. 

The Clerk shall record all Votes of the Trustees, inserting the 
names of those present at every meeting. 

He shall keep a fair record of every donation, with the name of 
each benefactor; of the purpose, if expressed, to which it is constitu- 
tionally appropriated; and of all expenditures of them. And a true 
copy of the whole shall be taken, and kept in the Academy, to be 
open for the perusal of all men. And if he shall be absent at any 
meeting of the Trustees, another shall be appointed to serve in his 
room, during such absence. 

The Treasurer shall, previous to his receiving the interest of the 
Academy into his hands, give bond for the faithful discharge of 
of his office; in such sum as the Trustees shall direct, with sufficient 
Sureties to the Trustees which bond shall express the use, both 
in the obligatory part, and in the condition. 

He shall give duplicate receipts for all monies received, counter- 
signed by one of the Trustees; one to the Donor, the other to be 
lodged with such member as the Trustees shall from time to time 

And the Trustees shall take such other measures as they shall judge 
requisite to make the Treasurer accountable, and effectually to se- 
cure the interest of the Academy. 

The Trustees shall let, or rent out personal, or real estate; or 
make sale and purchases of land; and improve the property of the 
Academy, as they shall judge will best serve it's interest, without 
diminishing the Fund. 

Whereas the success of this Institution much depends, under Prov- 
idence, on a discreet appointment of it's Instructors; and the human 
mind is liable to inperceptible bias it is required, that when a 
candidate for election is so near akin to any member of the Trust 
as a first Cousin, such member shall not sit, in determining the 


No person shall be chosen as a principal Instructor, unless he be a 
member of a Church of Christ, in compleat standing, whose senti- 
ments are similar to those herein after expressed, & will lead him to 
inculcate y e doctrines, & perform y e duties required in this Constitu- 
tion; Also of exemplary manners; of good natural abilities, and lit- 
erary acquirements; of a natural aptitude for instruction and 
government: A good acquaintance with human nature is also much 
to be desired. And in the appointment of any Instructor, regard 
shall be had to qualifications only; without preference of friend or 
kindred, place of birth, education or residence. 

The Trustees shall make a compact with Instructors as to salary, 
before their entrance upon Office: And when the number of Scholars 
shall require, more Instructors than the principal, it will be expected 
that Persons of ability, who reap some advantage by this Institution, 
will cheerfully assist in supporting the additional; So that poor 
Children, of promising genius, may be introduced; and members, 
who may need some special aid, may have it afforded them. 

It shall be the duty of the Trustees to enquire into the con- 
duct of the Instructors; and if they, or either of them, be found 
justly chargeable with such misconduct, neglect of duty, or incapacity, 
as the said Trustees shall judge renders them, or either of them, 
unfit to continue in office, they shall remove them or either of them, 
so chargeable. 

As the welfare of the Academy will be greatly promoted by the 
Students being conversant with persons of good character only No 
Scholar may enjoy the privileges of this Institution, who shall 
board in any Family, which is not licensed by the Trustees And 
applications will be in vain where the daily worship of GOD, and 
good government is not said to be maintained. And in order to 
preserve this Seminary from the baneful influence of the incor- 
rigibly vicious the Trustees shall determine for what reasons a 
Scholar shall be expelled; and the manner in which the sentence 
shall be administered. 

The Trustees, at their annual meetings, shall visit the Seminary, 
and examine into the proficiencies of the Scholars; examine and 
adjust all accounts relative to the Seminary; and make any further 
rules and orders which they find necessary; and conformable to this 

The principal Instructor may not sit in the determining matters 
wherein he is particularly interested. 

Extravagant entertainments shall be discountenanced, and economy 
recommended by Trustees and Instructors. 

Applications for admission of Scholars are to be made to the 
principal Instructor. And the rules and orders the Instructors may 
make for the good government of the Scholars shall be subject to the 
examination, amendment or discontinuance of the Trustees. 


It shall ever be considered as a principal duty of the Instructors, 
to regulate the Tempers, to enlarge the Minds, and form the Morals 
of the Youth committed to their care. 

They are to give special attention to the health of the Scholars; 
and ever to urge the importance of an habit of Industry: For these 
purposes, they may encourage the Scholars to perform some manual 
labor; such as gardening, or the like; so far as is consistent with 
cleanliness, and the inclination of their Parents; and the fruit of 
their labor shall be applied, at the discretion of the Trustees, for 
procuring a Library, or in some other way increasing the usefulness 
of this Seminary, 

But, above all, it is expected, that the attention of Instructors to 
the disposition of the Minds and Morals of the Youth under their 
charge, will exceed every other care; well considering that tho' good- 
ness without knowledge, as it respects others, is weak and feeble; 
yet knowledge without goodness, is dangerous; and that both united, 
form the noblest character; and lay the surest foundation of useful- 
ness to mankind. 

It is therefore required that they most attentively and vigorously 
guard against the earliest irregularities That they frequently de- 
lineate in their natural colours, the deformity, and odiousness of 
Vice; and the beauty & amiableness of Virtue That they spare no 
pains to convince them of the numberless, and indispensible obliga- 
tions, to abhor and avoid the former, and to love and practise the 
latter of the several great duties they owe to GOD, their Country, 
their Parents, their Neighbors, and Themselves: That they critically, 
and constantly observe the variety of their natural tempers; and 
solicitously endeavor, to bring them under such discipline, as may 
tend, most effectually, to promote their own satisfaction, and the 
happiness of others: That they, early, inure them to contemplate the 
several connections, and various scenes, incident to human life; 
furnishing such general maxims of conduct, as may best enable them 
them to pass thro' all, with ease, reputation and comfort. 

And, Whereas many of the Students of this Academy may be 
devoted to the sacred work of the Gospel ministry Therefore 
that the true and fundamental principles of the Christian religion 
may be cultivated established and perpetuated in the Christian 
Church, so far as this Institution may have influence It shall be 
the duty of the Instructors, as the age and capacity of the Scholars 
will admit, to teach them the principles of natural religion; as, the 
being of a GOD; and his perfections; his universal providence, and 
perfect Government of the natural & moral world; and obligations 
to duty, resulting from thence. Also, to teach them the doctrines 
of revealed religion; as they are contained in the sacred scriptures, 
of divine authority; being given by inspiration of GOD The doctrine 


of the Father, the Word, and the holy Ghost, particularly, the doc- 
trine of Christ, as true GOD, the only begotten of the Father; with 
all the truths they declare relative to his office of Mediator, and 
work of redemption & salvation from the state of sin, guilt, and 
depravity of nature, man has fallen into The necessity of atone- 
ment by the blood of Jesus Christ; and of regeneration by the Spirit 
of GOD: The doctrine of repentance towards GOD, and of faith 
in our Lord Jesus Christ; considered as duties, and gifts of GOD'S 
grace and the doctrine of justification by the free grace of GOD, 
thro' the redemption that is in Jesus Christ, whose righteousness, in 
his obedience unto death, is the only ground and reason of the 
sinner's pardon and acceptance, as righteous in the sight of GOD. 
The doctrine, also, of the Christian's progressive sanctification; in 
dying unto sin, & living unto GOD, in new obedience to all the 
commandments of Christ; proceeding from Gospel motives, and views 
supremely to the glory of GOD: and the doctrines of the resurrec- 
tion from the dead; and of the great & final judgment; with it's 
consequences of happiness to the righteous, & misery to the wicked. 
These, and all the doctrines, and duties of our holy Christian religion, 
not being founded on human authority, will be proved by Scripture 

And, Whereas, the most wholesom precepts, without frequent 
repetitions, may prove ineffectual It is further required of the In- 
structors, that they not only urge, & reurge; but continue, from day 
to day, to impress these instructions; and let them ever remember, 
that the design of this institution can never be answered, without 
their persevering, incessant attention to this duty. 

Protestants only, shall ever be concerned in the Trust, or instruc- 
tion of this Seminary: And they, having, severally, approved the 
constitution, their Government and instructions, conformably thereto, 
must appear steady, cordial, and vigorous. 

The election of the Officers of this Academy, shall be by ballot 
only. And it shall ever be equally open to youth of requisite 
qualifications from every quarter, provided, that none be admitted 
till, in common parlance, they can read english well; excepting such 
particular numbers, as the Trustees may hereafter license. 

And, in order to prevent a perversion of the' true intent of this 
foundation: It is again declared That the first, and principal de- 
sign of this institution is, the promoting vertue and true piety. Use- 
ful knowledge, in the order before referred to, (in the Act of 
Incorporation,) being subservient thereto. 

And I hereby reserve to my self, during any part of my natural 
life, the full right to make any special rules, for the perpetual 
government of this Academy; which shall be equally binding, on 
those whom they may concern, with any clause in these regulations: 


provided, no such rule shall be subversive of the true intent of this 

I also reserve a right to appoint one person to succeed me in the 
Trust, after my decease; or resignation: To whom shall be transfer'd 
the same right of appointment; and to his Successors in the said 
Trust, forever. 

The foregoing regulations, forming the Constitution of the Phillips- 
Exeter-Academy, shall ever be read by the President, for the time 
being, at the Annual meetings of the Trustees of said Academy: 
That they, & their Successors, may be fully acquainted with, and in 
all future time, be reminded of their duty. 

And considering them as true to their Trust, I the said John 
Phillips, for myself, my heirs executors & administrators, do hereby 
covenant, grant and agree to & with the said Trustees & their succes- 
sors, that I will warrant and defend the before granted premises to 
them forever, against the lawful claims and demands of any person 
or persons whomsoever, holding from by, or under me: Likewise, 
Elizabeth, my Wife doth hereby freely & voluntarily relinquish all 
right of Dower, and power of Thirds in the Premises. 

In witness whereof We have hereunto set our hands & seals the 
seventeenth day of May Anno Domini one thousand seven hundred 
and eighty one. 

Signed Sealed and Delivered 

in presence of 
P. White 
Jacob Abbot JOHN PHILLIPS (seal) 

Rockingham Ss Jan ry gth. 1782 

John Phillips Esq. & Elizabeth his wife 

owned this Instrument to be their free act and Deed before me 

Phillips White J Peace 
Rockingham Ss Received 

& Recorded nth March 1782 
Lib 113. Fol 4gg. Sam 1 Brooks Rdr, 

Strafford Ss Rec d March agth 1782 Recorded Lib 4 Fol 176 Ex- 

Thos Wk Waldron Recorder 


State of New Hampshire In the year of our Lord, one thousand 
seven hundred & eighty one. 

An Act to incorporate an Academy in the Town of Exeter, by the 
name of The Phillips-Exeter Academy. 

Whereas, the Education of Youth, has ever been considered by the 
wise and good, as an object of the highest consequence to the 
safety and happiness of a People; as, at an early period in life, the 
mind easily receives, and retains impressions; and is most suscep- 
tible of the rudiments of useful knowledge: And whereas the 
Honorable John Phillips of Exeter, in the County of Rockingham 
Esquire is desirous of giving to Trustees, herein after to be appointed, 
certain lands and personal estate, to be, by said Trustees, for ever 
appropriated, & expended for the support of a public Free 
School, or Academy in the Town of Exeter; And whereas the ex- 
ecution of such an important design, will be attended with very 
great embarrasments ; unless, by an Act of Incorporation, said Trus- 
tees, and their successors shall be authorized to commence & prosecute 
actions at law; and transact such other matters in a corporate capac- 
ity, as the Interest of said Academy shall require. 

Be it therefore enacted by the Council and House of Represent- 
atives in General Assembly convened, and by the authority of the 
same, that there be, and hereby is established in the Town of 
Exeter and County of Rockingham an Academy, by the name of 
The Phillips Exeter Academy, for the purpose of promoting Piety 
and Vertue, and for the education of Youth in the English, Latin and 
Greek Languages, in Writing, Arithmetic, Musick, and the Art of 
Speaking, Practical Geometry Logick and Geography, and such others 
of the Liberal Arts and Sciences or Languages, as opportunity may 
hereafter permit, and as the Trustees herein after provided shall 

And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the 
Honorable John Phillips Esquire Daniel Tilton Esquire Thomas 
Odiorne Esquire and Benjamin Thurston, Gentleman, all of Exeter 
aforesaid, John Pickering of Portsmouth Esquire, and the Reverend 
David Maclure of North Hampton, Clerk, all in the County of 
Rockingham and State of New Hampshire, and the Honorable 
Samuel Phillips Junr. of Andover and County of Essex, and 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Esquire, be, and they hereby are 
nominated and appointed Trustees of said Academy, and they hereby 



are incorporated into a body politic by the name of the Trustees of 
the Phillips Exeter Academy; and that they and their Successors 
shall be and continue a body politic and corporate by the same name 

And Be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the said 
Trustees, and their Successors, shall have one common Seal which 
they may make use of in any cause or business that relates to the 
said Office of Trustees of said Academy; and they shall have power 
& authority to break, change, or renew the said seal from time to 
time, as they shall see fit: And that they may sue and be sued, in all 
actions real, personal, and mixed; and prosecute & defend the same 
to final Judgment and Execution by the name of the Trustees of 
Phillips Exeter Academy. And 

Be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the said 
John Phillips Esquire, and others, the Trustees aforesaid the longest 
livers and Survivors of them and their Successors be the true and 
sole Visitors, Trustees and Governors of the said Academy, in per- 
petual succession forever to be continued in the way and manner 
herein after specified with full power and Authority to elect such 
Officers of the said Academy as they shall judge necessary and 
convenient; and to make and ordain such laws, orders and rules, 
for the good government of said Academy, as to them the said 
Trustees, Governors & Visitors aforesaid, and their Successors shall 
from time to time, according to the various occasions and circum- 
stances seem most fit and requisite: All which shall be observed 
by the Officers, Scholars and Servants of the said Academy, upon 
the penalties therein contained: Provided notwithstanding, that the 
said rules, laws and orders be no ways contrary to the laws of this 
State. And 

Be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the number 
of said Trustees, and their Successors, shall not at any time, be 
more than Seven, nor less than Four, Four of whom shall constitute a 
Quorum for transacting business: And the major part of the members 
present, at any legal meeting, shall decide all questions that shall 
come before them, except in the instances herein after excepted: 
That the principal Instructor, for the time being, shall ever be one 
of the said Trustees: That a major part shall be Laymen, and 
respectable Freeholders. Also, that all elections of the said Trustees 
shall be so governed in future, that a major part shall consist of 
Men who are not Inhabitants of the town where the Academy is 
situate. And to perpetuate the succession of said Trustees 

Be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That as often 
as one or more of the Trustees of said Academy shall die or resign, 
or in the judgment of the major part of the other Trustees, be 
rendered by age, or otherwise, uncapable of discharging the duties of 


his Office; then, and so often, the Trustees surviving and remaining, 
or the major part of them, shall elect one or more persons to supply 
the Vacancy or Vacancies so happening. 

And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the 
Trustees aforesaid and their Successors be and they hereby are 
rendered capable in Law to take and receive by Gift, Grant, Devise 
Bequest or otherwise any Lands Tenements or other Estate, real and 
personal provided that the annual income of the said real estate shall 
not exceed the sum of five hundred pounds : And the annual income of 
the said personal estate shall not exceed the sum of two thousand 
pounds; both sums to be valued in Silver, at the rate of six shillings 
and eight pence by the ounce. To Have and to Hold the same to 
them the said Trustees and their Successors, on such terms and 
under such conditions and limitations as may be expressed in any deed 
or Instrument of conveyance which shall be made to them pro- 
vided always that neither the said Trustees nor their Successors 
shall ever hereafter receive any Grant or Donation, the Conditions 
where of shall require them, or any others concerned, to act in any 
respect counter to the design of the first Grantor: And all Deeds and 
Instruments which the said Trustees shall make, when made in the 
name of said Trustees, and sign'd and delivered by four of the said 
Trustees, at least, and sealed with their common Seal, shall bind the 
said Trustees, and their Successors, and be valid in law. 

And be it further enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that if it 
shall hereafter be judged, upon nature and impartial consideration 
of all circumstances, by two thirds of all the Trustees, that for 
good and substantial reasons, which at this time do not exist, the 
true design of this Institution will be better promoted by removing 
the Academy from the place where it is founded, it shall be in the 
power of the said Trustees to remove it accordingly; and to estab- 
lish it in such other place, within this State, as they shall judge to be 
best calculated for carrying into effectual execution the intention of 
the Founder. 

And whereas the said institution may be of very great and 
general advantage to this State, and deserves every encouragement 

Be it therefore enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that all the 
Lands Tenements and personal estate that shall be given to said Trus- 
tees, for the use of said Academy, shall be, and hereby are for ever 
exempted from all Taxes whatsoever. 

State of New K th H f Repres entatives March 30. 1781 

Hampshire / * ' 

The foregoing Bill having been read a third time Voted that it 
pass to be enacted 

Sent up for Concurrence 



In Council the 3 d of April 1781 This Bill having been read a 
third time Voted that the same be enacted 

M WEARE President 

Copy exa d by Joseph Pearson D Secy 

Rockingham Ss Received & Recorded nth March 1782. 
Lib 113 Fol 507 Sam, Brooks Rdr. 

Strafford Ss Received March 2gth 1782 Recorded 
Lib 4th Fol 183 Examined Thos Wk Waldron Recorder 

f^Verses written by John B. L. Soule, class of 1834, on the 
burning of the recitation hall built in 1794 and destroyed by fire 
in 1870. 

Alas! those dear old classic halls, 

Where all the Muses sat, 
More loved than old Dardanian walls, 

AmOj amas f amat. 
How have the flames that laid them low 

New flames within us lit, 
And set our bosoms all aglow, 
Uro, wis, urit, 

There all the victories were won, 

Heroic and divine; 
There Caesar crossed the Rubicon, 

And Xerxes chained the brine; 
There Juno raised her dire alarms, 

And Jove 'mid thunders sat; 
And men and gods were up in arms, 

Pugno, pugnas, pugnat. 

When he, our reverend Abbot, came 

Upon the dais to sit, 
How rose we at the whispered name, 

Swgo, surgis, surgit; 
And at his passing presence all 

Stood still with lifted hat, 
Then furious kicked the groaning ball, 

CalcO) calcas, calcat. 

And then to free his patient flock, 

At every close of day 
He turned him to the gray old clock, 

And bowed his head to pray; 


And to the monitor who tried 

Our wayward steps to keep, 
The old diurnal question plied, 

" Whose turn is it to sweep? " 

Again that question seems along 

On every breeze to come, 
To every ear of all the throng 

The ashes from our temple seat 

" Whose turn to sweep is it? " 
A thousand hands the task shall greet, 

Verro, verrisj verrit. 

Leave mount and valley, hill and plain, 

And every calling quit; 
And run with all your might and main, 

Curro, curriSj currit; 
Let none with tardy step delay, 

Whatever he is at, 
But push with all his strength away, 

Pulso, pulsaSj pulsat, 

From high and by way, far and wide, 

Let all the builders come, 
And do good service side by side, 

Bonus, bona, bonum; 
With rapid strokes build strong and high 

The everlasting stone, 
rfarrco, TUTTTW, 


By invitation of the Committee of Arrangements at the cen- 
tennial celebration Professor EDWARD R. SILL, class of 1856, 
contributed the following: 


Has, then, our boyhood vanished, 

And rosy morning fled? 
Are faith and ardor banished, 

Is daring courage dead? 


Still runs the olden river 

By meadow, hill and wood, 
Where are the hearts that ever 

Beat high with royal blood? 

The golden dreams we cherished 

Pacing the ancient town, 
Have they but bloomed and perished, 

And flown like thistle down? 
Nay, still the air is haunted 

With mystery as of old; 
Each bosom is enchanted, 

And every leaflet's fold. 

Not one fair hope we harkened, 

But still to youth returns; 
Not one clear light hath darkened, 

Still for some breast it burns: 
Thought age by age is lying 

Beneath the gathering mold, 
Life's dawn-light is undying, 

Its dreams grow never old. 

O heart of man immortal, 

Beat on in love and cheer! 
Somewhere the cloudy portal 

Of all thy prayers shall clear. 
The fair earth's mighty measure 

Of life, untouched by rime, 
Through star-dust and through azure 

Rolls on to endless time. 






P.E.A. P A.A 















no game 








no game 









































































no game 

































Games won 

: by Exeter, 19 

Points won: 

by Exeter, 575 

by Andover, 21. 

Ties, 2. 

by Andover, 441. 






. P.A.A. 
















1893-1896 no games 









































































no game war 





























no game 
















Games won 

: by Exeter, 18 

Points won: 

by Exeter, 203 

by Andover, 23. 

by Andover, 256. 




1889 3 6 1909 47 49 

1891 44 46 1910 $4% 41% 

1892 36 54 1911 58 37 

1897 37^ 66# 1912 71 25 

1898 59 37 1913 48 48 

1899 68^ 35% 1914 59 37 

1900 57^ 46^ 1915 4 1 54 

1901 61 43 1916 7o# 25% 

1902 51 53 1917 No meet, war 

1903 37% 58# 1918 72$ 23^ 

1904 63% 32^ 1919 72f 35i 

1905 No meet 1920 58 50 

1906 47^ 48^ 1921 59i 48J 

1907 39% 56% 1922 6gf 56j 

1908 58 38 Totals 1,433* 1,153! 
Meets won: by Exeter, 16; by Andover, 10. Tie, i. 


100 yards dash, 9^3. F. W. Waterman, '20, June 5, 1920, Exeter-Andover 

dual meet at Exeter. 
220 yards dash, 21% s. F. W. Waterman, '20, June 5, 1920, Exeter-Andover 

dual meet at Exeter. 
440 yards dash, 49^ s. R. G. Smith, '20, May 30, 1918, Exeter-Andover meet 

at Exeter 
Half-mile run, i m. 57% s. W. J. Bingham, '12, May 30, 1911, Exeter-Andover, 

Meet at Andover 

One mile run, 4 m. 26% s. I. D. Mackenzie, 'u, May 20, 1911, Harvard Inter- 

220 yards hurdles, 25% s. Walker Smith, '16, May 13, 1916, Harvard Inter- 

Running high jump, 6 ft. % in. J. E. McDougall, '13, May 6, 1911, Yale Inter- 
Running broad jump, 23 ft., 5% in. H. T. Worthington, '13, May 3, 1913, 

Exeter-Harvard Freshmen Meet, at Exeter 

Pole vault, 12 ft. N. G. Hansen, '17, June 9, 1915, Exeter Inter-class Meet 
Putting 16 Ib. shot, 44 ft. nM in. E. J. Hart, '07, May 30, 1907, Exeter- 
Andover, at Andover 
Putting 12 Ib. shot, 51 ft. 8 % in. W. H. Kirkpatrick, '16, May 30, 1914, Exeter- 

Andover Meet, at Exeter. 
Throwing 12 Ib. hammer, 171 ft. H. C. Emery, '20, June, 1920, Handicap Meet, 

at Exeter 
120 yards high hurdles, 15% s. C. T. Elliot, Jr., '24, May 26, 1923, Bowdoin 


Javelin throw, 156 ft. 9 in. J. L. Keleher, '23, May 5, 1923, Harvard Fresh- 
man meet 
Discus throw, 122 ft. $% in. J. A. Brandenburg, '25, May 12, 1923, Harvard 



40 yards dash, 4% s. H. E. Jones, '98, March 23, 1898, Handicap Meet, Exeter 
J. A. Connolly, J n, Feb. 22, 1908, Faculty Shield Meet 

E. H. Baker, '08, Feb. 29, 1908, B.A.A. Interscholastics 

F. Burns, 'n, Feb. 22, 1909, Faculty Shield Meet 
F. Burns, 'n, Feb. 26, 1910, B.A.A. Interscholastics 
F. Burns, 'n, Feb. 25, 1911, B.A.A. Interscholastics 

C. M. Jones, '14, Feb. 28, 1914, B.A.A. Interscholastics 

D. B. Lourie, '18, Feb. 22, 1917, Faculty Shield Meet 

C. G. T. LundeU, '23, Feb. 22, 1923, Faculty Shield Meet 
300 yards dash, 32 s. F. Burns, *u, Mar. 5, igio, Against time 

600 yards run i m. 14)^ s. E. A. Teschner, '13, Mar. 29, 1913, Against time 
1,000 yards run 2 m. 16% s. W. J. Bingham, '12, Mar. 27, 1912, Against time 
45 yards high hurdles, 6% s. 0. M. Chadwick, '07, Mar. 6, 1907, Handicap 

D. Crandall, Jr., '10, Feb. 22, 1909, Faculty Shield Meet 
H. T. Worthington, '13, Feb. 22, 1911, Faculty Shield Meet 
N. G. Hansen, '17, 22, 1915, Faculty Shield Meet 

H. A. Harvey, '18, Feb. 22, 1917, Faculty Shield Meet 
C. T. Elliott, '24, Feb. 22, 1923, Faculty Shield Meet 

Pole vault, it ft. i^ in. E. L. Johnson, '22, Mar. n, 1922, Bowdoin Interscho- 

Running high jump, 6 ft. iM in. W. L. J. Whalen, '18, Feb. 26, 1916, B.A.A. 

Putting 16 Ib. shot, 43 ft. 3% in. E. J. Hart, '07, Feb. 22, 1906, Faculty Shield 

Putting 12 Ib. shot, 50 ft. 11 in. E. J. Hart, '07, Feb. 22, 1907, Faculty Shield 

The records made in dual track meets between Exeter and 
Andover follow. Eight of these records are held by Exeter, five 
by Andover, and one is a tie. The table below gives the record, 
where made, the maker, his school, and the date. 

loo yards dash, 9s s. Exeter. F. W. Waterman, E. June 5, 1920 

220 vards dash 2i<X s / Andover - L - T - Prescott, A. May 31, 1915 
220 yards dasn, 2U s. { ^^ F w Waterman, E. June 5, 1920 

440 yards run 49^ s. R. G. Smith, E. May 20, 1918 
880 yards run, i m. 57% s. Andover. W. J. Bingham, E. May 30, 1911 
One mile run, 4 m. 29$ s. Andover. I. D. Mackenzie, E. May 30, 1911 
120 yards high hurdles, 15% s. Andover. C. Rodman, A, May 31, 1915 
220 yards low hurdles, 25^ s, Andover. W. C. Lewis, A. June 4, 1921 
High jump, 5 ft. io l A in. Exeter. B. D. Whitcomb, E, May 31, 1902 
Broad jump, 23 ft. 3^ in. Exeter. L. T. Prescott, A. May 30, 1914 
Pole vault, ii ft. 7^ in. Andover. C. B. Wright, A, June 3, 1922. 
Putting 16 Ib. shot, 44 ft. n# in. Andover. E, J. Hart, E. May 30, 1907 
Putting 12 Ib. shot, 51 ft, 8# in. Exeter. W. H. Kirkpatrick, E. May 30, 1914 
Throwing 12 Ib. hammer, 168 ft. 10 in. Exeter. C. T. Cooney, E. May 31, 1906 
Javelin throw, 172 ft. 3 in. Andover. W, Healey, A. June 2, 1923 
Discus throw, 118 ft. 6% in. Exeter. T. J. Driscoll, E. June 3, 1922 


It will be noticed that many of the records given above are about as good 
as those of most colleges. Worthington's record of 23 feet 5% inches is 
the best jump ever made by a boy in a preparatory school. Exeter has won 
more interscholastic meets than any other school. This is not due to accident; 
nor is it due to athletes who have a reputation when they enter. Most of the 
Exeter athletes who have won renown at the Academy and later in college bear 
most distinctly the brand "Made in Exeter." Most notable among these, per- 
haps, are "Polly" Leavitt, '03, who won the 120 meters hurdles at Athens, 
Greece, in the Olympics in 1904, and John P. Jones, '09, who in the inter- 
collegiate meet at Harvard, May 31, 1913, ran the mile in 4 minutes, 14% 
seconds, breaking a record that had stood the test of years. It is possible that 
he might have bettered this time, but as captain of the Cornell track team 
he was saving his strength for the half-mile, which he won the same afternoon. 
In this race he barely beat W. J. Bingham, '12, Although defeated, Bingham 
ran the fastest half-mile ever credited to a Harvard runner. 


1920 Exeter 27 Andover 31 

1921 Exeter 47 Andover 43 

1922 Exeter 27 Andover 24 

1923 Exeter 23 Andover 27 

Games won: by Exeter, 2; by Andover, 2. 
Points won: by Exeter, 124; by Andover, 125. 


1920 Exeter 20 Andover 33 

1921 Exeter 31 Andover 22 

1922 Exeter 46 Andover 7 

1923 Exeter 32 Andover 21 
Meets won: by Exeter, 3; by Andover, r. 
Points won: by Exeter, 129; by Andover, 83. 


1914 Exeter 4 Andover i 

1915 Exeter 5 Andover o 

1916 Exeter 3 Andover o 

1917 Exeter i Andover 2 

1918 Exeter 2 Andover 3 
19*9 Exeter i Andover i 

1920 Exeter 4 Andover 2 

1921 Exeter o Andover 4 

1922 Exeter o Andover 3 

1923 Exeter J> Andover j> 

26 16 

Games won: by Exeter, 5; by Andover, 4. Tic, r. 
Points won: by Exeter, 26; by Andover, 16. 


Following are three programs characteristic of the exhibitions 
held for many years by the Academy. 


1. Single speak by Southgate 

2. Village schoolmaster Blodget 

3. Extract from Barlow's Oration Pearson 

4. Extracts from Tragedy of King John . . . 

5. Rules of laughing & singing Lock & Buckminster 

6. Sing piece Adams 

7. Speeches of Sir R. Walpole & Mr. Pitt . . . 

8. Short Extracts from a play of Farquar . . . 

9. Goliath's Defeat Cass 

11. The Spider Conner 

12. Coriolanus & Tullus Southgate & Harper 

13. Cicero & Chesterfield Saltonstal & Buckminster 

14. Canuleus' speech Harper 

15. Cit's country's Cox Blodget 

1 6. Justin & Attorney Johnson & Page 

17. Dialogue on Fashions Harper & White 

18. Tryal of Philip's Sons 

19. Cromwel & Windham Johnson & Page 

20. The Miser 

21. Passions an Ode Buckminster 


The Speakers in the Dialogues and Conferences, will speak in the order 
of their names. 


1. Salutatory Address, by Joseph Harrington, Roxbury, Mass. 

2. Conference, " on the influence of natural scenery and forms of govern- 
ment on national character," by Ezra Abbot, Andover, Mass,, and 
Charles D. Jackson, Salem, Mass. 

3. English Dialogue, by John Murdoch, Havana, W.I., Winslow M. 
Watson, Plymouth, Mass., and Morrill Wyman, Charlestown, Mass. 

4. Conference, " on transportation, imprisonment and death, as punish- 
ments for crimes," by William Parsons, Rye, William H. Sullivan, 
Exeter, and Albert F. Hanson, Exeter. 

5. Oration, " on zeal in the pursuit of knowledge," by George H. Nichols, 
Portland, Me. 

6. Greek Dialogue, (Altered from Aristophanes.) Francis Bowen, Boston, 
Mass., and Ezra Abbot. 

7. Conference, "on the comparative value of knowledge derived from 
books, and from travel in foreign countries," by John M. Currier, 
Aniesbury, Mass., and Gilman Dane, Greenfield. 


8. English Dialogue. (Selected.) Henry F. Harrington, Roxbury, Mass., 
and Charles T. Torrey, Chelsea, Mass. 

9. Oration, "on Public Education," by Alexander H. Lawrence, Exeter. 
10. French Dialogue. (Altered from " L'Avare " of Moliere.) Joseph 

Harrington, John H. Dix, Newton, Mass., Abiel A. Livermore, Wil- 
ton, and Winslow M. Watson, 
u. English Poem, by Edward G. Fales, Boston, Mass. 

12. Latin Dialogue. (Altered from Plautus.) Alexander H. Lawrence, 
Hugh H. Henry, Rockingham, Vt, John J. W^man, Charlestown, 
Mass., and Rufus Abbot, Wilton. 

13. Conference, " on Homer, Virgil, and Milton," by Nathaniel S. Tucker, 
Boston, Mass., Abiel A. Livermore, and Francis Bowen. 

14. Oration, " on the responsibility of educated men," by Rufus Abbot. 

15. Latin Poem, by John H. Dix. 

16. English Dialogue. (Selected.) John Murdoch, Seth Bemis, Water- 
town, Mass., Charles D. Jackson, Peyton Bradshaw, Prince Edward, 
Va., and Huntington Porter, Rye. 

17. Oration, with Valedictory Addresses, by John S. Brown, New-Ipswich. 


AUGUST 6, 1846. 

1. Salutatory, S. Abbot Smith, Peterborough. 

2. Labor, the Price of every Blessing, Everett C. Banfield, Boston, Mass. 

3. " Thou dost carry Caesar," James F. Lyman, Northampton, Mass. 


4. The Man of one Idea, William Osgood, Kensington. 

5. " Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war," Horace C. 
Bacon, West Cambridge, Mass. 

6. Dialogue, in Greek, by W. S. Colton and J. Noble: William H. St. 
Clair, Stratham, Willis S. Colton, Lockport, N. Y., John Noble, 
Somersworth, Horatio Stebbins, Wilbraham, Mass., and George W. 
Cogswell, Peterborough. 


7. The Garb our Thoughts put on, Charles A. Robertson, Beverly, 



8. National Recollections, John S. Whiting, Charlestown, Mass. 

9. The Battle of Zama, James Pierce, Dorchester, Mass. 



10. "Money is not Wealth," John B. Frothingham, Exeter. 

11. "It takes live fish to swim up stream," Robert C. M. Bowles, Rox- 
bury, Mass. 

12. Poem "Dust thou art, to dust returnest, 

Was not spoken of the soul," Willis S. Colton. 


13. The Spirit of True Patriotism, Joseph W. Towle, Epping. 

14. Professional Enthusiasm, John Moore, Somersworth. 

15. Dialogue, in Latin, by J. Pierce and C. A. Robertson: William T. 
Sleeper, Smyrna, Me., Charles A. Robertson, George W. Burleigh, 
Somersworth, James Pierce, Patrick H. Townsend, Salisbury. 


1 6. Influence of Great Names, George W. Cogswell. 

17. Character as affected by Habits of Thought, William H. St. Clair. 


18. Philothea, John Noble. 

19. "The Ages rise spirally; each containing all the rest, yet ever as- 
cending." with the Valedictory, Horatio Stebbins. 



These rules, which are in a book of early records of Exeter, 
were probably written by Benjamin Abbot, but the phraseology 
is like that of the Founder. 

Law ist. As the great and important designs of education can- 
not be answered, nor any valuable improvements be 
attained without diligence and order; the members of 
this Seminary are required to give constant and punc- 
tual attendance upon all the duties and exercises of 
this Institution. 

2nd. No scholar shall absent himself from any of the 
stated exercises of this house without leave, first ob- 
tained of the Principal, or in his absence, of the 
Assistant, or one of the Trustees. 

3rd. When any scholar shall come into the Academy 
after the exercises have begun, he shall be considered 
as tardy. 

4th. Silence and strict attention to all instructions are 
required of every student; especially in all exercises 
of religious worship and instruction. The students 
shall stand erect with decency and order at recitation 
and prayers; and endeavor to sit decently in all such 
exercises, when they are not required to stand. 

5th. No scholar shall, in term time, go out of town with- 
out liberty obtained of the Principal, or, in his ab- 
sence, of the Assistant, or one of the Trustees. 

6th. When any scholar shall not return punctually at the 
end of the vacation, he shall, if a minor, bring a 
written certificate from his parent, guardian or some 
person intrusted with the charge of his education, 
specifying the reasons of his absence, which reasons 
shall be judged of by the Principal Instructor. A viola- 
tion of this law, unless thro absolute necessity as also 
of Law 2nd. shall subject the delinquent to a fine of one 
shilling sterling per day. 

yth. There shall be a monitor appointed from time to time, 
whose business it shall be in the hours of study, to 


note illicit whispering, and such other irregularities 
as shall be deemed necessary to correct; and also to 
call the students to order at the ringing of the bell. 

8th. Another monitor shall be appointed, whose business 
it shall be to note, and keep a register, of the absence 
and tardiness of the students, which shall be subject to 
the inspection of the Trustees. 

9th. An officer shall be appointed weekly, whose duty it 
shall be to ring the bell at the appointed hour, and, 
in the season, when a fire is kept to see that it is 
properly secured; also to take care of the property in 
common, in, & pertaining to, the buildings, and to 
lock the house, when the exercises of the day are 

loth. No scholar shall be allowed to throw stones into any 
mowing ground, orchard, or any inclosure to the 
detriment of the property of the owner. 

nth. When any scholar shall wantonly, carelessly, or by 
accident, breake glass, cut boxes or benches, injure 
the books, or any other property, belonging to the 
Academy, he shall immediately repair all such damages, 
and be subject to such additional punishment, as the 
nature and circumstances of the offence may render 

i2th. No scholar shall throw any ball, stone or stick, at, 
over, or near the Hall, or any building pertaining 
to it. 

1 3th. Each member of this Institution is most strictly 
forbidden, as a thing derogatory to the character of 
young gentlemen, and, in itself, highly criminal, to 
take apples, pears, peaches, or fruit of any kind from 
the garden or inclosure of any person, without first 
having obtained liberty of the owner. 

i4th. In order to prevent among the students the spread 
of certain contagious disorders, it is required of every 
member of this Institution, whenever he shall be 
convinced, that he is affected thereby, or have cause 
to suspect the same of any of his fellow students, that 
he shall give immediate information to one of the 
Instructors, that the evil may be checked before it 
becomes general. 

1 5th. And in order to prevent the existence of any evil, 


still more pernicious & fatal in its consequences, the 
students of this institution are most strictly and 
positively forbidden to spend their time at any tavern 
or grog-shop. Also to purchase liquors of any kind, 
either simple or mixed, without a written license from 
the principal instructor, or one of the Trustees. Except 
only those scholars, who belong to this town, and act 
in this case under the immediate direction of their 
parent or guardian. 

1 6th. On Sabbath morning & Sabbath evening no student 
except the scholar of the house shall be at the Academy 
untill after the bell begins to ring. 

i7th. The behavior of students as they go to and from 
the Academy also in general, when they pass the 
streets 'in the town, shall be without scuffling, noise 
or tumult, but decent and orderly. Especially on the 
Sabbath, when noise and levity of every kind is most 
positively forbidden. 

1 8th. But in an especial manner, it is required of the 
Students of this Seminary, that they "remember the 
Sabbath day to keep it holy "; that they attend public 
worship both parts of the day, and endeavour to do 
it with reverence and attention, suitable to the solemn- 
ity of divine service. They shall likewise carefully 
abstain from all noisy levity and amusement on Sab- 
bath evening. 

iQth. The students are required constantly to spend 
Saturday evenings at their lodgings, and not to engage 
in any employment or recreation, inconsistent with 
the solemnity of holy time. All walking for amuse- 
ments, either in the streets or fields, on the Sabbath, 
is strictly forbidden. 

2oth. Strict attention to orders & regulations of the fami- 
lies, in which they board, is required of students; and 
in particular, care shall be taken, that they be not 
absent late in the evening, & thereby incommode or 
disturb families, in which they lodge. They shall 
likewise give an account of the manner, in which they 
spend their leisure hours, and the company they keep, 
whenever it shall be required of them by their Instruc- 
2ist. Civility, and all due respect to the inhabitants of 


this town, and to strangers passing through it, is con- 
sidered as the indispensable duty of the students of 
this Institution. 

sand. All gaming, profaneness, indecency in language and 
action, are considered as highly criminal in their nature 
and pernicious in their consequences, &, as such, must 
be severely censured and punished. 

23rd. All quarreling, malicious or wrathful striking, also 
every species of abusive & provoking language, which 
may have a tendency to excite discord & contention, 
are most strictly forbidden. On the contrary, it is 
most ardently desired & recommended to the students 
of this Academy, to treat & respect each other as 
brothers of one common family. Ever remembering 
that most excellent and comprehensive maxim, " do 
to others In all respects as you can rationally wish, 
they should do to you." 

24th. If any member of this Seminary, after repeated 
admonitions & discipline, obstinately persist in a course 
of indolence or inattention to his studies, so that the 
purposes of this institution, as they respect him, are 
likely to be frustrated; or, if he be generally irregular 
in his deportment, or so corrupt in his morals, as to 
endanger others by his example, after all proper meth- 
ods to reclaim him have failed, he shall be privately 
removed, or publicly expelled, as the nature & cir- 
cumstances of the case shall render expedient. 

25th. Any student, who shall break these laws, thro ac- 
cident or design, and shall refuse to make proper satis- 
faction; or who shall prove disobedient & refractory, 
and persist in such unlawful conduct, shall be publickly 
expelled & his name blotted from the annals of the 

26th. No society shall at any time be formed by the 
students of the Academy, for any object whatever 
without first obtaining the approbation of the Prin- 
cipal; and the books of all societies, at any time 
existing in the Institution, shall be subject to the 
inspection of the Principal whose duty it shall be, at 
all times, to be acquainted with the principles by 
which the meetings and exercises of said societies are 
conducted; in order that they may best contribute to 


the good of the individual members, and to the honor 
of the Institution. 

It shall also be the duty of the Principal to dissolve 
any society irregularly formed; or of doubtful influ- 
ence, and to remove from the Institution any member, 
whose conduct shall be deemed inconsistent with the 
spirit of this regulation. 


i st. The bell shall be rung by the students in alphabetical 

2nd. When the bell begins to toll, every scholar shall 

immediately repair to his seat, and enter regularly 

upon his studies; from which time all whispering & 

moving from place to place shall cease. 
3rd. Each student shall endeavor to be supplied with 

every article, necessary for his studies & writing, & 

have these articles at his seat before the hours of study, 

so as to prevent all moving and borrowing. 
4th. Upon the first entrance of either of the Instructors 

the students shall rise & bow respectfully. They shall 

also continue standing till he has taken his place. 

The same respect shall be paid to all gentlemen & 

Ladies, who visit the Academy. 
5th. Excepting at religious exercises, when no student shall 

rise, or pay respect to any person entering the room. 
6th. When a scholar, during the time of common exercises 

has occasion to enter or leave the room, he shall bow 

respectfully. It is also recommended to the students 

to pay the same decent respect to their own families, 

or those in which they board. 
7th. No scholar shall minge against the Hall, or any 

building pertaining to it. 
8th. No scholar shall, in any place, or at any time, except 

in wet weather, address an Instructor or Trustee with 

his head covered. The same respect shall be paid to 

all gentlemen & Ladies of distinction. 
9th. All active amusements such as quoit, ball, & the like, 

shall be suspended, while either of the Instructors 

are in the yard. 




1862-77 Sibley Charity Fund $12,500.00 

1868 Charles Burroughs Scholarship 1,000.00 

1870 George Bancroft Scholarship 2,000.00 

1872 Nathaniel Gordon Scholarship 2,000.00 

1872 Samuel Hale Scholarship 2,000.00 

1873 Jeremiah Kingman Scholarship 40,000.00 

1892 Henry Parkman Sturgis Scholarship 500*00 

1893 Gideon L. Soule Scholarship 1,500.00 

1894 Alumni Loan Fund 490.88 

1894 H. M. Merrill Loan Fund 2,000.00 

1897 J. W. & B. L. Randall Loan Fund 5,000.00 

1902 Hamilton Eliot Perkins Scholarship 3,000.00 

1903 John T. Perry Scholarship 2,000.00 

1906 Joseph C. Hilliard Scholarship 10,000.00 

1907 Knowlton Loan & Scholarship 9,000.00 

1908 Thomas F. Wentworth Scholarship 2,500.00 

1909 Christopher C. Langdell Scholarship 50,000.00 

1909 H. E. Teschemacher Scholarship 49,824,86 

1910 Class of 1884 Loan Fund 5,000.00 

1912 Olena S. Pingrey Scholarship 3,000.00 

1914 Theodore W. Woodman Scholarship 5,000.00 

1915 Lee McClung Scholarship 1,000.00 

1916 George Frank Hobbs Scholarship 21,000.00 

1918 Abner L. Merrill Loan Fund 4^83.70 

1919 Edward Dudley Floyd Scholarship 3,000,00 

1921 Richard Crawford Campbell, Jr., Scholarship 20,000.00 

1921 John Dean Hall Scholarship 20,000.00 

1921 Class of 1895 Loan Fund 2 5-oo 

1921 Frank Yost Stauffer Scholarship 1,000.00 

1921 Warren Maxwell Peabody Scholarship 4,000.00 

1922 Francis J. Woodman, Jr., Scholarship 2,846.93 

1923 Elizabeth S. Manning Scholarship 3,000,00 

1923 Louis_W. Hill Scholarship 32,023.46 


The scope of subject-matter covered by this index is shown by 
sub-heads under PHILLIPS EXETER ACADEMY. Alumni who gave 
their Uves in The Great War are distinguished by asterisks, and 
those who were decorated for meritorious^ service by daggers. 

Full accounts are indicated by folios in boldface. 


ABBOT, BENJAMIN (2nd Principal), 
16, 17, 30, 42, 51, 53-91, 93, 
94, 96, 100, 106, no, 133, 141, 
196, 200, 212, 275, 276, 283, 
289, 324; 

Abbot Festival, 70-72; 
daily program, 57-58; 
exhibitions, 69-70, 252, 322-323; 
halls and houses, 16-17, 42, 54- 

56, 67; 
noted pupils, 75-87; 

Daniel Webster, 79-87; 
portrait of Dr. Abbot, 70; 
professors and instructors, 62-63, 


trustees (new), 87-91. 
ABBOT COMMON, 17, 67. 
ABBOT, ELIZABETH: see Gorham. 
ABBOT FESTIVAL, 70-72, 79, 86. 
ABBOT, GEORGE (ist generation in 

Am.}, 53- 

ABBOT HALL, 96, 137, 146, 149, 169, 

192, 202, 203. 

ABBOT, JACOB, 89-90, 310. 
ADAMS, EBENEZER, 64, 290. 
AGASSIZ, Lours, 112. 



ALPHA Nu, 208. 

ALUMNI, NOTED, 75-87, 103-104; 
Daniel Webster, 79-87. 


ALUMNI HALL, 96, 153, 165, 169, 
192, 202. 



AMEN, HARLAN PAGE (?th Princi- 
pal), 118, 154, 155-186, 192, 

197, 198, 199, 200, 2O8, 220, 
227, 248, 285; 

Beta Chapter, C. L. S. founded, 

Bronze Memorial Tablet, 199- 


Dr. Amends funeral, 181, 198; 
"Dr. Amen's Last Appearance," 


Dr. Amen's Year," 182-183 ; 
gifts (dormitories, endowment 

and special funds, fields, halls 

and houses, professorships, 

scholarships) : see GIFTS j 
In Memoriaxn Sonnet, 183; 
professors and instructors, 159- 

160, 173; 
reformation and progression of 

F.EA., 158, 173; 
school life of students, 175-179; 
trustees (new), 184-186. 
AMEN, MARY (RAWSON), 171-172, 

Book Fund, 172. 



ANDERSON, MAJ. (of Sumter), 253. 


ATHERTON, GEORGE W., 103, 215. 
ATHLETICS, 176-177, 180-181, 205, 

218-251, 317-320; 
baseball, 205, 233-239, 240, 247, 

football, 205, 218-232, 240, 241, 

247, 317; 

minor sports, 241-250; 

scores, 317-320. 





BALCH, ERNEST B., 203, 216. 

BALDWIN, C. C., 51. 



BANCROFT, GEORGE, 70, 77, 130, 252, 


Bancroft Scholarship, 283-284. 
BANCROFT, WILLIAM A., 184, 185, 


BARBER, GEORGE W. (Rev.), 215. 

Loan and Book Fund, 189. 
BASEBALL, 205, 233-239, 240, 247, 

317; see also ATHLETICS. 
BELKNAP, JOSEPH (Rev.), 28; 
Belknap Papers, 28; see also 

BELL, CHARLES H. (Gov.), vii, 20, 
37, 45, 46, 47, 72, 78, 91, 132, 

133, 219, 242; see also SOURCES 
" Bench and Bar," 45 ; 
" History of Exeter," 46, 47, 133, 

"Sketch of P.EA.," vii, 20, 37, 

47, 72, 91, 132, 133- 
BELL, JAMES, 105-106, 107. 
BELL, SAMUEL D. (Gov.), 105. 
BENTON, C., vii, 248-249. 
BETA CHAPTER, C. L. S., 164-165; 

Annual Luncheon, 165. 
BICYCLE CLUB, 216; see also CLUBS. 
tBiGELOw, OTIS M., (JR.), 273. 

227, 245, 272. 
BLACKMAR, WILMON W., 104, 171; 

donor history prizes, 171. 


BOARD, COST OF, 200, 201-202. 


BOATING, 247-249; see also ATH- 




BOWEN, FRANCIS, 63, 70, 77, 108, 



BOWLES, RALPH H., vii, 175. 
BOXING, 241; see also ATHLETICS. 
BRADSTREET, SIMON (Gov.), 2, 122. 
BREWER, JOHN H., 260. 
BRIGHAM, NAT M., 248. 
BROOKS, PHILLIPS (Bishop), 132, 

133, 212. 

BROOKS, WILLIAM A., (JR.), 248. 




BUCK, GEORGE L., 206. 


80, 81, 88, 289. 

BULLETIN, THE, 64, 169, 171, 206- 

207, 209, 215, 253, 254, 257- 

258; see also JOURNALISM. 


BUTLER, BENJAMIN F,, 78, 130. 


266-267, 269. 

BUZELL, S. CLARK, 133, 242. 
BYTNGTON, E. H., 3; 
"The Puritan in Eng. and 

N. E.," 3; see also SOURCES OF 


CAMERA CLUB, 216; see also CLUBS. 



CANOEING, 249; see also ATHLETICS. 


CASS, LEWIS, 60, 71, 76, 212, 252, 

253, 289; 
second known certificate P.E.A. 


130, 131, 253-255. 

245-246, 369, 272. 
CHADWICK, S. P. R., 198, 260. 


Chad wick Prize, 154. 


CHESS CLUB, 216; see also CLUBS. 


Semi- Centennial, 215; 
see also SOCIETIES. 


(Prof.), 99, 101, 103, 110- 
120, 121, 122, 127, 129, 134, 
137, 140, 144, 159, 198, 200, 
233, 294, 295; 
funeral, 198; 
The Great Triumvirate, 110- 



, ALAN AVERY, (JR.), 273. 
CLASS OF 1914 FUND, 189. 
CLASS OF 1915 FUND, 189. 
CLASS OF 1890, 189, 286; 

(Graduates' House). 
CLASS OF 1891, 286; 

(donors land on Tan Lane, and 
Faculty Club House, which was 
First Recitation Hatt). 
CLUBS, 175, 211-214, 216-217; 


COMMITTEES, P.E.A., 190-191; 

Executive, 190; 

Scholarship, 190-191. 
CONNORS, GEORGE S., 243, 246, 



CONSTITUTION, P.EA., 33-35, 304- 


(3), 198-199. 



(Architects, Main Building [3] ) . 

(College-mate John Wheelwright) . 


donor Greek prizes, 171. 
"Familiar Sketches P.EA.," vii, 
34, 53, 58, 71, 84, 85, 203, 218, 
219, 247; see also SOURCES OF 

see TucK-CuRLEY E, F. 
CURRICULA, P.EA, 50, in, 127, 

139, 140, 276, 289-303; 
early courses, 289-293; 
modified courses, 294-296; 
present courses, 297-303. 
CUSTOMS, P.E.A., 138, 178-179, 197, 


bonfires, 138; 
" snapping," 1 78-1 79 ; 
"speaking pieces," 197; 
CUSHWA, FRANK W. (Pro/.), 206. 

DANA, DANIEL, 63, 89. 
DANA, SAMUEL H. (Dr.), 182. 
DARTMOUTH COLLEGE, 12, 21-24, 33 > 

(aided by Phillips family). 

(Davis Library). 

DAVIS LIBRARY, vii, 26, 35, 37, 171, 

185, 286, 289. 
DAVIS, JAMES C., 195. 
DEDICATIONS, 36-42, 196, 198-199, 

243, 281-282, 285; 
Main Building (2), 196, 281-282, 


Phillips Exeter Academy, 36-42; 
Thompson Gymnasium, 243. 

162-163, 165, 172, 275-278; 
religious tolerance, 54, 172; 
social equality, 72. 
DION, S. A. (Capt.), 260-261. 
DISCIPLINE, P.E.A., 59-61, 95-98, 

146-148, 173, 190, 193-194- 
Drx, JOHN A., 76. 
DOLE, NATHAN H., 104. 


DORR, THOMAS W. (Gov.), 77, 



DOUGLAS, STEPHEN A., 256-257. 
DRAMATIC CLUB, 216-217; 

see also CLUBS. 
Du Bois, PETER C., 255. 
DUDLEY, ALBERTUS T., 223, 243. 

(donor English Composition 


(Prototype for Phillips Acade- 

mies) . 

DUNBAR, CHARLES F., 142, 184. 
DUNBAR HALL, 153, 160, 168, 192. 



EDDY, R. H., 90; 



(" Genealogical Data ") ; see also 

ELIOT, CHARLES W., 100, 127, 130, 



EMERY, NICHOLAS (Judge), 77, 80, 

82, 83-84. 

EMERY, NOAH (Capt.), 73, 104. 
EMERY, SAMUEL (Rev.), 10. 

see also CLUBS. 

128, 154, 156, 160, 170-171, 
172, 189, 190, 196, 207, 242, 
279, 281-284, 285, 295; see also 

prizes, 154, i/o, 171; 
professorships, 128, 170, 171, 242, 

285, 295; 
scholarships, 156, 170-171, 172, 

i8p, 279, 283-284. 

EXETER, TOWN OF, vii, 19-20, 24, 
27, 3<5, 7i 92, 109, 121, 123, 
161, 166; 

Cottage Hospital, 166; 
First Church (First Parish), 19, 

20, 24, 71, MI; 
Merrill Institute, 166; 
Public Library, vii; 
Robinson Female Seminary, 36, 

109, 123; 

Second Church (New Parish) 
(PhWips .), 19-20, 27, 121, 


town founded, 92. 
EXETER NEWS-LETTER, 49, 64, 71, 


EXETONIA, 203; see also JOURNAL- 
EXHIBITIONS, 68-70, 252, 322- 

EXONIAN, THE, 128, 131-132, 203- 

20S, 207, 213, 221, 222, 236, 241, 

242, 243; see also JOURNALISM. 

FACULTY, 96-97, 159, 172, 190-191, 
193, 209, 261-262, 277-278; 

committees, 190-191; 

instituted, 96-97; 

members' individuality, 277-278; 

powers, 190-191, 209, 278; 

summer-school faculty, 193; 

supervisors of Societies, 209; 

war-service, 261-262. 
FALLOWS, EDWARD H., 222, 243. 


FAULHABER, OSCAR, 127, 132, 295. 
FELCH, ALPHEUS (Gov., Sen.), 78. 
YARDS, 42, 153, 170, 189, 240, 
249, 250, 284, 286; see also 

FIRST CHURCH (First Parish), 19, 

20, 24, 71, 121. 

cipal), 117, 144-154, 197, 208; 

reforms, 148-149; 

rules and regulations, 146-148; 

secret fraternities abolished, 149, 

trustees (new), 152-154. 
FISH, JOHN C., 145. 

FlSKE, WlNTHROP E., 250. 

Frrrs, DANIEL B., 215. 


FOOTBALL, 205, 218-232, 240, 241, 

247, 317; see also ATHLETICS. 
FORD, JOSEPH S., 159, 164, 182, 


FOSTER, HERBERT D., vii, 64, 127. 
FOUNDING OF P.E.A., 4, 5, 6, 7, 8- 

30, 31-47. 

336 INDEX 

FRANCIS, WILLIAM A. (Pro/.), i59> 


FRATERNITIES, 149, 207-209; 



(founder of Ipswich, Mass.). 
FRENCH, FRANCIS O., 142, 144. 
FRENCH, JONATHAN (Rev ) , 9, 30. 
FUESS, CLAUDE M., vii, 33 ; 

(" History of Phillips Academy, 

*tFuixER, KENNETH ELIOT, 264- 
265, 269, 272. 


GALE, EDWARD F., 189. 

GALE, ISABEL J., 189. 

*GALLIGAN, EUGENE, 260, 271. 





GIFTS, 16, 17, 36, 42, 54-56, 67, 82, 
95, 96, 115, n7, 128, 137, 139, 
140, 143, 146, 149, 153, 156, 
158, 160, 165, 168, 169, 170- 

171, 172, 185, 189, 190, 192, 
195-200, 202, 203, 207, 240, 
241-243 248, 249, 250, 279, 
281-284, 285, 286, 29$; 

Endowment and Special Funds, 
128, 154, 156, 160, 170-171, 

172, 189, 190, 196, 207, 242, 
279, 281-284, 285, 295; 

prizes, 154,^ 170, 171; 
professorships, 128, 170, 171, 242, 

285, 295; 
scholarships, 156, 170-171, 172, 

180, 279, 283-284; 

Fields and Bridge, Lots and 
Yards, 42, 153, 170, iSo, 240, 
249, 250, 284, 280; 

Halls and Houses, 16, 17, 36, 42, 
54-56, 67, 82, 95, 96, 115, 117, 
137, 139, 140, 143, i4& *49> 
I53 *58, 160, 165, 108, i6g, 
170, 171, 185, 189, 192, 195- 

200, 202, 203, 207 t 241-243, 

248, 285, 286, 295. 
GILL, EMLYN M., 205. 
GILMAN HOUSES, 17, 169. 

44, 55, 252, 284, 289. 
GILMAN, NATHANIEL, 10, n, 25. 
GILMAN, NICHOLAS (Col.), 47, 169. 
GERMAN, PETER (Col.)> 13. 



213, 214; see also SOCIETIES. 
GLEE CLUB, 216; see also CLUBS. 
GOLDEN BRANCH (FJS.T.), 17, 55, 

87, 97, 133, 184, 207, 210-213; 
see also SOCIETIES. 
GOLF, 241, 250 j see also ATHLETICS. 
GORDON, JOHN T. (Deacon), 36. 

(donor Bible prizes). 
GORHAM, DAVID W. (Dr.), 67, 106- 


GORHAM HALL, 115, 137, 140, 146. 
GORHAM, WILLIAM H. (Dr.), 107, 

132, 133. 


GRANT, ULYSSES S., (JR.), 103. 




(donor Latin prizes). 
GREEN, EDWARD (Rev.), 199. 
GREEN, JOHN O., 103. 




GUNNING, 249; see also ATHLETICS. 
GYMNASIA, 140, 189, 241-243; see 

GYMNASTICS, 241-243, 247; see also 





HALE, GEORGE S., 103, 108-109, 130, 

HALE, JOHN P. (Sen,), 71, 78. 

HALE, PERRY, 225. 


HALE, SAMUEL, 90-91, 109. 

HALLS AND HOUSES, 16, 17, 36, 42, 
54-56, 67, 82, 95, 96, 115, 117, 
137, 139, 140, 143, 146, 149, 
153, 158, 160, 165, 168, 169, 
170, 171, 185, 189, 192, 195- 
200, 202, 203, 207, 241-243, 
248, 285, 286, 295; 
see also GIFTS. 




8, 3&, 50, 288-289; 





HAVEN, SAMUEL (Rev.), 89. 



HEAD, WALTER D., 164. 



HlLDRETH, HOSEA, 62, 63, 2IO, 290; 

(a founder of Golden Branch). 

HILDRETH, RICHARD, 77, 252-253. 

HILL, GEORGE, 189, 286; 
Hill Bridge, 286; 
Hill Residuary Fund, 189. 

HILLIARD, JOSEPH C., 78, 170. 





HITCHINGS, HARRY, 124-125, 126. 


HOAR, SHERMAN, 144, 152-153, 171; 
donor history prizes, 171. 


HOCKEY, 250; see also ATHLETICS. 

HOGAN, JAMES J. ("Jim"), 178, 
209, 224, 227. 

*HOLLIS, ALLEN, (JR.), 270. 


HOLM, WALDO W., 243. 


(Memorial Prize). 


HOUSTON, DAVID W., (JR.), 206. 


HOYT HALL, 117, 143, 153, 168, 171. 

HOYT, JOSEPH G. (Prof.), 

(The Great Teacher), 29, $6- 
57, 96, 97, 98, 101-102, 200, 

"Addresses and Lectures," 29; 

LAIN), 104. 

HUBBARD, JOHN (R. Adm.) 104. 


tHuosoN, HAROLD DANA, 272. 

HUNNEWELL, ARTHUR, 219, 2 33- 


HURD, FRANCIS P. (Rev.), 242, 
($50,000 Fund). 


KURD, J. (Rev.), 74- 
HURST, CARL B., 206. 
HYDE, NELSON C., 206. 
HYDE, WILLIAM DE W., 156, 181, 
182, 184-185, 199-200, 248. 

IDEALS or P.EA., 78, 199, 275-280, 
287; see also CUSTOMS, TRA- 

INCEPTION OF P.EA, 5, 24, si-3 2 - 

32-33, 311-314. 

*!RWIN, KATHERINE P. (Nurse), 


JONES, "TAD," 178, 218, 226, 227- 


JOURNALISM AT P.EA., 64, 128, 

131-132, 169, 171, 203-209, 

213, 215, 221, 222, 236, 241, 

242, 243, 253, 254, 257-258; 

Bulletin, 64, 169, 171, 206-207, 

209, 215, 253, 254, 257-258; 

" Exetonia," 203 ; 

Exonian, 128, 131-132, 203-205, 
207, 209, 215, 253, 254, 257- 
Monthly (Literary Monthly), 203, 

Pean, 203, 205-206, 208. 

KAPPA BETA Nu, 208, 209. 
KEATE, JOHN, 59, no, 146; 

(Dr. Keate of Eton). 


KELLY, JAKES P., 227, 260. 
KELLY, JOHN, 107. 



REDDER, CAMILLUS G., 119-120. 
KIRTLAND, JOHN C. (Prof.), 164, 
193, 206. 




LABORATORIES, i39> 295. 
LACROSSE, 249; see also ATHLETICS. 
LAMONT, THOMAS W., ii5> *94> 207, 

243, 286. 


172, 195, 283. 

(Langdell Scholarship). 
LAWS, P.EA., 324-328. 
fLEAVEix, JOHN H, 272. 
LEE, ALBERT, 206. 
LEE, MRS. E. B., 81 ; 

(Buckminster Biography) ; 
LEE, FRANCIS L. (Col), 186, 
LEE, FRANCIS W. 185-186. 
LINCOLN, ABRAHAM, 107, 109, 253, 

256-257, 258; 

famous visit to P.EA., 256-258; 
description of the " man," 258. 
LINCOLN, ROBERT T., 103, 253, 256, 




LONG, JOHN C. (Com.), 169, 234. 
LOWE, CHARLES (Rev.), 195. 

238, 273. 



LUNT, GEORGE, 59, 71. 
LUNT, HENRY, 195. 
f McALPiNE, CHARLES W., 169, 286; 
I MCALPINE, D. HUNTER, 169, 205, 

(donors Oilman Howe and Long 

MCCLUNG, LEE, 189, 223; 

Scholarship Fund, 189. 
MCCLURE, DAVID (Rev.), 36-37, 

41, 44-45, 311. 
MCKENDRICK, N. S., 260. 

(first known certificate PJSJL). 
MANSION HOUSE, THE, 16, 17, 67. 
MARSH, " CANDY," 235; 

(purveyor of sweets). 
MASK AND WIG, 216-217; 

see also CLUBS. 
MASON, HENRY L., 171; 

(donor Latin prizes). 

42, 68-72, 79; 86, 100, 130, 
131, 165, 180, 181, 196, i98-i99 
207, 215, 243, 252, 2S3-2SS, 261, 
281-282, 285, 322-323; 

Abbot Festival, 70-72, 79, 86; 

Armistice Holiday, 261; 

Beta Chapter C.L.S. Luncheons, 


Founding P.E.A., 100, 130, 131, 


Founding Golden Branch, 207; 
Cornerstone Exercises: 

Main Building (3), 198-199; 
Dedication Exercises: 
P.EA, 36-42; 

Main Building (2), 196, 281, 
282, 285; 

Thompson Gymnasium, 243 ; 
Dr. Amen's Last Appearance, 180; 
Exhibitions, 68-70, 252, 322-323; 
Founder's Day, 243; 

Dr. Amen, 181, 198; 
Prof. Cilley, 198; 
Semi- Centennial: 

Christian Fraternity, 215; 
Soule Festival, 196, 281-282; 
Washington Memorial Service, 


MERRILL, ABNER L. (Dr.), 72, 82, 

170, 189, 286; 
gifts: houses and endowment 

funds, 82, 170, 189, 286. 
MILITARY COMPANIES, 14, 252, 259, 

260-261 ; 

Exeter Battalion, 259, 260; 
Exeter Cadets, 14; 
Exeter Plattsburg Club, 260-261; 
Washington Whites, 252. 

see also JOURNALISM. 

(principal Dummer Academy). 

16, 20-24, 31, 44. 

MORISON, GEORGE S., 103, 143, 149, 


designer of Soule Hall, 143, 149; 
part-donor Hoyt Hall, 143. 
MORISON, JOHN H. (Rev.), 75 78, 

195, 196. 

(Professorship of Latin). 
MURPHY, FRED W, 226, 227. 




Glee Club, 216; 

Musical Sodality, 216; 

see also CLUBS. 
NASON, REUBEN (Rev."), 93. 
NAST, THOMAS, 124-125, 126. 




NEWELL, MARSHALL, 171, 189, 224, 

Pierre La Rose Prize, 171, 189. 

NEW PARISH (Phillips. Church}, 

19-20, 27, 121, 161; 

(originally Second Church). 


(report P.E.A. Dedication); 


ETY, vii. 

NORRIS, ALBERT L. (Dr.), 215. 
ODIORNE, THOMAS, 46, 311. 
ODLIN, DUDLEY (Dr.), 169; 

(original owner Oilman House). 
ODLTN, JOHN (Rev.), 19. 

(nephew Dr. Dudley Odlin). 
ODLIN, JOHN (Rev.), 19. 

(son Rev. John Odlin). 
ODLTN, WOODBRIDGE, 128, 242, 285, 


(Odlin Professorship of English). 




PACKARD, ALPHEUS S., 58, 77, 90, 93, 

130, 218, 233, 252. 
PALFREY, JOHN C. (Rev.), 70, 71, 


PALFREY, JOHN G., 195, 196, 212, 



(donor $112,000). 

PARKER, NATHAN (Rev.), 90, 106. 



96, 106, 196, 234. 
PEABODY HALL, 153, 158, 168, 169, 

PEABODY, OLIVER (Judge), 88, 96; 

(father Peabody Twins). 
PEABODY, OLIVER W. B., 63, 70-71, 

77-78, 88, 253; 
(son Judge Peabody). 
PEABODY, WILLIAM B. O., 63, 77, 88, 

90, 253; 

(son Judge Peabody). 
PEAN, THE, 203, 205-206, 208; 

see also JOURNALISM. 
PEARSON, ELIPHALET, 29, 34, 53, 

(ist Principal Phillips Academy, 

Andover) . 

PEARSON, HENRY, 253, 254. 
PENNELL, ROBERT F., xor, 102. 
I: Development) 

Prestige J 48 ~ 120 > 

II: Retrogression 121-154; 

III: Reformation) 

Progression J 


(4th Principal), 115, 121-133, 
134, 136, 140, 151, 197, 204, 
Centennial of Founding, xoo, 130, 

131, 253-255; 

curriculum revised, 127, 294; 
Etonian established, 128; 




G. L. Soule Lit. Soc. established, 

Odlin Professorship established, 


professors and instructors, 132; 
trustees (new), 132-133. 



(donor Perkins Scholarship). 
PERRY, JOHN T., 54, I3 6, 143, 172, 

184, 242; 

(donor scholarship). 
(8th [present] Principal), vii, 

187-194, 198, 201, 260; 
endowment funds, 180-190; 
faculty committees, 190-191; 
growth of school, 190; 
present status of school, 187-194; 
ratio of teachers to students in- 
creased, 191; 

Summer School established, 193; 
The Great War, 190; see also WAR 

trustees (new), 194. 


PERRY, WILLIAM G. (Dr.), 55, 59. 
Pm THETA Psi, 208. 


25, 26-27, 29, 32, 33-35, 77, 
89, 304; 

constitution, 33-35, 304; 
endowed, 89; 
founded, 33; 
incorporated, 33. 

(Second Church), 20, 27, 121, 

(originally, Second Church). 

see also CLUBS. 

HALE, 19, 20, 26-27, 30, 32, 310- 
Phillips Exeter Academy: see: 























PHILLIPS, GEORGE (Rev.), (founder 

of family in Am.), 1-2, 3. 
PHILLIPS, JOHN (Esq., Col, Dr.), 

(Founder oj PJB.A.), 4-7, 8- 

30, 31-47, 53, 5$, 63, 105, no, 

123, 195, 197, 200-201, 243, 275, 

279, 285, 287, 288, 304, 305, 

310, 311, 312, 324; 
business interests, 0-13; 
character and characteristics, 24- 


church, civic and political affilia- 
tions, 13-15, 19, 20; 
domestic and social life, 15-30; 
education and early vocation, 8- 


interest in Indian School, 20-24; 
interest in Dartmouth College, 
12, 23; 

Doctor's title, 23; 

trustee, 23; 
interest in P.AA, 24; 
slave-owner, 25-26; 
sympathies during Revolution, 


for comprehensive survey of 

effect of his life-work, see 

Phillips Exeter Academy. 
PHILLIPS, JOHN (Col), 32, 89. 
PHILLIPS, JOHN C., 133, 285; 

(donor $25,000). 
PEDLLIPS, SAMUEL (Rev.), 2-3. 

(as goldsmith, founder of 

family's wealth). 
PHILLIPS, SAMUEL (Rev.), 3-4, S, 

PHILLIPS, SAMUEL (Esq.), 4, 5, 20; 

(farmer and tradesman) . 
PHILLIPS, SAMUEL (Judge), $-7, 

24, 31-32, 34, 47, 89, 133, 304 

(in whose brain was born the 

thought of PhUlips Academy, 

Andover) . 

10, 15, 17-19, 20, 25, 3; _ 
(whose marriage to Dr. Phillips 

brought the wealth and prestige 

of the great Oilman Family to 


PHILLIPS, WENDELL, 29, 196, 254. 
(Boston merchant; brother Dr. 

PICKERING, JOHN (fudge), 30, 

45-46, 3- 

PEXSBURY, LEONARD H,, 253, 254, 
(donor scholarship). 

PLIMPTON, GEORGE A, 7 104, 170, 185, 


240, 249, 250, 286. 
PLUMER, WILLIAM (Gov.) t 10. 



POLO, 249; see also ATHLETICS. 
PORTER, Frrz J. (Gen.), 78. 


*POTTER, STEPHEN, 262-264, 270. 
*PRICE, MR. FLORENCE J., 259, 268. 
for Interregnum see PROF. 

for Interregnum see PROF. 

PRIZES, 154, 170, 171; see also EN- 
62-63, 101-103, 132, 159-160, 
187-194, 277-279; 
professional independence, 277- 


ratio of teachers to students, 191 ; 
staff of Summer School, 193. 
PROFESSORSHIPS, 128, 170, 171, 242, 
285, 205; see also ENDOWMENT 
PUNISHMENTS, 58, 60, 139, 190, 277; 
punitive sweeping abolished, 139. 
PUTNAM, WILLIAM, 113-114. 


RAWLE, FRANCIS, 100, 115, 247. 


REED, GIDEON F. F., 285; 

(donor f 10,000 fund). 


see also SOCIETIES. 

(donor books). 




ROBINSON, E. N., 226. 

109, 129. 


ROGERS, DANIEL (Rev.), 27-28, 

Ross, HOWARD A., 164, 177, 243, 

tRossiTER, RICHMOND, 273. 

ROWING, 247-249: see also ATH- 

193-194; see also DISCIPLINE; 


SALARIES OF STAFF, 49, 66, 121, 131, 
134, 150, i57> 158-159, 160. 




SAWYER, MRS. MARY A. G., vii. 

SCHOLARSHIPS, 156, 170-171, 172, 
189, 279-284; see also ENDOW- 

SCHOOL-LIFE, P.EA., 175-179, 275- 


SCOTT, HUGH, 134-135. 



(5th Principal), 95, 134-143, 144, 

151, 197, 242, 296; 
diplomas first granted, 139; 
first gymnasium, 140; 
Gorham Hall bought, 140; 
trustees (new}, 142-143. 


(PhUUps Church), 19-20, 27, 
121, 161. 




("Ode to the Volunteers'"). 

(donor tower clock). 
(Christian Fraternity). 
SEWALL, JOSEPH (Dr.), 28. 


SHOOTING, 249; see also ATHLETICS. 
SHUTE, HENRY A. (Judge), vii, 

138, 156-157, 220. 

283, 285. 

283, 285; 

281-283, 285; 


(donors Charity Fund). 
SILL, EDWARD R., 103, 130, 315- 


ET AL.; 

(donors $5,000). 
SIMONS, MTNOT 0., 194. 
SKATING, 249-250; see also ATH- 

SKIING, 241; see also ATHLETICS. 


Judge), 53, 62, 67, 71, 74- 
75, 79, 108, in, 252; 
SMITH, JEREMIAH (2) (Judge), 

74, 103, 108, 196; 
SMITH, JEREMIAH (3), 74, 184, 

(three generations serving P.E.A. 

as trustees). 
SMITH, JULIA P., 153. 


SMITH, S. SIDNEY, 153-154, 182, 

184, 187; 
(long-term trustee serving P.E.A. 

with marked distinction). 
SNOW, CHARLES H. B., 196; 
("Dedication Ode": Main Buttd- 

mg [2]. 
SNOW, MARSHALL S., 103, 257-258; 

(speech on Abraham Lincoln). 
SNOWSHOE CLUB, 216; see also 


SNOWSHOEING, 241; see also ATH- 

SOCIETIES, 17, 55, 87, 97, 128, 133, 
164-165, 184, 207, 209-216, 


195-196, 199-200, 232, 257, 314- 


(a founder Golden Branch). 

(EMERY), 104-105. 
SOULE FESTIVAL, 281, 282. 
(Mayflower ancestor of Soule 

family) . 

(3rd Principal), 34, 57, 58, 62, 
63, 7o, 73t 92-114, HO, 121, 
124, 134, 141, 149, i$i, i 6, 
199, 200, 213, 234, 253, 255, 
281, 282, 283; 
Abbot Hall erected, 96; 
boarding clubs, 95; 
classes instituted, 98; 



faculty instituted, 96-97; 
home study instituted, 97; 
long connection with P.E.A., 


made Principal Emeritus, 105; 
noted pupils, 103-104; 
professors and instructors, 101- 

103, 113-114; 
rule as to Rules, 95; 
innovations, 95-98; 
school-motto, 199; 
Soule Festival, 281, 282; 
The Great Triumvirate, 110-114; 
trustees (new), 105-109. 
SOULE HALL, 143, 149, 192, 248. 

SOULE, JOHN B. L., 195, 314-315; 
("Alas! those dear old classic 


214; see also SOCIETIES. 
SOULE, MOSES (i), 92. 
SOULE, MOSES (2), 92; 
SOULE, MOSES (3), 92; 

(father Gideon L. Soule). 

56, 58, 105, 132, 134, 199- 
10, 20, 26, 28, 29, 33, 34, 35, 
37, 38, 41-42, 45, 46, 47, 48, 
49, 50, Si, S3, 54, 55, 58, 59, 
64, 71, 72, 75, 79, So, 84, 85, 
90, 91, 92, 128, 131-132, 133, 
157, 169, 171, 203-205, 207, 209, 

213, 215, 218, 219, 221, 222, 234, 

236, 341, 242, 243, 247, 252, 
253, 254, 256, 257-258, 288, 

SOUTHERN CLXJB, 216; see also 


SPARKS, JARED, 70, 76, 212, 283. 

(contributor to building fund). 
SPARKS, WHZXAM E,, 195, 247. 
SPAULDING, A. G., 234; 

(account invention baseball mask 

by Thayer of PJ&.A.). 



(donor Latin prizes). 
STORER, GEORGE W. (It. Adm.) t 

77, 252. 

STRAW, DAVID R., 205. 

(Dr. Phillips' s portrait; destroyed 

with Main Bldg. [2] ). 

259, 268, 272. 
SULLIVAN, JOHN (Dr.), 253. 
SWAIN, C. D., 226. 

U. S.), 213. 


(first school building) . 


TENNIS, 240, 250; see also ATH- 



(donor scholarship). 

(inventor baseball mask) . 
THOMPSON, WILLIAM B., 189, 194, 

243, 286; 

(donor Thompson Gymnasium) . 

37-39, 41, 46-47, 3ii. 






(of Phillips Academy, Andover). 
TILTON, ASA C., vii. 
TILTON, DANIEL (Maj.), 47, 3"- 


TOBOGGAN CLUB, 216; see also 


TRACK ATHLETICS, 243, 244, 247; 

see also ATHLETICS. 
TRADITIONS, P.EA., 75, 78, 275- 

individualistic freedom of pupils 

and staff, 272-279; 
scholarships contingent upon 

scholarship, 279-284; 
" The day's work must be done," 

275-276; see also CUSTOMS; 


TRAITORD, BERNARD W., 194, 236. 

see also B. L. CILLEY; G. L. 

TRUSTEES, P.E.A., 42-47, 62, 87-91, 

105-109, 132-133, 142-143, *$2- 

154, 184-186, 194. 
TUCK, AMOS, 107-108, 143, 196. 

190, 207. 
fTucK, EDWARD, 104, 170, 271, 286; 

(donor Tuck House). 
TUCK HOUSE, 170, 286. 
TUFTS, JAMES A. (Prof.) t vii, 132, 

159, 164, 182, 198, 215. 
TUITION, P.EA., 158, 172, 200-201. 






WALKER, JAMES, 63, 108; 

(became president of Harvard). 
WALKER, JOSEPH B., 132, 133. 

WAR-RECORD, P.EA., 89, 190, 204, 

207, 215, 222, 246, 252-274; 
I: The Revolution, 89, 252-253; 
II: The Civil War, 253-258; 
III: The Great War, 190, 204, 207, 

215, 222, 246, 259-274; 
Armistice Holiday, 261; 
*Honor Roll, 268-271; 
tList of Decorations, 271-273; 
summary of men in service, 273- 


WARD, JONATHAN, (JR.), 210. 

14, 89, 252; 

memorable visit to Exeter, 14; 
Memorial Service, 252. 
WEARE, M., 314. 
WEBBER, JAMES P., 183, 190-200, 

(sonnet "In Memoriam" Dr. 

Amen) . 

Alumnus), 56, 70, 71-72, 76, 
79-91, 169, 200, 212, 275; 
Curtis's Life of Webster, 79, 84; 
writings concerning P.E.A., 70. 
WEBSTER HALL, 153, 168, 102. 

262, 271, 273. 



(Prof.), 95, 99, 101, 103, 110- 
120, 121, 122, 127, 128-129, 



134, 136, 137, i39 140, 144, 
146, 171, 200, 242, 294, 295; 
acting principal, interregna Per- 
kins-Scott, Scott-Fish, 134, 144; 
gifts to P.EA., 117, 143; 
The Great Triumvirate, 110-120. 
WENTWORTH, JOHN (Gov.), 14, 16, 

22-23, 42. 


(founder of family in Am.). 
WESTERN CLUB, 216; see also CLUBS. 
WHEELOCK, ELEAZAR, 16, 20-24, 3* 


(interested in Moor's Indian 
School and president of Dart- 
mouth College). 

WHEELWRIGHT, JOHN, 19, 92, 219; 
(founder of Exeter and the First 


WHIST CLUB, 216; see also CLUBS. 

WHITEFIELD, GEORGE, 9, 10, 19-20. 

(a charter member Golden 

Branch) . 

tWnxARD, DANIEL, (JR.), 272. 
WILLSON, J. E. (Ma}.), 261. 

WILSON, JOHN (Rev.), 2. 
WtNGATE, JOSEPH C. A,, 103. 
WINGATB, JOSHUA (Co/.), 87. 


(donor $30,000). 

(denounced by Sam. 'Phillips). 
WmTHROP, JOHN (Gov.),' 2. 




5o, 51- 

WOODBRIDGE, T. R., vii, 48; 

(MSS. concerning Principal 
Woodbridge) ; 


(ist Principal), 16-17, 36-41, 
48-52, 53, 73, 288; 

assistants, 50; 

halls and houses, 16-17, 36; 

trustees (original), 42-47. 
WYMAN, JEPFKDES, 78, 112. 


(donor 8-oared shells). 
NITY, 216. 

ZEIGLER, Gus, 227.